GEN PSYCHOLOGY I
GEN PSYCHOLOGY I PSYC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredrick Mann on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/225419/psyc-101-southeastern-louisiana-university in Psychlogy at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
PSYCHOLOGY 101 CHAPTER 13 PERSONALITY Personality relatively stable and enduring patterns ofthoughts feelings and actions Personality Assessment 1 Interviews 2 Observation 3 Objective Tests inventories a MultitraitMultiphasic range of personality traits all at once i Eg Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory M MPl 1 the most widely research and clinically used selfreport personality test 4 Projective Techniques psychological tests using ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or drawings which allow the test taker to project his or her unconscious onto the test material a Eg Rorschach lnkblot Test A projective test that presents a set of 10 cards with symmetrical abstract patterns known as inkblots and respondents describe what they see in the image their response is thought to be a projection of UNC process b Thematic Apperception Test a projective test that shows a series of ambiguous blackandwhite pictures and ask the test taker to create a story related to each the response presumably reflect a projection of UNC process ACCURATE Interviews and observations expensive not reliable unnatural settings presence of observer can alter the behavior Ob39ective tests MMPI deliberate deception and social desirability bias 2 diagnostic difficulties 3 cultural bias and inappropriate use Pro39ective tests I reliability and validity of projective tests is among the lowest of all tests of personality Trait Theom Trait a relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone Factor Analysis statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in large array of data Five Factor Model trait theory that explains personality in terms of a Big Five Model openness conscientiousness I g less and nellmtir ism may be a biological based human universal Criticism 1 lack of explanation 2 stability vs change which characteristics last a lifetime and which are transcient 3 situational determinants a cannot be predicted 1968 Walter Mischel personality is determined almost entirely by the situations in which people find themselves situational pressures affect our relatively stable personality traits PSYCHOANALYTlCPSYCHODYNAM lC THEORIES reud 1 Levels of CNS PsycheMind a CNS thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering b Preconscious thoughts or emotions that one can become aware of easily c UNC thoughts or motives that lie behind a person s normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis 2 Personality Structure a Q sources of instinctual energy which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification i Pleasure Principle the principle on which the ID operates seeking immediate pleasure b Egp rational part ofthe psyche that deals with reality by controlling the ID while also satisfying the superego i Reali rinci Ie the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands ofthe ID and Superego and the realities of the environment c Superego the part ofthe personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality 3 Defense Mechanisms epression b Sublimation c Denial d Rationalization e lntellectualization f Projection g Reaction Formation h Regression i Displacement 4 Psychosexual Stages of Development five developmental periods oral anal phallic latency genital during which particular kinds of pleasures must be controlled within societal rules if personality development is to proceed normally Oedipus Complex during phallic stage 3 6yo period of conflict when children are sexually attracted to the opposite sex parent and hostile toward the samesex parent Neo FreudianPsychodynamic Theories Adler Individual Psychology behavior is purposeful and goal directed I all have the capacity to choose and to create l our goals in life provide the source of our motivation I to obtain security and overcome feelings of insecurity lnferioriy Complex Adler s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence l more optimistic than Freud Birth Order Adler 15 to make a connection between birth order and personality First borns independent and seek to regain attention through accomplishments Second borns restlessness and a continual striving to outdo others Youngest child most likely to be dependent on others Only child a lot of time with adults 9 a higher level of intellectual ability and academic success birth order effects turned out to be weaker and less consistent than Adler expecte 2 Mg Analytic Psychology l the UNC contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and aggressive l 2 forms of UNC i personal UNC ii collective UNC an inherited UNC that all humans share consisting of Archeypes images or patterns of thoughts feelings and behavior ancestral memory of human race 4 Horney disagreed with Freud that malefemale differences were biologically based l Eg NOT penis envy but power envy i Cultural inferiority not biological inferiority ii Not sexual stages but the child s relationship to the parents that influences adult personality I Basic Anxiety the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment I We all search for security 1 move toward people 2 move away from people 3 move against people Criticism Difficult to test 2 Overemphasis on biology and UNC forces a anatomy is destiny x 3 Inadequate evidence a Case histories upperclass Viennese women 4 xism 5 lack of crosscultural support Credit 1 emphasis on the w and its influence on behavior 2 conflict among the ID Ego and Superego and the resulting defenses mechanisms 3 talking openly about sex in Victorian times 4 development of an influential form oftherapy psychoanalysis 5 sheer magnitude of his theory Humanistic Theories l people are naturally good and possess a positive drive toward selffulfillment I each individual s personality is created out of hisher perception of reality 1 Carl Rogers I believed poor mental health and maladjustment developed from an incongruence or disparity between the selfconcept and actual life experiences A Mental health Conoruence and SelfEsteem l self concept all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature qualities and behavior i incongruence little overlap between self and reality ii congruence considerable overlap between self and reality B Development of Self Parents conditional I love you if Unconditional positive regard positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached 2 Abraham Maslow Selfactualization innate tendency toward growth that motivates all human behavior and results in the full realization of a person s highest potential Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualization Esteem Needs Belonging and Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Criticism of Humanism 1 Nai39ve assumptions 2 Poor testabililty 3 Narrowness i Describes personalitynot where from inborn Social Cognitive 1 Bandura a Selfefficacy learned beliefs that one is capable of producing desired results such as mastering new skills and achieving personal goa s b Reciprocal Determinism cognition behaviors and the learning environment interact to produce personality i Personality cognition Environment Behavior 2 Rotter locus of control a Internal external Criticism 1 too narrow ignores UNC and emotional aspects Credit 1 how the environment affects and is affected by individuals 2 meets most standards for research Biological Theories 1 Brain a Tellegen 1985 39 Sociabilityextroversion increase EEG activity in the L frontal lobes of the brain ii Shynessintroversion increase EEG activity in the R frontal lobes ofthe brain Jerome Kagan 98 most biologically based personality differences rest on differences in neurochemistry rather than anatomy 2 Neurochemistry I relationship between sensation seeking and MAO monoamine oxidase an enzyme that regulates levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine dopamine also correlated with novelty seeking and extroversion extrovertshigh sensation seekers lower levels of physiological arousal that introverts I may be inherited 3 Genetics I Biopsychosocial Model Genetics Nonshared environment Shared environment Unknown factors error Cultural Diversity genetic factors contribute 40 50 of personality 40 50 27 7 16 26 Western Theory self is a bound individual Collectivist Cultures self is inherently linked to others
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