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by: Camron Brakus

ArchCultureIII ARCH 3113

Camron Brakus

GPA 3.56

Anthony Rizzuto

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Anthony Rizzuto
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camron Brakus on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3113 at Southern Polytechnic State University taught by Anthony Rizzuto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/225452/arch-3113-southern-polytechnic-state-university in Architecture at Southern Polytechnic State University.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
Culture 111 Architecture Culture 111 College of Architecture Southern Polytechnic State University A quot Culture 111 Architecture Culture 111 Tony Rizzuto Office 1244 Office Hours by Appointment e mail Tony795msncom The following are brief outlines of the weekly lectures they are not designed as substitutes for your notes and do not include all the information necessary for your exams rather this is designed as a quick reference a supplement for your notes I hope it comes in handy Note For Buildings marked the name of the building its location architect style and date of construction should be learned For Buildings marked the name of the Building its location architect and style should be learned Buildings not marked are significant to architectural history and may be used by you to answer a question on an Exam All information marked should be learned for Exams A In A Culture 111 Lecturel Neo Classicism in America Jeffersona Latrobe and Mills Thomas Jefferson 11743 18091 American political leader and amateur architect Studied law at William and Mary College Williamsburg Virginia Drafted the Declaration of Independence Served as Ambassador to France and President of United States Established the University of Virginia and designed its campus Jefferson was a major architectural influence because of is social and political position He equated the great new American Republic with the Republic of Roman antiquity Began a Roman revival in the US He often uses copybooks for details Jefferson owned the most extensive architectural library in the US He was influenced by the work of Palladio and the Maison Carree in Nimes France Benjamin Hen Latrobe 11764 1820 Born in England Latrobe was educated in engineering at the University of Liepzig in Germany He served as a Lieutenant with Fredrick the Great of Prussia and traveled to Italy and France In 1791 he opened his own office but when war with France broke out building in England stopped In 1793 he came to America to claim land in Pennsylvania inherited from his mother He worked in Philadelphia Baltimore Washington and New Orleans Robert Mills 1781 18551 Buildings Albermarle County Richmond Virginia Charlottesvile Virginia Baltimore Maryland Philadelphia PA Washington DC Recognized as the first trained American architect worked for Jefferson as a draftsman and was one of Latrobe s most trusted pupils When Latrobe became architect of the Capitol IIills remained in Baltimore as Clerk of the Works on the Baltimore Cathedral project Born in Charleston South Carolina he was a graduate of Charleston College He served as government architect in Washington Monticello 1768 92 Thomas Jefferson Virginia Virginia State Capitol 1785 89 Thomas Jefferson modeled on the Maison Carree in Nimes France University of Virginia 1817 26 Thomas Jefferson Baltimore Cathedral 1804 1808 Benjamin Henry Latrobe Bank of Pennsylvania 1799 1801 Benjamin Henry Latrobe US Capitol William Thornton Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Charles Bulfinch 1793 1830 Capitol Rotunda and Vestibule Tobacco and Indian corn Capitols 1814 Note that the dome is not made of stone but cast iron Benjamin Henry Latrobe Treasury Building 1836 42 Robert IIills Washington Monument 1836 cf Baltimore Washington Monument 1815 Robert Mills In A Culture 111 C harle ston South Carolina Urban Planning Washington DC States Record Office first Fireproof Building 1822 Robert Mills Plan of City of Washington DC 1754 1825 Designed by Maj Charles Pierre L Enfant a French general who became a hero of the American Revolution In uenced by the Gardens of Versailles of his youth The plan is developed in an essentially Romantic Classic style rather than that of a Baroque city L Enfant combines a rationalist grid with the diagonals of Le Notre s ronde points at Versailles long vistas are terminated by major monuments Here he is thinking in terms of a grand city when others were only thinking of a more realistic town L Enfants Plan for Washington DC A quot Lecture2 The Theories of uatreme de A Culture 111 uinc and JNL Durand Jean Nicolas Louis Durand 11760 18341 Writings French architect and teacher A pupil of Boullee and an engineer in Napoleon s army he was named professor of architecture by Napoleon 1 in the new Ecole Polytechnique in 1795 His lectures had great influence in the development of Romantic Classicism They were published in two volumes in 1802 1805 and subsequently republished through several editions until 1840 They became a sort of Bible of Romantic Classicism His eclectic forms derived from Greek Roman Renaissance or even Gothic buildings He invented a system of design based upon an endless repetition of elements both vertically and horizontally planned out on a grid His compositions produced varied skylines by providing central and corner tower motifs and including voids in the form of loggias and pergolas as design elements If there is a serious problem with Durand s work and theory of composition is that it is formulaic and therefore runs the risk of producing and artless form of architecture He developed a system of categorization of buildings by type in order to find a general model for each From this he developed his won examples of different building types bridges streets squares triumphal arches monumental tombs temples museums etc all the structures necessary for a model Napoleonic city an ideal Romantic classicist city Precis de Lecans d Archilecture donnees a L Ecale Palylechm39que 1802 Requil etParallele des Edl ces en Tame Genre anciens etmademes 1807 Antoine Ch sostome Writings uatremere de uinc 1755 1849 Dic annaire d Archileclure Histaire de la Vie el des Ouvrages des plus celebresArchilecles A quot Culture 111 Lecture3 Neo Classicism in German Leo Von Klenze 11784 1864 German architect Studied in Napoleon s Paris under Durand and also under Percier 1803 Visited Italy its ruins of antiquity and its Renaissance palaces in 1805 Also went to England during the same year Napoleon s brother Jerome King of Westphalia appointed Klenze to the post of Court Architect in 1806 He became architect of the Bavarian court of Maximilian I in 1814 His finest work was at Munich under Ludwig I son of Maximilian I He visited Athens in 1834 and made designs for the restoration of the Acropolis that were not executed Klenze also designed and built the Hermitage in St Petersburg Russia in 1839 1849 originally a palace it is now one of the most important museums of art in the world His work was influenced by the theory of Durand He was a master of classical proportion a Renaissance revivalist as well as a Greek classicist His later work became more and more eclectic and archaeological These designs show a cold Abstract quality close to what we might call an academic approach Friedrich Gilly 11772 18991 Prussian Architect His father David Gilly was a French Hugenot who migrated to Germany The elder Gilly was building inspector to the King of Prussia as well as a designer and contractor Friedrich was making architectural inspections with his father at the age of 10 He received the best education possible in the Berlin of his day He visited both England and France and was appointed Professor of Architecture of the Bauakademie at the age of 25 He died at the early age of 38 consequently few of his works were actually built Despite this Friedrich Gilly had achieved a level of fame as a young architectural protege and genius due mostly to his award winning competition projects He was incredibly influential on the younger Schinkel who acquired all of his drawings and used them for inspiration his whole life Karl Fredrick Schinke111871 18411 P russian architect Student of David Gilly and associate of Friedrich Gilly A man of international reputation he was probably the greatest living architect of his time Traveled to Italy in 1803 returning to Germany by way of Paris Influenced by the French Revolutionary architects Ledoux and Boullee He began independent work as a stage and scenery designer and as a designer of panoramas Schinkel became Court Architect for the King of Prussia In 1826 he made a trip to England where he was exposed to the Industrial Revolution in the most advanced industrial country at the time He is the great Romantic 7Classic architect par excellence Extremely rational attitudes toward planning and structural expression he was always influenced by the past He combines the rational and the irrational in the true Romantic Classicist style of the time His work uses volume penetrations expresses individuality of parts develops his works relative to basic geometry and makes the details of the antiquity his won language He often created exciting new spatial concepts by relating the interior to the exterior In his work is perhaps the first time that the interrelationship of interior and exterior space is made an important design consideration Schinkel used modern materials for his time especially cast and wrought iron his work also shows the in uence of the factories of England He would often include nature as a design element His work had a precision of detail clarity of statement refinement of proportion not found among the works of other architects of his day A quot Culture 111 Buildings Berlin Germany Regensburg Germany Munich Germ any Berlin Germany Potsdam Germany Urban Design Munich Germ any Monument to Fredrick the Great 1797 Friedrich Gilly Walhalla 1831 1842 designed in 1820 Leo Von Klenze Alte Glyptothek Old Sculpture Gallery 1816 1830 Leo Von Klenze Alte Pinakothek Old Painting Gallery 1826 1833 Leo Von Klenze Propylaeon on Konigsplatz 1846 1863 Leo Von Klenze Schauspielhaus 1819 1821 Karl Fredrick Schinkel Altes Museum 1824 1828 Karl Fredrick Schinkel Bauakademie 1836 destroyed Karl Fredrick Schinkel Scholss Charlottenhof 1826 1827 Karl Fredrick Schinkel Court Gardener s House 1829 1836 Karl Fredrick Schinkel Ludwigstrasse Leo Von Klenze with others A In 1 Culture 111 Lecture4 The Educational Tenets 0f the Ecole des Beaux Arts The Ecole des Beaux Arts History 1671 1720 1793 1819 1823 1816 1839 1846 1861 1863 1864 1871 1968 Established in 1819 as the state school of architecture the Ecole was the last phase or development of Colbert s Academie Royale d Architecture It became one of the most important institutions in the history of architecture Reviled by the modernists for its promotion of classical ideals and eventually closed in 1968 after student protests a major exhibition of drawings in 1975 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York revived interest and a reevaluation of its importance to the development of modern architecture As your textbook points out the goals of the Ecole were clear to establish universal architectural ideals through the study of the five orders Antiquity the Renaissance and French 173911 century Classicism were to remain the formal ideal Design at the Ecole was structured