Design Foundation I
Design Foundation I DFN 1001
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ephraim Halvorson on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DFN 1001 at Southern Polytechnic State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/225427/dfn-1001-southern-polytechnic-state-university in Design Foundation at Southern Polytechnic State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Chapter 6 Diagrams Diagram are lhnse drawings which engage in a selfconscious reductive process attempting to make clear a specific interprci tzltinn through the exclusion of that int39ornmtion which the authors deem irrelevant Yet the differences between diagrams and conventional orthographic uxunnmetn39c or perspectivat drawings are stt tle and relative making it difficult tu establish 1 cteur boundary This relativity is illustrated by a series of eighteen uxonometric drawings by PeterEisemnan of House IV the drawings indicate 1 rigorous trimstbrmatinnul process based on 4 set of ltt39ts39iontug Architecture liltl predetermined rules l39hey show a sequence that moves both from top to bottom and front left to right The top row depicts manipulations involving the frame the second planar changes the thirtl volumetric transformations s39 the drawing more from left to right the articulation of space and mass increas The quotendquot result may be Seen in the last drawing in the lower right hand corner which gives the final configurations of walls frame and volumes In this sequence of drawings is a diagram of the project found in the rst Ot39lhil39d or tifth column of drawingsquot7 How much does the information of ti project need to be reduced in order to be defined as u diutgram 7 Is there a point at which the act of elimination is too much sacrificing important aspects so that the diagram becomes misleading incorrect or incomplete In this set ofgradually changing forms each drawing to the lefl of another could be called a diagram of the other Yet even the last drawing i till di grammatic in the sense that it does not delineate many details such as window and door frames roof edges material changes etc llN final drawing could still be considered a diagram when compared to a highly refined axonometric such as the drawings of the Electra Bookstore by Stirling in Chapter 3 see Figure 3A 39l hi set of drawings dcnton rate that every d awing is an abstraction where authors make choie s of what and how to draw a line for an edge tone as a shaccd plane a scrawled pattern as texture 1539 c of these choices involve a process of elimination and reduction subduing certain aspects while highlighting others The advantage of diagrams is their ability to simplify the consideration of formal or conceptual qualities hy minimizing the elements presented Theire ence is39 analyi By isolating spec t aspects of a subject a diagram allows one to clarify other features and compare one subject Vt39llli another or the same subject seen through d Itersl The nos ll sufgraphie codification limit theinterpretive result but the similarity of graphic format allows one to easily see two or more things in an equivalent way Diagrams aim for clarity and conciseness avoiding ambiguity and focusing on one specific issue in isolation By establishing a consistent graphic filler diagrams are effective tools to compare different s39lltlai tions Discovering the common elements 3 arm by buildings spaces or cities diagrams give visual form to p aspect In t1 sense they can generalize about seemingly dispar ate thi Y39 rhetorically presenting their spectftc interpretations and conclusions rent s ecifie is39s39ttc or Rngcr Clurk nnd Michael Pause aptly demonstrate this point in Ihcir book Prt t39t39zt ItM flI39L ltill 39lll739l which was dcvelnped to compare the l39nt39lnnl properties ol39 tinted buildings In Figure 12 fifteen plan di39 Yturns cumpttrc the effects ol39 rcgulnting grids on building cumpnsitinn Collcctivtly they reveal t great vuricty nl39mnligurutinns Ihztt regulnting urirlsmuy tukci the rnle they play in the cunrdination of the designs and the common tilities of genmclrit order in buildings which Vill39y gt39ctttly in size urpnsc construction ntttl tisturi dl period It euch diagram thin regulating lines 0139 pluid triangulated shifted or rotated grids tippcttr its 1 buckground upon which the tthstrncted limtprint ut the building s plan i uperimpuscil in thicker balder lines Tltc drawings depict regularities 0139 pztnem rhythm proportion and genntctry us well as vuritttinns irreg ttluritics exceptions nnd the addition or insertion 0139 unique and nonconforming elements Thc of ce nl Riclturd Meier ztnd l nrtncrs uses diagrams to serve u series 0139 functions including lL ning and presenting They use diatgrunnnntiu sketches in the Uliicc as they design helping tn reinl39urue Ctltccl tlu dl concerns and clarit39yintv thu develop ment of the design to themselves They also use dingrums tu elucidate their t nrmul ttnd conceptual intentions In an nutside audience An exztmplc nt the latter are five diagrams Ibr their pmject lurth Ruyttl Dutch Paper Mills Headuuurters Building D iztgnims I tgun n 2 Rugs curt tml l l39nuu 39tvmpnmtttc nlnn t u published in l rt39l39t tI Hlt m UAW