AMERICAN HISTORY TO 1877
AMERICAN HISTORY TO 1877 HIST 201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janis Cummings on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 201 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Lori Ostarly-Ulfers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/225414/hist-201-southeastern-louisiana-university in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
HISTORY 202 quotThe Great Depression and the New Deal 19291939 The Great Depression was one of the most devastating events in the life of 20th century Americans The economy all but collapsed as industrial production fell by 50 percent and more than one hundred thousand businesses went bankrupt Unemployment soared to 25 percent and the unemployed found few sources of relief There were 5 major causes for the Depression poor distribution of wealth corporate structure out of hand banking system worthless tariffs made repayment of war debts impossible HawleySmoot tariff no tools to understand economy The president elected in 1928 was Herbert Hoover He was not an experienced politician but he was a successful businessman He held compassion for the masses but had little sympathy for the individual He believed in rugged individualism He did not understand the full implications of the depression Most Americans found his conservative policies insensitive contradictory and ineffective He believed that the federal govt should not become a welfare agency He did say that local and state govts should help the people He was a laissezfaire president Hoover did things like ask business and labor to cooperate with one another businesses not to cut wages or fire people and labor not to strike for higher wages Hoover wrote the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 It set up Federal Farm Banks to extend loans to farmers He also created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to loan money to banks and industry Americans felt than he did not get involved enough Hoover felt that govt relief would destroy peopleamp039s selfreliance and self esteem In 1932 he would run for President again but this is the same year that the farmers went on strike and the Bonus Army came to town In the summer of 1932 1214000 unemployed veterans of WWI marched on Washington to petition the govt for early payment of military pensions due them in 1945 They called themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force Hoover told them no bonus and told them to go home Most of the 15 or so thousand did about 5000 stayed refusing to leave even when the police came Two deaths resulted from the riot that ensued Hoover called in the armed forces under General Douglas MacArthur Hoover said he thought it was a communist conspiracy Few believed him and criticized him for his lack of concern His apparent support of this military action contributed to his loss to FDR Democratic candidate in the election of 1932 FDR overcame personal handicaps to forge a Democratic coalition that secured him 4 consecutive presidential terms He was the quotrising star of the Demo party He had a New Deal The New Deal became social and economic reforms FDR ran on the ticket that he would end prohibition Hoover said the depression was because of the worldwide economy and FDR said it was Hoover and the democratic partyamp039s fault Within his first hundred days in office Roosevelt pushed through Congress a series of acts know as the first New Deal Some parts of the program met with success others not One of the first things he did was call a bank holiday under the Emergency Banking Act He also passed the GlassSteagall Act setting up the FDIC He legalized beer During his 1st administration he created work relief programs meant to put people to work Some deserve special note The Works Progress Administration and other agencies transformed the American landscape with the construction of 500000 miles ofroads 100000 bridges 100000 public buildings and 600 airports The WPA also funded a vast program of public art supporting the work of thousands of painters architects writers playwrights actors and other starving intellectuals Considering the Depression to be a result of overproduction and underconsumption FDR pushed through the Agricultural Adjustment Act which paid the farmers to plant less It was designed to raise farm prices by a program of planned scarcity He also pushed through the National Industrial Recovery Act which allowed manufacturers to collaborate on setting prices and production levels To head the National Recovery Administration under the NIRA was Hugh Johnson He persuaded businessmen to agree on a minimum wage and a maximum number of hours This was to reduce the quantity of goods produced There was a lot of hype when the program was launched with the blue eagle and the slogan quotWe do our partquot This seemed to work for awhile but then big industrialists were ignoring the codes The govt could not punish all of the violators The Supreme Court declared the NRA codes unconstitutional One of Rooseveltamp039s most successful programs was the Tennessee Valley Authority This act was to control ooding on the Tennessee River harness its water power to generate electricity develop local industry such as fertilizer production improve river transportation and ease the poverty and isolation of the areaamp039s inhabitants Normally private business would have been brought in These New Deal programs offered some relief to certain people however it did not help tenant farmers and farm laborers nor did they provide relief for the quotDust Bowlquot Great Plains which experienced a drought of massive proportions Many rural blacks and whites ocked to the urban areas of the North and West Critics of the New Deal did not believe that the Roosevelt administration was going far enough fast enough Senator Huey P Long of Louisiana wanted to tax the rich and share the wealth among all Americans He was killed by Dr Carl Weiss in Baton Rouge in 1935 Another critic was Father Charles E Coughlin the quotRadio Priestquot He denounced the New Deal and voiced his admiration of Hitler and Mussolinibanking reform Another was Francis Townsend who wanted to give all senior citizens 200 dollars per month This groundswell of protest made FDR lay the foundation for the