around to principles the first abstract and conceptual was the ordered scheme of the building the second was functional and experim ental39 the movement of an individual subject through the spaces of the building This emphasis on the subjects experience would be a major aspect of all modern architecture since Academie Royale d Architecture founded in Paris by Colbert The annual Rome Prize competition Concurs du Grand Prix de Rome established Louis XVI executed Reorganization of create the Ecole Royale des Beaux Arts AntoineChrysostome Quatremere de Quincy appointed permanent secretarty of the Academie and the Ecole Richard Morris Hunt becomes the first American student at the Ecole Competition for Paris Opera won by Charles Garnier Proclamation of Nov 133911 recognizing the Ecole and removing the Grand Prix from Academies jurisdiction Viollet le Duc appointed Professor of History of Art and Aesthetics Viollet Le Duc gives first lecture in January resigns after seventh lecture in March because of student protests Grand Prix returned to academie s control After student demonstrations prompted by inadequate teaching facilities and political unrest the Ecole is reorganized and the Grand Prix is discontinued Vocabula Terms Atelier Axe Character Composition Entourage Concurs En Charrette Esquisse Proj et rendu Culture 111 If the elements of architecture cannot remain unchanging because of our new needs and because of the new means put at our disposal by industry to sarisj them they nonetheless cannot be handled capriciously These elements the veritable organs of a being are modi ed according to the functions they are made to serve and thus demand the selection of materials most appropriate for enabling them to sarisj these functions The particular qualities of these materials thus exert the most direct influence on the form which it is appropriate to give each element so that decoration is intimately tied to construction The beauty of a monument resides in the expression of a harmony between needs andmeans used to sarisj them Henri Labrouste Henri Labrouste 11801 18751 In 1819 he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts as a student of ATL Vaudoyer and Louis Hippolyte Lebas competing for the Grand Prix in 1821 and placing second he reentered in 1824 and won at the unusually early age of 23 From late 1824 to early 1830 he studied at the French Academie in Rome where along with Louis Duc Leon Vaudoyer and Felix Duban he began to formulate a new Romantic rationalist architecture Labrouste s studies of the ruins at Paestum proved theoretically volatile The stated issue was the accuracy of his details of the ruins but this only concealed a more important and revolutionary interpretation of them According to Labrouste the Greek orders at Paestum could be seen to have decomposed under the in uence of local culture and structural forces The key was the Basilica that Labrouste set not at the beginning of the construction cycle but at the end His restoration of it was as an unpedimented open town hall and not a temple at all The implication was that the ancient models were not fixed ideals but the basis for regional transformations Labrouste was also a believer in the further development of architecture through invention derived from the careful study of the past and the use of new materials He often employed cast iron columns in his interiors while maintaining stone on the exteriors In this way he attempted to reconcile old forms and new materials His use of materials always adhered to the proper expression of each according to rationalist ideas of the time Charles Garnier11825 18981 Haussmann and Napoleon 111 projected a great opera house connected to the Louvre by a grand boulevard This boulevard destroyed a number of important buildings in a wealthy area of Paris and lead to Haussmann s downfall But the opera project went ahead The winner of the competition was a French architect Charles Garnier Garnier published a folio monograph on this building in 1878 Le Nouvel Opera Revivalism has gone full cycle in this building if the Romantic Classicism had started as a reaction to the Late Baroque Garnier Opera is a kind of Neo Baroque For the first time since Gilly designed his project for the National Theater in Berlin an architect has clearly expressed his plan in the exterior elevations of the building Each of the three major elements of the plan are clearly expressed the lobby and Grand staircase the circulation area the auditorium proper and the stage Garnier s desire was to make something beautiful to please surprise and dazzle in essence to create a great spectacle The grand staircase takes as much room as the auditorium because the function of being seen was equally as important as being able to see His eclecticism follows an accepted tradition of personal invention that is grounded in an accepted language of the past A quot Culture 111 Baron Georges Eugene Haussmann 11809 1891 French administrator and city planner who carried out many of Napoleon Hl s ideas concerning Paris and city planning He completely transformed the city during a mere 17 years while he was Prefect of the Seine 1853 1870 Haussmann was the first to view the city as a technical problem at the time practical interests in police strategy rather than in circulation of traffic was of concern Haussmann wanted to prevent street warfare the erection of the barricades that had been popular during the revolution However he is aware of traffic problems too He was influenced by the aesthetic ideals of Romantic Classicism with its long endless street and terminating monuments His creation of grand boulevards lined with streets have now become the signature of Paris as a city He enlarged the sewer system so that it would be adequate for Paris burgeoning population Buildings Paris France Church of La Madeleine 1807 1845 Alexandre Pierre Vignon Ecole des Beaux Arts building 1832 1864 Felix Duban Bibliotechque Ste Genevieve 1843 50 Henri Labrouste Bibliotechque Nationale 1858 68 Henri Labrouste Paris Opera House 1861 1875 Charles Garnier Urban Design Paris France Project of modernizing the street plan of Paris 1853 Baron George Eugene Haussmann A In 1 The m A Culture 111 quot Centurv and the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution Developing first in England invention is characteristic of this age Europe experienced the loss of individual rights as a result of the use of the machine This was due to human labor being seen as an anonymous element in mechanized production Large scale inefficient power sources lead to concentration of people in the cities and wide scale pollution Coal was used as the universal fuel steam became the universal power source and iron became the universal materia The Development of Iron Chronology 1707 1759 1773 1765 1777 1783 1785 1793 1800 1807 1825 1829 1849 1851 1857 1858 1874 1875 A Characteristic feature of nineteenth century engineering was its increased reliance on iron for construction Indeed the use of iron is the greatest contribution of the British pioneers to civil engineering Iron in building was no innovation it had been used through history as we have seen as clamps and fasteners in masonry construction Iron was far too scarce and expensive to be used as a primary building material During the Nineteenth century developments in the production of iron allowed for the inexpensive production of iron in large quantities making iron an affordable building material Originally only engineers used it in structures such as bridges and the new train sheds The properties and strengths of iron produced a building material of staggeringly different proportions than the more traditional stone and wood this lead to serious aesthetic debates over its use Architects shunned the material until the 1860 s Abraham Darby invents means to Coke coal that reduces sulfur in pig iron allowing for production of cheaper and greater quantities of iron Richard Reynolds succeeded in developming a process of using coke to convertpig iron to malleable iron First Hot air balloons invented James Wyatt invents a condenser that leads to his construction of a steam engine in 1774 it is improved in 1775 Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale England designed by Thomas F Pritchard is the first iron bridge constructed Peter Onions invents the coal fired reverberatory puddling furnace enabling wrought iron to be produced in volume at low cost Steam Engine with a rotary motion installed by Matthew Boulton and James Watt in a cotton spinning factory in England Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin in the US that leads to the rapid growth of cotton exports form the southern states Alessandro Volta produces electricity from his cell First ship fitted with a steam engine to cross the Atlantic the Savannah makes crossing in 26 days Stockton and Darlington railway opens in England First Steam locomotive runs in In France Joseph Monier makes reinforced concrete Ruskin publishes The Seven Lamps afArchiIeclure James Bogardus constructs prefabricated cast iron and glass building in New York City The Great Exhibition The Crystal Palace is held in London England EG Otis installs the first safety elevator what with the development of cheaper steel makes possible the development of the skyscraper Charles Darwin published The Origin aflhe Species by Natural Selection The First Impressionist Exhibition is held in Paris and includes work by Cezanne Degas Pissaro and Sisle Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone A pi 1 Culture 111 LectureS Neo Gothic Architecture Augustus Wele Northmore Pugin 1812 1852 Writings English Gothic Revival architect He was a prolific architectural draftsm an who believed fervently in Gothic as the correct manner of building Published many books promoting NeoGothic designs Built over 65 churches in England as well as convents monasteries mansions etc His great opportunity for fame came when the Old Houses of Parliament burned in 1834 Sir Charles Barry who won the subsequent competition asked Pugin to collaborate with him The result combined a Classic plan with Gothic details Contrasts 1836 The True Principles afPainted or Christian Architecture 1843 John Ruskin 11819 19001 Writings e was a great English architectural critic and writer on art and architecture He was very in uential in America as well as in England and on the continent American editions of his works appeared in the same year as their publications in Great Britain He was a good friend of Pugin they often had an interchange of ideas He was one of the first writers to equate morality and architecture He called for an architecture that would stay away from the new materials of iron and glass He promoted a coloristic Venetian Gothic style highly colored and highly textured surfaces Ruskin wrote over 100 books in his lifetime Modern Painting Seven Lamps afArchitecture 1849 Stones of Venice 1851 53 Painting The Architect s Dream 1840 Thomas Cole painted for 1thiel Town partner of Al Davis Buildings England Twickenham Middlesex Strawberry Hill Horace Walpole s House built 1747 The first Tisbury Wiltshire London England Gothic revival house 1753 Architecture as an expression of the sublime Gothic rococo Correct details for example a fireplace copied forma Gothic tomb Fonthill Abbey William Beckford Estate 1795 1812 James Wyatt The ultimate expression of architecture of the ideal of the Sublime Building dimensions 270 ft west to east and 312 