Ittl latmiuning Architecture l39IgttI AtL39I39tItc ltcudqnuncts Hilvrrstnn Nun M7421 Plan i it tm c IL RIL lIL d Mctct A R F ninth l up l tgttrc F l Richard McIcI amp l anttch Arch l llmt it ltplnn 74 it R Fir i2l lllll I Itet tll llllurtlllI 39rtherlaud SI Lct39cl l39ltt in HllVCI NUnL the Netherlands Figure 63 Comparing each of the drawings to tht I39irst level plan Figure 64 illustrates the ability oldiag hits to reduce intbrntation ol39somc types in order to increase clt ltl39L le39l1Pl the diagram of structure eliminates all indit lions ol39 partition wa stairs openings between Hours bathroom t39ixtut he drawing has stripped the plan to essential structural leaturcs indicating at a glance one of the ordering principles of the building In a similar rnanncrr the circulation diagram clari es the idea of two primarv perpendicular linear corridors intersected by shorter cross corridors by simplifying their actual plan shapes Bv eliminating many detzti uch as recessed doorways and tlepi ing the corridut witlt strtugh 39ttles the diagram claritt s39 the role ol the space to he a linear ennnc tor In the publicprivate diagram the linear solid wall indicated in all of thc yrams can be seen as a formal element delineating the difference between functional zones Here the drawing connects the role ot39a formal element to a conceptual ordering principle itt other w etcr As illustrations ola singular issuer ol39gcometry publicprivate structure circulation or enclosure each diagram l39orces a viewer to see a particular aspect to focus on a particular issue in a sense to see the intentions ul39a plan An author eliminates l39rom a diagram all that he or she considers extraneous to particular locus showing a concentrated interpretation lay extracting everything else in those diagram eliminating information from the plan drawing helps clnr y how this building has been ordered on a proportional system how an important long stone wall acts as a conceptual lllVlLlL lquot between public and private how structure ul llCtllktlEgt the circulation 1i p Mil t n t g39g tTt rl t JTI system and vice vet39sa how enclosure hiohlights particularly important spaces I tch of these diagrams is a wordles expla7 nation a mud nf clarification In the Museum for the Decorative Arts in Frankfurt am Main Germany Meier illustrates the formal ordering systems of the huilding through plan and elevation diagrams The five analyti iettl diagrams Figure Lil clarify the seemingly complex geometry laid out in the two plans by indicating the geometric order of the formal heginning points in sequence the set moves from tlte plan uf the existing Villa 10 the villa inscribed in a sixteen square grid to a second grid shifted parallel and perpendicular to the alignment of the river to a vettical line which relates u the site context and tinally to a new courtyard space a void equivalent in volume to the existing villa Having viewed the diagrams the plans can now he more clearly seen as organized around sixteen squares with three at the four corner squtu m defined by the gallery spar s ol39the new part and the fourth hy the existing villa The diagrams make clear that the three corner gallery spaces reiterate the original villa in both sire and placement in addition the oblique line of the skylit main circulation system can he seen as geometry derived from the alignment of the river in other words the diagrams show tnot clearly how the new construction is intended to make a conceptual linkage to the existing villa and river through the lurmal ordering systems Any drawing type whether orthographic amnometric or perspectival can 1e u ed for iagrams in an example nfa use of alt elevation for diagrammatic putpas Meier uses four drawings Figure L6 to formally link the facades of the original villa to the new building The grid that nverl39 the facade ufthe original villa does not always correspond precisely tn window npenings and patterns but thedrawing demonstrates clearly the degree of correspondence and the discrepancies Secondly the viewer is left with the image of the gridded facades of hoth old and new in effect seeing the two as tied together by a common regulating order The diagram leaves its impression highlighting the architect39s intention When an architect needs to clarify or summarize a design or some important aspect of it in a quie39 synoptic manner he or she sometimes produces a quotthumbnailquot diagram sketch By compressing a scheme into a compact ormatc as small as an inch or two a quotthumbnailquot drawing presents a simplified ltugrams Envisioning Architecture HM a Figure is Richard Malei39 amp Palmm Auhiiam Museum lor the Decorative Am Frankfurt am Main Gemini1y 197945 Plum intl plun liugiums abstracted and therefore dizngammalic Version of a design lts small size makes drawing details difficult requiring each mark to he thtiugliliully considered and significant Because of the small format each line becomes relatively large in proportion to the while space oiihe paper increasing its individual impucl and presence An example is Figure 67 394 series of sketch diagrams liy lIelmut Iahn uf Mui phyJrlhn fur the State of Diagrams Illinois Building in Chicago Illinois The illustration is ot39two small