American welfare state It championed unionization with the Wagner labor Relations Act which set up the National Labor Relations Board which reaffirmed collective bargaining and listed unfair employment practices like the black list agricultural subsidies social security These items still endure He also passed the Fair Labor Standards Act which gave us a minimum wage and a maximum number of hours These legislations brought renewed hope to millions of forgotten Americans However the problems of racial and ethnic minorities were addressed to only a very small degree For example many Mexican immigrants were forced to return to Mexico and African Americans faced tremendous prejudice in the North as well as the South Native Americans on the other hand were empowered to govern themselves and land was restored to some tribes Because Roosevelt did not get the same unprecedented support as he had in his 1st admin he attempted to pass the courtpacking plan He wanted to add 6 more justices to expand the supreme court if the present members would not retire by the age of 70 The supreme court said no but did say that he could offer a pension to those who would retire In foreign policy Roosevelt was also pretty successful with his recognition of the Soviet Union and embracing of the Good Neighbor Policy in Latin America United States marines were withdrawn from Haiti and Cuba and Panama were granted new selfgoveming powers When Mexico nationalized US and Britain owned oil companies the Roosevelt administration insisted on fair compensation but did not send in troopsas previous presidents would have done His foreign policies tended to re ect both liberal principles and a desire to increase business contacts Generally these international economic policies made little headway because other nations seemed preoccupied with their own economic depressions For all practical purposes the New Deal ended with the outbreak of WWII HISTORY 202 America during the Second World Warquot Ten Years before the United States entered the Second World War in 1941 Japan began its aggression in Asia In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria This was in violation of the League of Nations Japan withdrew from the League when questioned We placed a moral embargo against Japan This military action heralded a decade of aggression both in Asia and in Europe In Germany Adolf Hitler led his nation to rearm in 1935 He had become the dictator in Germany via the Nazi party in 1933 We passed a Neutrality Act of 1935 the pres would declare when a state of war existed in times of a state of war we could not sell war materials to belligerents Americans were forbidden from riding on belligerent vessels except at their own risk Italy with its fascist dictator Benito Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in Oct of 35 The following year Hitler occupied the Rhineland Germany continued her aggression and we wrote another Neutrality Act of 1936 this added a loans embargo to all belligerents In the same year Hitler and Mussolini formally allied and formed the RomeBerlin Axis Next Japan will become their ally We wrote another Neutrality Act of 1937 added cash and carry plan to all goods In September 1938 Hitler called the Munich Conference and said he wanted the Sudetenland Neville Chamberlain attended the conference and appeased Hitler Within the next 4mos Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia IN 1939 Italy invaded Albania In August of 1939 Hitler and Stalin of the Soviet Union signed a NonAggression Pact They agreed to split up Eastern Europe through the center of Poland The official beginning of WWII was September 1 1939 when Germany invaded Poland Two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany Germany used the blitzkrieg attack We wrote the Neutrality Act of 1939 which extended the cash and carry plan to include weapons Two months later the Soviet Union invades Finland Subsequently after the fall of Poland between April 2 1940 and June 22 1940 Germany conquered Norway Denmark the Netherlands Belgium France Paris fell on June 14 Germany then began to Bomb Britain We wrote the Destroyer Deal In Sept of 1940 Roosevelt allowed the transfer of 50 WWI destroyers to the British navy in return for the right to build bases on British possessions in the Western Hemisphere Italy invades Greece Fdr thinks we are getting close to war 1940 electionOn the eve of the election he promised all moms that he would not seend their sons to ght in a foreign war In 1941 he began giving balloon speeches to prepare the US for war outlining the four freedoms In 1941 the lendlease policy would allow the United States to lend rather than sell armaments to the Allies We spent about 51 billion dollars on this program Also in 1941 we began patrolling the Atlantic In June of 41 Germany invaded Russia in violation of the nonaggression pact Germany made it to Moscow before they were stalled by the Russians By the summer of 41 Japan and the United States have been on a collision course since Manchuria In 1937 Japan began afullscale invasion of China We as well as other nations are preoccupied with our economic ills and too disillusioned by the first World War to offer anything more than moral condemnation for the aggressors Japan begins eying up new temptations French Indochina the Dutch East Indies Br Malaya and Burma By possessing all of this territory they would have oil rubber and other strategic materials that their homeland lacked As Japan moved into N Fr Indochina we curtailed shipments of fuel and steel to Japan in 1940 Japan Germany and Italy then signed a three power pact in which they agreed that if a nation not already at war should declare war they would assist each other In 1941 the Japanese went into S Fr Indochina at which point the United States told them to go back to Japan The US then froze all Japanese assets FDR also restricted shipments of oil to Japan Secretary of State Cordell Hull insisted that Japan must withdraw to reinstate trade Premier Konoye caved in to pressures by militants Konoye tried to get war minister Hidecki Tojo to withdraw Konoye resigned and Tojo became Premier Faced with a choice of economic strangulation or retreat Japanese leaders began preparing for war against the United States On Dec 7 1941 Japanese