ft north to south Fabulous tower 276 ft high Entrance ahll originally the dining room that couldn tbe heated 68 ft long by 28 ft wide by 78 ft high Interior octagon room beneath tower 35 ft in diameter and 128 ft high St Michael s Gallery 13 ft 7 inches wide by 100 ft long Houses of Parliament 1835 1860 Pugin amp Barry St Pancreas Station 1863 76 Sir George Gilbert Scott train shed 1863 65 Barlow and Ordish Law Courts 1874 84 George Street A In 1 Culture 111 The Neo Gothic in America Alexander Jackson Davis 1803 18921 Writings Davis attended the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York and aspired to become an artist To support his studies he began making drawings of public buildings for translation in popular engraved views eventually he became one of the foremost draftsman and watercolorists of his day He appreciated simple rational design His strong commitment to professionalism led him in 1837 to join with several others to attempt to found a professional society this venture unfortunately came to naught He joined in partnership with Ithiel Town Their early work was Greek Revivalist in style that was popular in the US in the 1820 s and 30 s This soon changed with the influential publications of A I Downing Rural Residences 1837 Andrew Jackson Downing 11815 18521 Writings The son of a Nurserym an in Newburgh New York Downing began as a horticulturist coming to architectural criticism later AS a result he viewed the house as a function of the landscape in which it was placed The plan of the house he argued should be arranged so as to take advantage of the views of the landscape making it as irregular as need be The grounds should be augmented to enhance the picturesque qualities In his last book The Architecture of Country Houses he included many woodcuts showing illustrations of simple house types details interiors and landscape plans While owning insisted that these were only suggestions the designs were often utilized and many can be seen through the US even today The designs were the work of Al Davis A Treatise of the Theory andPractice of Landscape Gardening 1841 Cottage Residences Rural Architecture and Landscape Gardening 1842 MThe Architecture of Country Houses 1850 Richard Upjohn 11802 1878 Born in England and trained as a cabinetmaker Upjohn emigrated to the US in 1829 and set himself up in architectural practice He spent periods of time in New Bedford Conn and Boston before finally settling in New York His main concern was ecclesiastical buildings His masterpiece is Trinity Church in New York A follower of Pugin he restricted himself to fourteenth century prototypes Upjohn was very much the professional and it was at his invitation and in his office in 1857 that the American Institute of Architects was formed He also helped to establish the legel right for the architect to receive payment for his preliminary designs after he took the town of Taunton Mass To court in 1850 Writings Upjohn s Rural Architecture 1852 Buildings New York NY Trinity Church 1839 44 Richard Upjohn Upjohn founded the AIA in 1857 Newport Rhode Island Kingscote 1841 Richard Upjohn Tarrytown New York Lyndhurst 1838 65 Alexander Jackson Davis Charleston S Carolina Grace Episcopal Church 1848 A In 1 I ecture639 The I 39 Culture 111 ofan A 39 quot of Iron and Glass Joseph Paxton 11803 18651 English engineer gardener and railroad investor he was the first to realize the full potential of the Industrial Revolution He completed a fabulous building the Crystal Palace 408 ft wide by 1851 ft long in 17 weeks of actual construction time A good deal of credit should be given to Charles Fox of Fox and Henderson contractors The building used a series of interchangeable parts a 24ft module splendid logistic control the use of machines prefabrication in large units on site The building was a technical breakthrough using the largest unit of glass ever produced 3300 cast iron columns 2 225 cast and wrought iron girders and 900000 sq feet of glass 13 of all the glass produced in England during the previous ten years The cost of the 33000000 cu Ft building was less than 1 cent per cubic foot It was the high point of the reign of Queen Victoria and her beloved consort Albert The Great Exhibition of which it was the centerpiece was the first and most successful of the international exhibitions Gustav Eiffel 11885 18891 Buildings England Coalbrookdale Chatsworth England Kew Gardens One of the greatest engineers of his time Gustav Eiffel was also a builder and manufacturer of iron bridges He built the Eiffel Tower for years the tallest man made structure in the world at 984 ft it was constructed of 7000 tons of steel and composed of 12000 separate parts and 250000 bolts The first platform is 190 feet above the ground it contains a restaurant at that level the second platform is at 380 ft the third at 905 ft plus Eiffel s own private pavilion and apartment 79 ft higher Eiffel also designed the structure for the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor along with the artist Frederic Auguste Bartholdi Richard Morris Hunt designed the base Cast Iron Bridge over the Severn River 1777 79 Thomas Pritchard and Abraham Darby First cast Iron bridge with a span of 100 feet 6 inches Conservatory 1837 40 Paxton and Burton demolished in 1920 Palm House 1845 47 Decimus Burton England London England Crystal Palace 1851 Sir Joseph Paxton rebuilt in Syndenham in 1854 burned in 1936 St Pancreas Station 1863 1876 Sir George Gilbert Scott Train Shed 1863 1865 Barlow and Ordish France Paris France St Flour France US Brooklyn New York Magasin du Bon Marche 1876 LA Boileau and Gustave Eiffel Pont de Garabit 1880 84 Gustav Eiffel Exposition of 1889 Galerie des Machines Durert and Contamin Eiffel Tower Gustave Eiffel The Brooklyn Bridge 1869 83 John Roebling In A A Culture 111 Lecture7 A Modern Approach to Style Viollet le Duc and Semper Eugene Emmanuel Viollet le Due 1814 18791 Writings French architect teacher and restorer of Gothic monuments as well as outstanding writer on architecture Although a life long enemy of the Ecole des Beaux Arts he served as a Professor there in l863 He is most well known for his writings He saved many important monuments of the Middle Ages in France although his approach to restoration is often criticized Viollet le Duc believed in restoring the building to what the architect would have built as a design idea had he had all the technology to do so This leads to a certain amount of speculation and a final product that may not be like version of the structure in its history He writes the last great work of the Theory of architecture in the 193911 century all others after are considered theories of Modern architecture A theory of Gothic rationalism based on his belief that construction and engineering were the most important part of Gothic the core of Gothic building the essence of it all the decorative details were merely to amplify the structural aspect He suggests that a new architecture cam be developed through understanding this great truth that construction is the basis of design His theories are the foundation for any theory of architecture of the 203911 century that one might attempt in our time Dicn390nnaire Raisanne d ArchiIeclure Francaise du Xie au XVIe siecle 1854 1868 in 10 volumes Enz rel iens sur 1 Archileclure 1863 1872 Gottfried Semper Writings A quot Culture III Lectures Craft Ideals in Britain The In uence of Ruskin s Theories Ruskin s writings had an almost immediate impact on the architectural community as architects began to apply his ideas to their buildings Most particularly was his attitudes towards texture composition and permanent polychromy Permanent Polychromy Buildings London England Ruskin had advocated the use of color in architecture but rejected applied color This discussion was in response to the debates in the Ecole over the coloration of the Greek temples Ruskin insisted that color should be used but that it should be permanent that it an integral aspect of property of the material itself Thus he advocated the use of colored stone brick or glazed brick but not painted brick or stone All Saints Margaret Street 1849 1859 William Butterfield New York NY The National Academy ofDesign 1849 1865 Peter B Wright demolished cf Doges Palace ca 1309 1424 Facades Cambridge Mass Memorial Hall at Harvard 1870 1878 Ware and Van Brunt Arts and Crafts The Legacy of Ruskin Ruskin s writings had long lasting effects particularly on the next generation who found in his rejection of the Industrial Revolution and link between morality and architecture the basis for formulating a new more human approach toward modern architecture They would glorify the craftsman in the face of the industrial worker and pose an alternative to the world and its evils as they saw it Among the most influential of these men were William Morris and CFA Voysey Have nothing in your house which you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful William Morris William Morris 1834 961 arnter author designer of fabric furniture typography and other crafts as well as a socialist lecturer Morris was appalled by the products of the 1851 Exhibition at the Crystal Palace He attempted to do something about this terrible work that he blamed on the machine and on the ideologies of the Industrial Revolution He was a follower of Ruskin respected craftsman of the 1Iiddles ages talked about the joy of creative wor and hated the products developed by the machine He tried to find an answer to problems of the Industrial Revolution by looking back to the Medieval period rather than looking forward to the 203911 century He began the Arts and Crafts Movement He turned his sites from the fine arts of painting and architecture to the common place things of daily life His Kelmscott Press prints beautiful books in limited editions by almost hand methods His decorating firm produces furniture fabrics and wallpapers in limited editions as well He doesn t believe in inspiration or genius just good craftsmanship is needed to make great art Culture 111 Simplicity sincerity repose directness and frankness are moral qualities as essential to good architecture as to good men CFA Voysey Charles Francis Anneslev VOVseV 1857 1941 Architect designer of fabric furniture and other crafts Voysey used the traditional forms of vernacular architecture but began to integrate a cleaner more abstract interpretation His work therefore appears devoid of overt historical reference Like Webb Voysey focused on function for the development of form but here the work omits decorative detail He also often employed modern materials experimenting with concrete and stucco His work while adhering to the theoretical principles of Arts and Crafts irted with a new modern style Phillip Webb 1821 19151 e was an English architect and trained in Street s office at the same time William Morris was there as a pupil He designed the revolutionary Red House for William Morris Carefully planned to meet the needs of Morris and his bride The plan is not symmetrical nor is it intentionally picturesque rather a reflection of the needs of the client Building elevations re ect this plan Expert craftsmanship is employed everywhere in masonry in cabinetwork English common red brick was used in their natural form instead of stucco with false stone work Every detail is carefully thought out as a thing to be made by a craftsman There is a strong feeling for the nature of materials Webb proposed an architecture with all