sheets drawn one week apart each only 5 byl39i inches In the series of drawings on the right Jahn indicates eight til quot rent schemes through small plans and axonon ietrics Each pair ol drawings s ows a plan and ma quickly and simply revealing through a eons L format a set ol formal and spatial possibilities He contrasts a hrtvken donutquot shape to a tower in the west or north a quotcut hloek plaLaquot to a quoteLu ved blockquot The reduction of buildings to simplified I39omts allows a comparison of type and scheme by eliminating detail and specific articulation of these shapes s cm graphic LiE El 1 n the seeontl set of drawings to the lel39t lahn uses quick cryptic graphic codes to diagram a treatment for the exterior skin and base e r 39quot 39 I Lquot t of at39ctttled base and glazed skin eliminating detail in order to concentrate attention on the idea of the curved shape resting on a heavier base Finally a diagram of the site just to the right shows the t39uutpr39uu ml the new project in the extreme upper left and indicates in solid black important buildings and their locations The drawing emphasizes patterns and locations relative to open space clarifying the relationship of new it misting mun A comparison of Arata Isaaki39s Visually strilx39in t diagram ol39 the Museum of Modern Art Gunma Japan Figure 63 to a 505 7277 l39 a h thatm hit tcf amp imam mm hillsultllt an an Uuwt ttluu Figure In HulmutJaltn it1uph 139lltnt smut llllnms uunaim 39hleauo lllulots Am mm M MM mum msi Plan and uxonrmtctrit39 amtrm tut on ptlpt l um altm x 4mquot muss Elemuunal ttttllL IllS Envixioning Arclntccturc Figure 122 Amtu it uuuy memg Museum ul Modern Art junmu JJp n 7l l39lni nhliquc i t um Art At iigmph ivy Y mu isuh Figurc v9 Arum lutnkl Muwtlm if Mm l I ltn 97 Irn Nttmntm 39uluc mmc A547 7 l MEMME photograph of the built museum Figure 69 demonstrates the capabilities of it diagram to remove elementx und unncrelize 21 indicates his interpretation ol the building as a set of cubic modular frames He has eliminated any indication nl39 exmrior skin materiality and interior spatial differentiatiuns Staii frames cast shadows on the ground de ning an nhstructe and altered view of the building The photograph depicts one view of reality while the diagram clari es a reduced hut potent other Another reality that remains purer conceptqu but clearly a force in the figural composition is the ideal of a sphere diugrammed us a circle in the elevation niThnmms Jefferson39s Library at the University of Virginia Figure 610 Though represented in the building only by k1 portion at the mol39 and completed in the drawing by arcs of carefully spaced dots lhe essence of the scheme symbolizing wholeness and perl39e lion and helping to order the geometry 0i project Having experienced the diagram viewers are predisposed t0 look for the wholeness nf the Circlesphere and the idea 01 perfection both in the design and in the built form The diagram becomes an icon nithe idea in Figure 6 I Colin Rowe and Fred Kuetter use figureground diagrtuns to make a dramatic graphic and conceptual compari son in their book ulluge City Two examples of contrasting paradigms for urbanism are presented one of Le Corhusier s pr jcct fnr Saint Die and the other of medieval Parma The striking drawings by Wayne Copper 39 quot void of space is lelt white highlight the reversal between the we designs of the proportion and configuration olipublie space to building in The clarity eithe differences is a function of greatly reduced data inl nrmatitm of height and use are climii nuted as are l39ucade treatment material transparency and entry in ad re mg the singular issue of the relationship of Diagrams N University at Vugmtn Clutrluiiewullt Virginia t l82t Eiemnnn mt on gridded pn ter 8 H Vi x39 3V4 humm imam l upen Spceiztl 39ttllcctitmi Departtticul Manuscripts Damon University nl Virginia Lihriry Figure Lin 39I lumnis Jeiietstm Rntltlitlm lU7 lamlsttttllng rk lltl t ltllL ltutttr 3 ll inn tpulvlished m tutma rut w in Liter quotUnit tal Plans ms vnu awn lllN ayne 39tmpm I tgun tgmttntl tit 7 r t mg ml Lt rmtuwr39 pltttt ltu thc m3 mm smut me ancr ml at l39ar ma nmnl plan thugmm sulid to void The selectith at what to shou building frank print hnw to show it in plan and what In leave nut height and just about everything else are critical tactical chuiccs in the debate Thectnttrast gives dramatic support and visual presence tn an ideological point of View ln a second example of urban diagrams Rob Krier cumpares tthurc 612 emphasizing ttvctnyiliour dil lcrent urban the manner in which space is de ned by huildings Although these urban squares were cnnstrttcted at times ranging from IZXl ttntil 7 and located in cities from Italy lu England the use ml the same drawing construct plan View and the same graphic technique t line drawmg wtth diagonal line hatching for tone for each allows one to sec them in an equivalent way Dark hatched tunes t39ncus uttentiun nu white voids defined by the surmunding dark What is clearly defined by the graphic technique i urban sp as a resultant void surruundcd and dclined by dense building fabric with streets leading intu the space Solid and void space and containment ligure and and exclusively