aircraft attacked American forces at Pearl Harbor Washington sent warnings to Hawaii and Manila on the day of the attack Pearl Harbor was attacked at 755 am This left 2400 dead Japanese missed the Am aircraft carriers which had left port a few days earlier and they ignored shore installations and oil tanks which would have sent ships back to the west coast Later the same day Japs attacked the Philippines Guam and Hong Kong Admiral Yamamoto said quotI fear we have awakened a sleeping giant and his reaction will be terriblequot Isolationism has ended We declared war on Japan on Dec 8th and Germany and Italy declared war on the United States three days later Roosevelt and the Joint Chiefs of Staff gave priority to the European theater The pres and military advisors concluded that GY was the most dangerous enemy The nazis were in control of most of Europecommanded vast resources in both raw and industrial goods We could not give her time to dig in and consolidate The rst priority was to stop the axis powers from increasing their territory In June of 1942 allied forces attacked North Africa Br General Bernard Montgomery halted the German and Italian advances at El Alamein In November Eisenhower launched successful attacks at Algeria and Morocco stopping the Axis powers Next while the Soviets were stopping the Germans and crushing them at Stalingrad the allied forces invaded Sicily and then Italy Mussolini was replaced and Italy made peace with the allies Fighting still occurred in Northern Italy throughout the war Russia was still calling for a 2nd front FDR and Churchill chose Eisenhower to lead the Dday invasion or code name Operation Overlord It began on June 6 1944 11000 aircraft 4000 vessels tens of thousands of motor vehicles and millions of tons of weapons When rst hitting the beach the allied forces were pinned down but gradually began to break through By August 25th the allies entered Paris By Sept 12th they were across the German border Dec of 44 the Germans attacked a weak point in the line and almost broke the allies This was the Battle of the Bulge It delayed the allies for about 6wks After the battle German resistance collapsed On April 30th 1945 with Russian troops on the outskirts of Berlin Hitler committed suicide GY surrendered on May 7th 1945 In the Paci c immediately after Pearl Harbor Japanese troops advanced quickly In the rst 6 mos after Pearl Harbor J aps took the Philippines Guam Wake Island Only on the Bataan Peninsula and in the island fortress of Corregidor in the Philippines did the Jap meet strong resistance 20000 soldiers and MacArthur fought on expecting help to arrive Help did not MacArthur was ordered to ee to Australia and the Am and lipinos were worn down by the Japs 75000 POWs were forced to march to prison camps in the Phil interior fewer than 54000 survived The Japanese strategy was to establish a defense perimeter far enough from Japan that Am bombers based outside the perimeter could not harm the Japanese mainland By May 0f 42 Japan was advancing in the Solomon Islands and most of New Guinea Japan was also planning and invasion of Australia On May 7th and 8th Japan was halted at the Battle of Coral Sea Yamamoto claimed victory because he lost fewer ships and planes But he had to change direction Yamamoto switched to the central Paci c A month later June 36 the Jap and Am eets med at Midway Am won We sank four of their aircraft carriers Resource poor Japan could not replace major warships that were lost Am could After Midway Yamamoto was forced on the defensive While the major allied effort had been directed against GY the Japanese had experienced repeated successes in the Pacific however the Japanese had become overconfrdent and this had led to them overextending themselves American strategycalled for 2 separate drives against Japan one from New Guinea toward the Philippines and ultimately Tokyo led by MacArthur the other through the islands of the central Paci c toward Formosa and China led by Chester Nimitiz Our strategy was known as quotisland Hoppingquot Japanese resistance was intense but by Feb of 45 MacArthur captured Manila by June Am bombers were raining destruction on the Japanese mainlandAt this point one of the most controversial decisions in Am history was made Pres Truman ordered an atomic bomb dropped on Japan THE ATOMIC BOMB In 1939 Albert Einstein had alerted FDR to German research on nuclear fission In 1940 FDR diverted some Navy and Army funds into research that grew ultimately into the 2 billion dollar top secret quotManhattan projectquotOn July 16 1945 the first atomic fireball rose from the New Mexico desert at Los Alamos This was obviously not a conventional weapon The test broke windows from 125 miles away One blind woman claimed to have seen the ash Truman gave Jpan an ultimatum quotSurrender or face prompt and utter destructionquot Japan did not surrender and Hiroshima was bombed on Aug 6 1945 killed about 60000 Another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on Aug 9th killing 36000 Japan surrendered on Aug 15 1945 Hirohito is the new emperor Tojo resigned in 1944 On the US homefront the war effort finally ended the Great Depression Unemployment virtually disappeared women blacks and Mexican Americanslong shut out of many occupationsenjoyed expanded job opportunities if not quite full economic equality Rationing of consumer items spread the hardships of war among all economic classes and resulted in a tremendous growth in personal savings Big business farmers and workers alike experienced substantial gains in earnings The Federal bureaucracy quadrupled in size during the war and intruded ever more into the lives of the citizens Selective Service Act and Smith Connally ActPresident can seize businesses are examples In the months following the Pearl Harbor attack nearly 130000 rst and second generation Japanese Americans lost their liberty Executive order 9066 forced them to five up their homes farms and businesses and move to internment camps Confident of its power the United States abandoned its traditional isolationism and participated actively in creating the postwar world For example the Senate easily approved the United Nations charter and US participation in that organization
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