the whims that one might call design left out Sir Edwin Lu ens 11869 19441 Buildings Bexley Heath England Windermere An English architect he began his career designing small houses in Surrey and later executed a long series of large country establishments many of them complete with their furniture and gardens He often worked side by side with his cousin Gertrude Jekyll a now famous landscape architect from the very onset of a project Their collaboration produced a most perfect harmony of building and site In his work Lutyens developed a style of domestic architecture that was based upon traditional English design and craftsmanship and yet highly individual and modern His most noteworthy public work is the planning of New Delhi in India He was knighted in 1918 HThe Red house 1859 Phillip Webb for William Morris Broadleys 1869 CFA Voysey Lake District England Chorleywood Hertfordsh39 e England Sonning BerkshireEng The Orchard 1899 CFA Voysey architect s home Deanery Garden 1899 1902 Sir Edwin Lutyens with Gertrude Jekyll as Landscape designer A In A Culture 111 Lecture9 The Arts and Crafts in America The Shingle Style The Shingle style was first developed by the Firm of McKim Mead and White and by HH Richardson A departure from the then popular Stick Style it introduced shades of classical elements Along with the classicizing tendencies the Shingle Style emphasized the horizontals as well as a continuity of spaces inside and surfaces outside Here large shingles usually cover the exterior like a taught skin The massing is often simplified and in plan the earlier houses are asymmetrical but later one bilateral symmetry was also introduced as at the Low House in Bristol R1 Gustav Stickley 11857 1942 Founder of The Craftsman Magazine 1901 to promote arts and crafts style furniture and architecture Stickley designed a line of furniture still in production today the originals are highly collectable an demand large amounts of money at auction Greene and Greene Architects Charles Sumner Greene 1868 1957 architect Hean Mather Greene 1870 1957 architect Both brothers graduated form MIT and were in uenced by Japanese art and architecture as well as Art Nouveau The developed ideals from Richardson s large scale planning and the Shingle style that developed on the east coast which they combined with open space of Wright s prairie houses Their work exhibits splendid detailing and wood craftsmanship reflective of the Japanese ancestry of some of their craftsman Bernard Maybeck 11862 19571 Last of the true eclectics he combines all sorts of elements out of the past in new and often humorous ways He is also surprisingly modern and almost classic in his handling of redwood interiors of some of his houses Buildings Newport RI Cambridge Mass Bristol R1 Oak Park 111 Project Pasadena California Berkley California William Watts Sherman House 187475 HH Richardson with additions by Stanford White Newport Casino 1879 80 McKim Mead and White MF Stoughton House 1882 83 HH Richardson Low House 1886 87 McKim Mead and White c f Robert Venturi and Robert Stern Wright s House and Studio 1893 Frank Lloyd Wright Bungalow Designs from The Craftsman Magazine 1905 Gustav Stickley Gamble House 1908 Greene amp Greene First Church of Christian Scientist 1910 Bernard Maybeck A u A Culture III In A I ecturelO39 Creators of an American A Henry Hobson Richardson 1838 18861 American architect Richardson was born outside of New Orleans on Priestley Plantation He received an appointment to West Point but was rejected because of a speech impediment he then attended the University of Louisiana for one year before taking a tutor in Cambridge to enter Harvard He graduated there in 1859 and left immediately for Paris and the Ecole des Beaux Arts He failed the entrance exam but in 1860 after more preparation passed and was accepted joining the Atelier of J Andre The American Civil War wiped out the family fortune and Richardson had to leave the Ecole he took work with Theodore Labrouste the elder brother of Henri Labrouste architect of the Bibliotechque Nationale In 1865 Richardson returned to the US receiving his first commission in 1866 for Unity Church in Springfield Mass Richardson would soon enter into a partnership with Gambrill that would last from 1867 to 1878 during this time two young and later important architects would work in their office39 Charles McKim and Stanford White His project for Trinity Church in Boston would establish his reputation as a great architect although this is now considered not one of his better works His own personal favorite works were the Allegheny County Courthouse and the Jail at Pittsburgh but the work that would be considered his greatest contribution to the history of architecture would be the Marshall Field Wholesale Store and Warehouse It would become one of the most influential buildings in the development of the new architecture of modernity Richardson s achievement is in architectural expression never in audacity of engineering He used the Romanesque Revival style as a language for his personal expression strong rugged man like architecture that suited his large frame His plans are powerful and clearly and directly expressed His work shows a sense of scale The massing is of basic geometric blocking when seen from a distance cf Boullee Ledoux but with interesting details becoming apparent as one moves closer c f Ruskin He was the first to develop the strip window a later popular motif of Modernism Richardson respected the limited range of very good materials and found inspiration in the Roman aqueduct as a means to develop a unifying motif for many storied buildings This last would prove very important to Sullivan Frank Furness 11839 1912 urness could be termed a high Victorian Gothic architect were it not for the fact that his mature work follows no canonical style but is the product of a vigorous imagination combined with a profound understanding of the physical and psychological functions of architecture He studied in the office of Richard Morris hunt from 1859 to 1861 The structural expression of bearing members in the form of stout compressed columns and flattened segmental arches and their exaggeration by means of bold inventive geometric ornament had been essayed in France by Labrouste and Viollet le Duc It was called Neo Gre because it attempted to follow the simple direct logic of the trabeated bearing wall construction of the Greeks It was such Neo Grec structural expressionism together with the strong in uence of Viollet Le Duc s writing a firm conviction in the powerful visual role of architectural ornament derived from Ruskin39 and a love of complex contrasts of color and texture of High Victorian Gothic that combined to make the amalgam of Frank Furness architecture His style was especially adept at handling buildings whose functions resulted in irregular asymmetrical exteriors His work was almost forgotten until the 1960 s when Robert Venturi rediscovered him He proved to be a major influence on the early Postmodernist architect A quot Culture 111 Louis H Sullivan 1856 19241 Writings Chicago Architect born in Boston In 1872 he attended the architectural school at MIT the first school of architecture in the US where he studied under William Ware of Ware and Van Brunt Sullivan decided that MIT was only a re ection and imitation of the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris and he was determined to go to the source of his education Before doing so he went to Philadelphia where his grandfather lived to get experience in an architectural office He did so in the offices of Furness and Hewitt in 1874 he went to Chicago to work for William Le Baron Jenny for six months After this experience Sullivan finally went to Paris where he registered in the Ecole des Beaux Arts He studied with M Clopet who in his Rules which will admit of no exceptions found inspiration to attempt years later to find just such all embracing rules for architecture Sullivan s rule is the no famous axiom Form Follows Function Sullivan traveled to Venice and to Florence and then left the Ecole and returned to Chicago in 1876 He was a noted draftsman and worked in many firms around town until 1879 when he teamed up with Dankmar Adler to form Adler and Sullivan Sullivan s major achievement is in the area of expression His ornament derived form nature and form geometry was close to the style of Art Nouveau in Europe It s organic nature and basic continuity influenced a young man in Sullivan s office toward conceiving of an Organic Architecture that young man was Frank Lloyd Wright Sullivan s crowning achievement was in his Wainwright and Guaranty Buildings where he developed the expression for the tall office building that would be accepted by the Modern Movement as the model solution Sullivan s writings are as important as his buildings he developed the first body of architectural theory in the US in them Kindergarten Chats 1918 The Autobiography of an Idea 1924 A System of Ornament 1924 Buildings Boston Mass Cambridge Mass North Easton Mass Quincy Mass Chicago Ill Philadelphia Pa Chicago Ill Chicago Ill Owatonna MN Grinnell Iowa Trinity Church 1872 1877 HH Richardson Facade altered 1894 1898 by Shepley Rutan and Coolidge Austin Hall Harvard University 1878 HH Richardson Ames Free Library 1877 1879 HH Richardson Ames Gateway Lodge 1880 1881 HH Richardson Crane Memorial Library 1880 87 HH Richardson Marshall Field Warehouse Store 1885 87 demolished HH Richardson Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts 1871 1876 Frank Furness Auditorium Building 18861890 Louis H Sullivan with partner Dankm ar Adler Carson Prarie Scott 1899 1904 Louis H Sullivan with Adler National Farmer s Bank 1907 1908 Louis H Sullivan Merchant s National Bank 1915 Louis H Sullivan A quot Culture 111 The Chicago School The Chicago School The term Chicago School refers to a period in American history when a group of Chicago based architects developed a new approach toward architecture This new architecture was a response to technical aesthetic and client needs The Chicago School is credited with developing the tall office building or what today we call Skyscrapers Their work was highly influential not only in the US but abroad as well Many of Europe s finest architects traveled to Chicago to see their work and after WWII many returned or emigrated to Chicago believing it to be one of the birthplaces of modernism We can claim it to have done the following 1 The clients and architects develop a completely new building type the High Rise commercial building 2 For the first time in the 19 11 century engineering and aesthetics are no longer at odds but working together reinforcing each other 3 Almost all remnants of Historicism are eliminated 4 A new structural system is created technically and expressed aesthetically The architects and firms considered to be a part of the Chicago School movement were the following William Le Baron Jenny11832 19071 A Chicago Engineer and architect Known as The Major Jenny was born in Fairhaven Mass And traveled the world before returning to the US in 1853 He graduated from Harvard as an engineer studied in Paris at the Ecole Central des Arts et Manufactures and the Ecole des Beaux Arts During the civil War he served as an engineer in the Union Army and was part of Sherman s march to the sea By 1868 he was operating his own architectural office Many of the men who apprenticed in his office went on to become the most important architects