Omit ground are brought out unambigunus tcd from consideratinns in these drawings are aspects such as paving patterns and materials 0139 the spaces heights and elevai tinnal treatments ul surrounding huildings functional uses of spaces and buildings izcs culnrs etc Each of the illustrated squares t39nnltl he graphicallv descride and compared in a s but it s the ability oldr wing tn exclude information and thereby to highlight specific considerations that allows these spaces to be emphasized as space and to be cumpared in shape and access Krier39s method presents an edited abstracted isinn of a series ui39 places that enables an equivalent cnmpartsun Otherwise tmperceivahle PA HAL ltv 3 F LtNl aac 17 EIHUEDEU IlIJDEtDEH exam 9 2 Ti 4 m um Wm 5 ma quot 39 WT l l EEG a r Leun Kricr graphically compares and contrasts seven European cities relating places of very different character and quality to each other Figure a H Drawn to the same scale with the same graphic technique and degree at abstraction the drawings manifest commonalities ut seale in block si e and street width pattern and size of open spaces and ol39 density ul39httilding ma 39 39 Representing different traditions and attitudes of city building they are brought together on the same sheet and compared graphically and statistically The shape an LC ol their urban spaces and the pattems and sizes of streets are shown in the common crosshatching ut39 the blocks The streets and publiv spaces are represented by voids of while while comparative statistit al data is provided below each diagram for snrl39ace area the number and length ol streets and the number of blocks t39inal distinguishing feature of the drawing is the underlying grid scaled and proportioned to walking time Each square represents one hundred meters eight 0139 which take ten minutes to cross allowing one to calculate pedestrian travel time Thus each city is compared graphically by patterns at building masse ant streets quantitatively by cumulative statist experientially by the measure of time an Walter Gropius di attuned the relationship of building height to open space in a set of highly abstracted drawings Figure 6 H in order to illustrate his ideas about the reordering ol39 high density dwelling on the hygcnie erileri of fresh air sunshine and open space His drawings promote an architec ture based on these partieultu radical and quite limiled criteria For example diagrams I plan and I section Show mu ll ngm 514 Walter nmpm huwutg mt tlt t tipmcn HI L39 lvttlt a ul atncmm height u Tum Diagrams I v I Leon Krier quotParalch ul llunmn utmcnuuus I I7x Plan diagram thtttumn39 07 Plan n setum a L1 is Illaunm m wular mum at uptuttuent blacks l tumult m m and 10 Envisioning Architecture lit that increased building height reduces the amount of land needed for the same dwelling area Alternatively t39 and LI claim to Show increased quotimprovementquot in conditions of air sun View and distance from adjacent blocks The diagrams are filled with quantitative notes on building height and site dimensions stances between buildings degrees of sun eleva tion and cryptic algebraic notations comparingsitc dimensions or sun angle increases The drawings have a particularly rational characte39 authoritative in their accurate and enmpa tive measurement but exclude many issues of mass dwelling and urban form such as human scale Orientation and access and connection to urban thoroughfar The drawing by Louis Kahn ofdowntown Philadelphia s traffic flow Figure 615 represents an entire type of diagram in which intangible factors such as movement access sound view function tlnd time are symbolized and thus given visible form Buildings and other structures sidewalks streelscape and park landscape have been omitted highlighting Kahn39s particular focus on vehicular issues Through its density of aiTows and dots the drawing gives the viewer an immediate impression of intensity of use and correspondingly the imme tance for traffic flow of specific streets I shows directions of movementi clockwise or counterclockwise around each block and eddies of ow created by the dominance of oneway streets 50 shown are areas which are effectively vehiclefree parks and blockst and those that are densely packed with side streets or alleys Every drawing can he considered diagrammatic in the sense that it involves a process of abstraction and a corresponding reduc tion of information Each graphic selects parts of the infinite visual data available interpreting reality through conventional ized or idiosyncratic fillers A plan diagram defines a plan in a particular manner an axonometric diagram removes elements and therefore adds meaning ol39a different type Diagrams offer the capability to take this degree of abstraction beyond the normal conventions of other drawing applications pushing a level of reduction for rhetorical and analytical reasons Lntrinr sically therefore diagrams critique and in their net of reduce tion increase understanding Diagrams Figure h 15 Kuhn HHI 1 39 Trunk Slmlim Csmcl39 Ily l hlldklrlphiu Pmch Mil I hlu n1 mmtu mnvumem 11 le Ink un Mluc puch 15M Jl ulles39unn The Museum ul39 Mudtm An Ne Yurk UIH nf Ihr unlmccl
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