of the Chicago School of the next generation They were Daniel Hudson Bur39nham Louis Henri Sullivan William Holabird Root and Martin Roche Called the Father of the Skyscraper he developed the first skeleton metal frame building with curtain walls in the Home Insurance Building although he did not give it proper expression He pioneered the development of basic fireproofing methods In his second Leiter Building Jenny showed remarkable expression of the steel frame in a sensitive concise and simple statement In this building some of the details are confused but the major conception is splendid although he owes a great debt to HH Richardson the Marshall Field Warehouse and Wholesale Store and to Louis Sullivan Wainwright Building Culture 111 Burnham and Root Chicago architectural firm easily the most important firm in the Midwest at the end of the 193911 century with over 200 major buildings designed during their 18 years of partnership John Wellborn Root 1846 1891 Root was born in Lumpkin Georgia His father was a New Englander who had wanted to be an architect but who operated a dry goods store John Root studied music and drawing in England By 1865 he was in the US working for John Renwick the architect of St Patrick s Cathedral in NYC In 1869 he graduated from New York University as an engineer and by 1873 was in partnership with Daniel Burnham Root was close to Louis Sullivan in his Romantic attitudes and in his naturalistic details Root s tragic and untim ely death at the age of 41 was a major factor in the development of the architectural theme of the World s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 After his death Burnham turned to the Eastern architects for leadership resulting in the Fair s aesthetic changing from a colorful romantic and distinctly American image crafted by Root and Sullivan to the image of the Great White City a Roman Imperial Revival Make no Little Plans they have no magic to stir men s blood Daniel Hudson Burnham Daniel Hudson Burnham 1846 1912 Brunham was born in Henderson NY and came to Chicago in 1855 with his parents He was educated in public schools in Chicago and private schools in Massachusetts He spent one year 1868 in the office ofLoring and Jenny Wm Le Baron Jenny andjoined in partnership with Gustave Laureau from 1869 1871 In 1873 he entered the office of Drake and Wight where he meet John Root later that year they formed the partnership of Burnham and Root one of the most important firms in America at the time From 1891 to 1893 Burnham served as Chief of Construction of the World s Columbian Exposition William Holabird 11854 1923 and Martin R0che 1856 192 21 American architects they both worked for William Le Baron Jenny before forming a partnership that eventually became one of Chicago s most outstanding pioneer firms The free form of their Tacoma Building 1887 1888 Chicago anticipates Mies Van der Rohe s glass skyscraper projects of 1921 and 1922 Their Old Colony Building 1893 1894 Chicago proposes a unique solution to the problem of wind in a tall structure Adler and Sullivan The firm of Dankmar Adler 1856 1924 and Louis Henri Sullivan 1856 1924 were one of the most important firms of the Chicago School owing mostly to their attention to aesthetics Adler was the Businessman Architect while Sullivan was the chief Designer and detailer The partnership was formed in 1879and lasted until 1895 during which time they designed some 65 major commissions A quot Lecture The 1 39 A Culture 111 of the C 39 39 Building and Skvscraner in Chicago George Washington Snow 1797 1870 amp The Balloon Frame Mass production would also change domestic construction radically as well The mass production of machine cut lumber introduced the standardized stud the 2 x 4 that could be quickly assembled into frames using cheap wire cut nails instead of the more expensive hand forged spikes Freed of the complicated joinery of the traditional heavy timber frame a mechanic using a handbook could assemble a house frame in a day Such houses were said to have Balloon frames because of their speed of construction The structural system used was invented by George Washington Snow and used single standardized members spanning from the lower floor to the eave of the roof as 16 inch intervals This provided a stable and sturdy wood frame structure that was easy to assemble and cost effective St Mary s Church in Chicago built in 1833 by Augustine D Taylor is considered to have been the first Balloon Frame structure The latter variation on the Balloon Frame is the Platform Frame here the vertical members only span between floors an additional platform is constructed from which the next series of vertical members rises This later development is the one commonly used today The Origins of the Commercial Building With mass production and mass distribution of goods came the department store a new concept in merchandizing based on impulse buying To meet the demand for retail stores and the warehouses that supplied them architects and builders turned to the use of iron cast in small identical easily assembled parts The major pioneer in this effort was James Bogardus James Bogardus 1800 1874 amp The Cast Iron Store Front Buildings Chicago 111 St Louis MI Buffalo NY What Bogardus did in the late 1840 s was to systematize mass production enabling him to fabricate whole buildings including both exterior shell and interior framing and ship them around the world where the parts could be bolted together At the Laing Store Stores in New York he demonstrated that construction time could be as little as two months Once this system was developed and regularly employed it became the basis for the development of the tall office building It contained all the embryonic elements necessary metal frame glass walls and standard bay system the only thing to be added was the elevator That came in 1857 when John Gaynor placed one in the Haughwout Building Leiter Building 1879 William Le Baron Jenny Home Insurance Building 18883 1886 demolished 1931 William Le Baron Jenny Reliance Building 1891 1895 Burnham and Root redesigned by Charles B Atwood It was an outstanding example of the Chicago School with its expression of Structure and Skin Monadnock Building 1891 Burnham and Root This building was a triumph of refinement in design The brick actually changes color gradually from base to top By many critics of its day it was considered one of the best expressions of the tall office building although it was of solid masonry construction Wainwright Building 1890 1891 Louis Sullivan Guaranty Trust Building 1894 1895 Louis Sullivan In A A Lecture The Culture 111 A anmi Ecole and its Architecture in American Richard Morris Hunt 1827 18951 McKim e atelier or studio of American architect Richard Morris Hunt in New York was the first of its kind in the US There Hunt offered systematic instruction in architecture gathered there were Furness Van Brunt Sullivan and Post among others nearly all of whom were to play significant roles in their profession during the next third of a century Hunt himself had spent nearly nine years at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris he entered in 1846 the first American to do so and the one who stayed there longest Through him and the students of his atelier American architecture felt the impact of French rationalism Hunt was one of the most influential important and respected architects of his day He became The architect of the new American millionaires and gave the US its first generation of grand houses that rivaled the palaces of Europe His most famous masterpiece is the Biltmore in Asheville NC the largest private residence in North America Hunt was also asked to design the base of the statue of Liberty in New York Harbor Mead and White New York Architectural Firm established in 1879 Largely responsible for bringing a European academic approach to American high style architecture Charles Follen McKim 11847 19091 American Architect Born in Pennsylvania he spent the summer of 1866 in Cambridge being tutored to enter the Lawrence Scientific School and working toward a degree in engineering In 1867 McKim went to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in the atelier of N Caument He spent a total of three years of study and travel in Europe before returning to the US in 1870 He went to work for the firm of Gambrill and Richardson at the time they were doing Trinity church in Boston In 1872 he became the junior partner in the firm of McKim Mead and Bigelow In 1898 Bigelow left the firm and was replaced by Stanford White In 1898 McKim became the first president of the American Academy in Rom e which he had been influential in establishing In 1901 1903 McKim was the President of the American Institute of Architects and in 1903 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects William Rutherford Mead 1846 19281 American Architect Born in Brattleboro Vermont he graduated from Amherst College in 1867 68 He like McKim apprenticed in the office of Russel Sturgis and spent a year and a half of study and travel in Europe most of which was spent in Florence at the Academia de Belle Arti When Mead returned to NYC in 1872 he found McKim on his own with a good deal of work they soon established the firm of Mead and Bigelow Stanford White 11853 19061 American Architect Born in NYC the son of a well known critic and writer his family had been in America since 1632 He originally wished to become a painter but changed to architecture when he realized he didn t have enough money to study painting In 1872 he was apprenticed as a draftsman in the office of HH Richardson He was largely responsible for the drawings of Trinity Church Boston A jealous husband cf movie Ragtime murdered White in the original Penn Station in NYC one of White own designs A quot Culture 111 Buildings Newport RI Asheville NCarolina Boston Mass New York NY Washington DC Marble House residence of William K amp Alva Vanderbilt 1888 1892 Richard Morris Hunt The most expensive house ever constructed it cost 14 million dollars in 1888 When adjusted for in ation it has still to be surpassed in cost The Breakers residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt 11 1892 1895 Richard Morris Hunt Biltmore residence of George W Vanderbilt 1888 1895 landscape designed by Fredrick Law Olmstead Richard Morris Hunt The largest private residence in North America Boston Public Library 1888 1898 McKim Mead and White addition by Phillip Johnson Pennsylvania Station 1902 191 1 McKim Mead And White demolished Conceived of as the gateway into New York it consisted of elegant Neo Classic halls in a grand Imperial Rom an manner that lead to a grand iron and glass train depot The building was designed to showcase New York as the center of American technology and Style At the time of its construction it was the largest building since the pyramids constructed in one continuous operation Flatiron Building 1903 Daniel Burnham Union Station 1907 Daniel BuInham This structure has recently undergone a renovation and is a popular mall and commuter rail station in DC A In A Culture 111 Lecture The Chicago Exhibition of 1893 The World s Columbian Exposition of 1893 Urban Design Chicago Ill Washington DC The World s Columbian Exposition was conceived as a celebration of the 4003911 anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus actually a year later In 1889 New York Washington DC St Louis and Chicago were all lobbying for the honor of holding this fair Chicago won and in 1890 the State of Illinois licensed the World s Columbian Corporation to raise money and administer the construction of buildings The US Congress set up a Federal Commission for the exhibits and sent invitations to foreign nations However local groups in Chicago were to remain responsible under the Corporation for the construction of the buildings In this same year John W Root was appointed Consulting Architect his partner Daniel Burnham was appointed Chief of Construction Fredrick Law Olmstead and Co were named Consulting Landscape Architects A Gottlieb was named Consulting Engineer All were under the Grounds and Buildings Committee of the World s Columbian Corporation that was headed by the President of the Illinois Central Railroad Mr ET Feffery Because of the small amount of time left to produce such a great project Root suggested that architects be invited from all over the country to design separate buildings in the Exposition Five firms from outside Chicago were invited Richard Morris Hunt of New York McKim Mead and White of New York George B Post of New York Peabody and Stearns of Boston and Van Brunt and Howe of Kansas City In addition five architects from Chicago were asked to participate Burlington and Whitehouse Jenny and Mundie Henry Ives Cobb SS Beman and Adler and Sullivan The first organization meeting was held in Chicago on January 10 1891 John Root entertained the group on January 11 He caught cold escorting his guests to their carriages in the snow and died frou days later of pneumonia This unfortunate death changed the whole design attitudes of the fair from a colorful festive Romanticism advocated by Sullivan and Root to a Great White City an expression of Neo Roman Imperialism This new Academic style captivated the American public and spawned the City Beautiful Movement It also thwarted the hopes of the Chicago architects Sullivan in particular of developing an American architecture not dependant on European models HWorld s Columbian Exposition 1893 Administration Building Richard Morris Hunt Transportation Building Louis Sullivan Agriculture Building McKim Mead and White New York State Building McKim Mead and White Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building George B Post This building had a three hinged arch of greater span than the Galerie des Machines all hidden behind a triumphal arch and arcades of Neo Roman Revivalism Horniculture Building Wm Le Baron Jenny and WB die Fisheries Building Henry I Cobb Palace of the Beaux Arts Charles B Atwood This building was later rebuilt in permanent materials as the Museum of Science and Industry in Jackson Park Senate Park Commission Plan 1901 02 proposed changes to the Mall of Washington Commission members include architects Charles McKim and Daniel Burnham Artist Augustus Saint Gaudens and Landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmstead Plan for Chicago 1909 Daniel Burnham u A Culture 111 Lecture The Chicago Tribune Tower Competition The Chicago Tribune Tower Building Competition of 1922 Colonel Robert R McCormick the Chicago Tribune s owner wanted the World s Greatest Newspaper to have the World s Most Beautiful Building He held a competition in 1922 with 100000 in prize money The competition received 263 entries from all over the world John Mead Howells and Raymond M Hood of NYC won first prize It was their project that was eventually built and now stands in Chicago Second prize went to Eliel Saarinen of Helsinki Finland who took his prize money and emigrated to the US To this day the competition remains one of the most significant in the history of architecture not perhaps for the final design selected but for the range of proposals submitted Held at a moment in time when the issue of What a skyscraper should look like was the central question the competition drew entries across the theoretical and aesthetic spectrum The competition therefore is more important for the entries not selected than perhaps for the Winning one The best source is the Official Report published in 1923 by the Tribune in which all the competition drawings were published In more recent times publications have emerged that include the most noteworthy entries as well as some famous Late Entries by current well known architects It is interesting to note that only the exterior appearance of the building was required for the competition IT was assumed that the architect selected would be able to meet the functional needs of the client Within his design after he had won the prize Entries Notable John M Howells and Raymond M Hood NYC First Prize Eliel Saarinen Helsinki Finland Second Prize Holabird and Roche ChicagoIll Third Prize Bertram Goodhue NYC Honorable Mention DH Burnham and Co Chicago Ill Honorable Mention Frank Fort NYC Honorable Mention Walter Burley Griffin Melbourne Australia Adolf Loos Vienna Austria Paul Gerhardt Chicago Ill Bruno Taut Walter Gunther Kurz Schutz Magdeburg Germany Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer Weimar Germany Heinrich Mossdorf Hans Hanhn Bruno Busch Leipzig Germany Gary Orr Chicago Tribune Cartoonist TP Barnett Co St Louis William Skidmore Pocatello ID Julius M Huber Chicago Ill Saverio Dioguardi Bari Ital B Bijvoet and I Duiker Zandvoort Holland Alfred Fellheirn er and Stewart Wagner NYC Mathew L Freeman Mississippi Agriculture and Mechanical College A Van Baalen Amsterdam Holland Einar Sjostrom and Jarl Eklund Helsingfor Finland Anonymous A quot Culture 111 Lecture 15 Art Nouveau Art N ouveau The nineteenth century debates over style drove the desire to find a new unique style of the age this had been the promise of architecture in that century The first truly modern style that is one that rejected all forms of historicism was the international movement known as Art Nouveau The style takes it name from a shop in Paris that sold products designed in this new style While it is generally known now as Art Nouveau at the time it had other names depending on location Stile Liberty in Italy Jugenstil in Germany Moderne in France and Modernismo in Spain The style while international had three major centers of focus Brussels Paris and Nancy and Barcelona Victor Horta 11867 19421 The High Art Nouveau architect Maj or Practice in Belgium His distinctive whiplash line becomes known as the Horta Line the organic natural growth abstraction of Art nouveau form Hector Guimard 11867 1942 French Leader in the Style Moderne Wonderful plant like growing quality to his designs especially for his Paris Metroploitan stations Henri Van de Velde 11863 19571 The great Theorist of Functional aesthetics and pure form coming out of the Jugenstil movement He is the designer of the famous Paris shop L Art Nouveau Bing de Paris He is also responsible for founding the Weimar School of Applied Arts that would later become the Weimar Werkbund and eventually transform into the Bauhaus Antonio Gaudi I Cornet 11852 19261 Catalan architect practicing in Barcelona Spain Gaudi came from a humble background His father was a goldsmith He was always proud of his Catalan heritage even after he became a wellknown architect In later years he would not speak Spanish only Catalan In 1870 Gaudi entered the new school of Architecture at the University of Barcelona He took eight years to get his degree Because of his work in various architects offices during this time he left school as an architect of firmly established reputation and was an immediate success Early in his career he acquired an especially sympathetic and equally wealthy client Eusebio Guell For him Gaudi built several houses villas and a worker s colony now Park Guell Late in life Gaudi was deeply religious limiting his work to building the Sagrada Familia Church the main Cathedral of Barcelona featured during the Barcelona Olympics At his death he was almost regarded as a saint by his contemporaries in Barcelona The power of Gaudi as an architect is in his prolific invention of forms not only as purely expressive sculptural form but often as a result of unusual structural devices that create the form His powerful imagination in the use of materials along with his unique sense of decoration and his skill in handling space color and light are well worth study His dedication to the craft of building combined with a growing dedication to religion made his architecture have about it an odor of sanctity He believed that the architect was only a humble instrument of the divine power in his later works each form is heavily laden with mystical symbolism A quot Culture 111 Buildings Brussels Belgium Paris France Cologne Germany Barcelona Spain Hotel Tassel 1892 1893 Victor Horta Maison du Peuple 18951899 Victor Horta Hotel Horta Victor Horta the home of the architect Castel Beranger 18941998 Hector Guimard Metro Stations 1899 1904 Hector Guimard Werkbund Exhibition Theater 1914 Henri Vander Ve1de Sagrada Familia Church 1883 1926 Antonio Gaudi Parque Guell 1900 Antonio Gaudi Casa Batlo 1905 1907 Antonio Gaudi Casa Mila 1905 1910 Antonio Gaudi A quot A Culture 111 Lecture 16 The Vienna Secession and the Glasgow School Charles Rennie Mackintosh 11868 19281 Buildings Glasgow Scotland Often known as the Frank Lloyd Wright of Scotland Mackintosh began training as an pupil in the office of John Hutchinson architect of Glasgow From 1885 he attended evening sessions at the Glasgow School of Art In 1889 he was engaged as a draftsman in the building firm of Honeyman and Keppie He rose to a partnership in this firm However in 19909 he began practice as an independent architect and designer In 1890 he won a scholarship which let him study the architecture of the continent in France and Italy He was an important in uence in the development of Art Nouveau taking part in the opening exhibit at the Maison L Art Nouveau Bing in Paris in 1895 and in the Vienna Secession Exhibition after 1900 In 1897 at the age of 29 he won the competition for the New Glasgow School of Art like most architects of Art nouveau he believed in complete synthesis of all the arts His work is important because he tends to develop a quieter more directly geometrical approach to architecture out of the Wild excesses of his contemporary Art Nouveau followers It is this quality that made him so important to the Vienna Secessionists Glasgow School of Art 1898 1903 Charles Rennie Mackintosh The Vienna Secession and Werkstatte In Vienna around the turn of the century the art world was still fairly traditional but a growing group of younger artists began to challenge the establishment beginning with the Hagenbund in 1876 On April 1897 the antiestablishment Austrian Association of Artists better known as the Vienna Secession came into being It comprised 50 founding members with the painter Gustav Klimt as president Within a year the Secessionists opened their own exhibition building designed by Olbrich The now famous building has the inscription in German To the Age its Art to Art its Freedom Artistic paths in Vienna had already begun to diverge While some embraced the Jugenstil or Art nouveau with its polished vocabulary of vegetal scrolling forms others championed a thoroughly rational and practical aesthetic It was this later that appealed to the members of the Secession who by 1903 had established the Wiener Werkstatte the Vienna Workshops dedicated to elegance functionality and appropriateness in the arts Otto Wagner 1841 1918 Architectural leader in Vienna it was through his writings that he became an international in uence An architect town planner and teacher he founded a great school of architecture in Vienna with followers and students such as Joseph Hoffman Adolf Loos and Joseph Maria Olbrich A great American educator Nathan Clifford Ricker University of Illinois translated his essay Modern Architecture into English and published it in a popular architectural journal in the US almost immediately after it was written His later work is much in uenced by the Jugenstil or German Art nouveau Joseph Maria Olbrich11857 1908 Student and follower of Otto Wagner Olbrich was a leader of the Vienna Secession Group which fostered exhibitions of an international scope of Art Nouveau work The scotch architect Mackintosh was a strong force in this group Olbrich is well known for his design of most of the buildings and for the general site layout of the Artist colony at Darmstadt A quot Culture 111 Joseph Hoffman 1879 19561 Studied architecture under Otto Wagner and developed into an architect of international reputation Le Corbusier worked in his office as a young man on two separate occasions Hoffman taught at the School of Applied Arts in Vienna from 1899 on He also set up a studio workshop for handicraft manufacture that was successful for 30 years In 1887 he joined the younger artists and architects to form the Vienna Secession In 1907 Hoffman and the painter Gustav Klimt started a secession from the Secession In 1907 Hoffman became city architect for Vienna His best known work is his interest in the Arts and Crafts movement in Austria In his architectural work he is noted for his elegance and refinement of taste and his penchant for very splendid and very expensive building materials Paintings Works of Gustav Klimt Buildings Vienna Austria Secession Building 1897 1898 Joseph Maria Olbrich Steinhof Hospital Chapel 1906 Otto Wagner Postal Savings Bank 1904 1908 Otto Wagner Brussels Belgium Palais Stoclet 1905 1911 Joseph Hoffman A In A Culture 111 Preceptorial 1 Adolf Loos and the Problem of Ornament To recognize the meaning the form the purpose of all things of the material modern world with the same truth as the Greeks among many others recognized the meaning form and purpose of the column It is not easy nowadays to nd the exact meaning and the exact form for the simplest things Adolf Loos Adolf Loos 11870 19331 Writings Austrian architect best known for his writings He was the son of a sculptor and trained at Dresden Polytechnic School He visited the UU form 1893 1896 where he learned to be a brick mason He also visited Chicago and saw the work of the Chicago School From 1896 on his permanent home was Vienna although he stayed in Paris from 1924 to 1928 Fro several years he conducted a private architectural school Loos was a brilliant critic who wrote numerous penetrating and witty essays on architecture art and culture He gained international renown and still is known for his opposition to ornament in architecture His article ornament and Crime of 1908 is one of his major contributions to modern architecture s development An architect who wrote a lot designed much and built very little his work is distinguished by elegance formal clarity beauty of materials and functional logic He made an important original discovery the Three Dimensional Plan or Raumplan the organization of a building volume as an integral whole distributing and coordinating rooms of different heights on different levels There is spatial flow but it is typically without the interpenetration of interior and exterior space that was to emerge in the work of others Ornament and Crime 1908 Buildings Vienna Austria Chicago Ill Muller House AdolfLoos Steiner House 1910 Adolf Loos Kartner Bar The American Bar 1907 Adolf Loos Project of Chicago Tribune Competition Tower 1921 AdolfLoos A Lecture 17 Fnoineerimr Buildings u 1 Paris France Near Paris France Philadelphia PA Tavanasa Switzerland Orly France Culture 111 u I and the T 39 of Ferro Concrete The Development of Modern Concrete In the late 1700 s men such as John Smeaton began to experiment with clay mixed with limestone in order to produce a stronger masonry bonding In 1824 Joseph Aspdin received the first patent for making cement or artificial stone that he called Portland Cement In 1828 Marc Isambard Brunel used the new material in the Thames Tunnel In 1845 IC Johnson was able to produce a stronger and cheaper version that secured its viability While Portland cement could now be manufactured in unlimited volume and at reasonable costs it was not used extensively for good reason early structures collapsed and public authorities refused to accept the material Because of its heterogeneous character cement resisted all means of stress calculation and so it was not until this century that methods of analysis were developed that could insure safety The Development of Reinforced Concrete High in compressive strength but very weak in tension Concrete proved limited This was eventually overcome by Joseph Monier who embedded wire mesh in the concrete tubs he used for planting orange trees He received a patent in 1867 and continued to experiment using more metal and for different purposes In 1875 he succeeded in building a small reinforced concrete bridge By 1892 Francois Hennebique had developed a system of construction using reinforced concrete derived from the post and lintel system While successful Hennebique s method failed to achieve concrete s full potential Auguste Perret 11874 1954 Along with his brother Gustav Perret he designed and built innovative reinforced concrete structures although usually with the post and beam method of Hennibique He did not become an architect officially because this would have eliminated him from the construction business under French law Le Corbusier learned to love concrete as a building material when working for his firm Robert Maillart 11872 19401 A S 39 wrss engineer he realized the full potential of the concrete slab creating some of the most beautiful bridges in the modern movement He combined the roadbed and the structural slab to make an extremely efficient and inexpensive concrete bridge He also used the four way slab in warehouse construction this eliminates the use of beams St Jean de Montmartre 1894 1904 Anatole de Baudot 25 Rue Franklin 1902 Auguste Perret Garage at 51 Rue de Ponthieu 1905 Auguste Perret Theatre des Champe Elysees 1911 13 Auguste Perret Le Raincy Church 1922 Auguste Perret Monolithic Concrete Houses 1909 Thomas Edison pioneered the project with the architects Manning and Macneille Bridge over Verder Rhine 1905 Robert Maillart Airship hangers 1916 1921 Eugene Freyssinet Cite Industrielle 1917 Tony Garnier A quot A Culture 111 Lecture 18 The Modern Search for National Identities Eliel Saarinen 11873 19501 ne of Finland s greatest architects he was responsible for two of Helsinki s most important structures the Helsinki Railroad Station and The Finnish National Museum also in Helsinki His architecture always has an arts and crafts decorative approach always warm and human with applied ornament over strong form statements He loved to include largescale bodies of water and largescale plantings with his architectural elements Eliel Saarinen was able to move to the US with the prize money from the Chicago Tribune Competition He came in second place He set up a fine school at Cranbrook and eventually designed the buildings of the new campus The Cranbrook Academy of Art is still in existence and one of the finest in the country There he integrated all the arts with the art of architecture His son Eero Saarinen 1910 1961 would become one of the US s greatest architects of the 203911 century designing the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Gateway Arch in St Louis Dulles International Airport in Washington DC The TWA Terminal at Kennedy International in NY and the CBS Headquarters in NYC Erik Gunnar Asplund 11885 19401 Buildings Copenhagen Denmark Stockholm Sweden Helsinki Finland New Delhi India A Swedish architect Asplund is best known for the group of pavilions he designed for the Stockholm Exhibition of 1930 There he employed forms of the new architecture but with a dynamic line and dignity of proportion all his own His most significant work is the Stockholm Public Library Town Hall 1892 1902 Martin Nyrop Grundtvig I904 l9l4 Peder Vilhelm JensenKlint Town Hall 1909 1923 Ragnar Ostberg Woodland Chapel Cemetery at Enskede 1918 1920 Erik Gunnar Asplund St0ckholm Public Library 1920 1928 Erik Gunnar Asplund Helsinki Railway Station 1904 1914 Eliel Saarinen Vicer0y s Palace 1912 1931 Sir Edwin Lutyens A quot Culture 111 Lecture 19 The Deutscher Werkbund and Futurism The Deutscher Werkbund The Deutscher Werkbund was founded in 1907 by a group of artists mainly architects and producers originally at the scale of craft but later to include industrialists It would have a wide effect in Germany for the next decade and continues even now It embodied principles learned from William Morris including the importance of worker satisfaction and joy in their production as well as the coherent relationship between product and process The Werkbund extended Morris ideas and principles to the processes entailing a division of labor the work of the artist designer the craftsm an producer and even the industrial producer The Werkbund believed that by raising the standards of design using the finest quality materials and the best manual talent thus creating meaningful work they would promote a reintegrated cultural environment This through the excellence of its products would allow Germ any to compete internationally on the basis of quality rather than quantity The most influential founders of the Deutscher Werkbund were Hermann Muthesius Henri Van der Velde and Peter Behrens Hermann Muthesius 11861 orn in 1861 in Gross Neuhausen Germany Muthesius was the son of a mason and small building contractor From 1881 to 1883 he studied art history and philosophy at the University ofBerlin followed by one year ofmilitary service From 1883 to 1887 he studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin and also worked for a period in the office of Paul Wallot the architect of the Reichstag In 1902 Muthesius published a small book called Slilarchilecktur undBaukunsl Style architecture and Building art In it he established early in the century and early in his career the themes that would carry his advocacy of cultural renewal Muthesius preferred the German term Baukunst Building art over the Latin Architecture because it placed emphasis on the art of construction The term style architecture for him meant high style and the established architectural profession at the time the new Jugenstjl which he felt was exacerbated by too much history and the malign in uence of professors of art and aesthetics He saw this as the result of modern urban culture In contrast building art was allied with vernacular buildings guilds the lower and middle classes and humbler dwellings The work art here was understood in its more archaic sense of metier craft and artifice Muthesius advocated a realistic approach to building in the service of new societal forces an approach that must of necessity leave stylistic precedent behind most particularly classical paradigms with their emphasis on ideal form He favored a northern process oriented attitude toward building that he claim ed to be manifest in the Gothic style His general orientation was to direct attention to the failure of the arts and thus to promote heavily the renewal of artistic culture as the vehicle for cultural and societal reform more generally It is just such a program that links him with William Morris and the British Arts and Crafts Movement The difference in the Germ an movement pursued by Methusius and the Duetscher Werkbund was in the relationship of art and culture to the system of industrial and technological production The English resisted modern change and therefore broke under pressure Muthesius on the other hand looked to restore culture throuin an aspiring artistic production consistent with the emerging industrial society Peter Behrens 11869 19401 A German architect painter and industrial designer Behrens was trained as an artist at the Karlsruhe Art School 1886 1889 He settled 1 Munich in 1890 and became a founder of the local Secession He soon established a reputation as a book and type designer In 1900 he joined the artist colony being established in Darmstadt where he designed his own house and turned to architecture From 1903 to 1907 he was director of the School of Applied Arts at Dusseldorf In 1909 he was appointed architect and in effect industrial designer to the AEG He developed the first total corporate image Buildings Berlin Germany Culture 111 designing everything from stationary to products and buildings for the AEG Turbine Factory His early architectural work is very classical close to the work of Schinkel in many ways After WWI Behren s designs show the influence of Expressionism By the mid 1920 s he was a full fledged member of the new International Style group In 1922 he became the Professor of Architecture at the Vienna Akademie During the years between 1910 and 1920 three of the most important architects of the next generation worked in his office Le Corbusier Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe AEG Turbine Factory 1908 1909 Peter Behrens Alfeld an der Leine Fagus Shoelast Factory 1911 1912 Walter Gropius Germany Liepzig Germany Steel Industry Pavilion 1913 Bruno Taut Cologne Germany Glass Pavilion 1914 Bruno Taut Werkbund Pavilion 1914 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer The art of becoming expendable the perishable the transitory and the Filippo Tommaso Marinetti on Futurism Futurism Founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti 1876 1944 the Futurists were committed to the absolute authority of technology and challenging history According to him the problem of Futurist architecture was a question of creating the Futurist house according to a sound plan of building it with the aid of every scientific and technical resource of fulfilling to the limit every demand of our way of life and our spirit The Futurists wished to create an architecture whose raison d etre lied solely in the conditions of modern life It was to be an expression of life dynamism energy light and We are no longer the people of the cathedrals and ofthe tribune but rather of large hotels train stations of immense streets colossal ports covered markets luminous arcades Antonio Sant Elia Antonio Sant Elia 11880 1916 Urban Design Project Sant Elia studied architecture in Milan and Bologna Italy and was influenced by Otto Wagner He was an outstanding architect of Futurism although all of his works are projects In 1914 he exhibited A Citta Nuova in Milan sponsored by the Nuovo Tendenze Group His buildings emphasize movement Vertical transportation is usually expressed as separate towers connected to the tall buildings by bridges at each floor His city separates different kinds of movement on varying levels according to rail air automobile and pedestrian Latter designers including Le Corbusier will use this as an organizing principle in urban design Sant Elia s tall buildings recognize the need for set backs to allow light and air into the streets This would be picked up in New York by Raymond Hood and Hugh Ferris in their buildings La Citta Nuova 1913 Antonio Sant Elia A quot Culture 111 Frank Lloyd Wright This is the modern opportunity to make ofa building together with its equipment appurtenances and environment an entity which shall constitute a complete work of art Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright 1869 19591 An American architect born at Richland Center near Spring Green Wisconsin Frank Lloyd Wright is perhaps the US best known architect His father William Wright was a sometimes Baptist minister whose passion was music his mother Anna Lloyd Jones wanted her son to be an architect According to Wright s own romantic version she placed prints of Gothic Cathedrals in her bedroom so that he would be in uenced by great architecture even before he was born The family moved to Philadelphia when Frank was 9 years old At the Great Exhibition of 1876 Frank s mother saw an exhibition of the work of Friedrich Froebel a very progressive educator who had started the Kindergarten Movement in Germany His theory of education involved teaching trough creative play The child was encouraged to experience objects colors textures shapes and encouraged to observe causes and effects of this activity Froebel had created sets of toys to supplement his course simple geometric blocks in bright colors that could be assembled in various ways Mrs Wright bought the toys and young Frank began to get what was really a Bauhaus education before the Bauhaus existed The basic compositional techniques taught there were derived from this and similar theories At the age of 15 Frank s father left the family and he never saw him again Wright went to work for a local contractor at Madison Allen Conover where he served as an apprentice to the supervisor of construction He also began studies at the University of Wisconson in engineering After two years he quit working toward his degree and moved to Chicago where the architect Lyman Silsbee was designing a church for Frank s uncle Frank worked less than a year for Silsbee when in 1887 he entered the offices of Adler and Sullivan He became Sullivan s right hand man designer job captain etc In 1893 he set up a business for himself in the house he had built in Oak Park 111 In Wright s First Golden Age he makes significant contributions to the development of modern architecture From Sullivan s ornament and his own great love of nature Wright develops the concept of Organic Architecture He works toward an honest expression of materials a close relationship to nature and to the specific site He develops new concepts in space dynamic space that moves through thte building and out into the surrounding countryside In the Robie House he expresses the horizontal movement of space in the Larkin Building and in Unity Temple he creates space expanding vertically as well as horizontally A pi i Culture 111 Lecture 20 The Prairie Stvle and the Usonian House The Prairie Style The Prairie house in its essence embodied a union of nine principles First the number of parts of the house were reduced to a minimum to achieve greatest unity Second the house was integrated with its site by extending horizontal planes Third the room as a box was eliminated in favor of spaces defined by screens and panels Fourth the basement was eliminated by raising the main living spaces up a floor allowing better views of the site Fifth the use of ribbon windows Sixth reduction of the number of materials ornamentation expressive of materials and designed for machine production Seventh all mechanical fixtures were incorporated into the fabric of the building and made architectural features Eighth all furnishings were made one with the building Ninth the Fashionable Decorator was eliminated Buildings River Forest Ill Project Buffalo NY Highland Park Ill Buffalo NY Oak Park Ill Riverside Ill Chicago Ill Winslow House 1893 Frank Lloyd Wright This house exhibits Wright s early irtation with classical composition and formality A Home in a Prairie Town Ladies Home Journal 1901 Frank Lloyd Wright Development and codification of the Prairie Style and System Larkin Building 1902 Frank Lloyd Wright Ward Willits House 1902 Frank Lloyd Wright considered the first true Prairie style house Darwin D Martin House 1904 Frank Lloyd Wright The clearest statement of Wright s move toward articulating space using structure and mechanical services Unity Temple 1905 1908 Frank Lloyd Wright Coonley House 1908 Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House 1908 1910 Frank Lloyd Wright Considered the finest example of all nine principles of the Prairie House Lecture Frank Lloyd Wright the Second Coming Buildings Project Bear Run Pennsylv ania Racine Wisconsin Scottsdale Arizona Bartlesville OK New York NY Broadacre City 1934 1935 Frank Lloyd Wright HKaufmann House Falling Water 1934 1937 Frank Lloyd Wright J0hnson Wax Administration Center 1936 1939 FL Wright Taliesin West 1938 Frank Lloyd Wright Price Tower 1952 1956 Frank Lloyd Wright HThe Guggenheim Building 1943 1959 Frank Lloyd Wright A quot Culture 111 Lecture 22 Cubism and De Stijl Cubism Painting style developed between 1907 and 1912 by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque It was inspired by the later work of Cezanne and by African sculpture In essence the visual image became a representation of reality as seen through multiple vantage points simultaneously in this way blending both abstraction and fragmentation The effects of this new vision of the world had dramatic effects in all the arts including architecture Paintings Les Dedmoiselles d Avignon 1907 Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning 1912 Pablo Picasso L Aficionado 1912 Pablo Picasso Girl with a Mandolin 1910 Pablo Picasso The Culture ofparticularforms is approaching its end The Culture of determined relations has begun Piet Mondrian De Stiil Founded in 1917 by Piet Mondrian Theo van Doesburg Rob van t Hoff JJP Oud Gerrit Rietveld and others de Stijl the Style was based on the principle of a universal modern style that could be applicable to all the arts It was committed to an architectural and functional ideal of satisfying all physical and spiritual needs but aesthetic concerns tended to take precedence over structural and functional ones Man must constantly destroy himself in order to construct himself all over again Theo van Doesburg Theo van Doesbur 1883 1931 u ch writer painter and architect van Doesburg was the spokesperson for the de Stijl movement Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud 1890 1963 The City Architect of Rotterdam in 1918 he was active in the de Stijl movement An admirer of Berlage he is one of the originators of the International Style At the end of his life he moved toward a more colorful and more expressionistic modern style Gerrit Thomas Rietveld 11888 1964 He began his professional practice as a cabinet maker from 1911 to 1919 Reitveld studied architecture in Utrecht form 1911 to 1915 in 1918 he joined the de Stijl movement In the Schroder House he translated de Stijl paintings almost directly76 into archtiecture Paintings Composition in Blue 1917 Piet Mondrian Composition 1929 Piet Mondrian Composition in Red Blue and Yellow 1930 Piet Mondrian Space Time Construction Theo Van Doesburg Industrial Design RedBlue Chair 1917 1918 Gerrit Thomas Rietveld End Table 1923 Gerrit Thomas Rietveld Light Fixture Schroder House 19231924 Gerrit Thomas Rietveld A quot Culture 111 Buildings Amsterdam Stock Exchange 1897 1904 Hendrik Petrus Berlage Netherlands Huis ter Heide Henny House 1916 Rob van t Hoff Netherlands Berlin Germany Proun Room Greater Berlin Art Exhibition 1 923 El Lissitzky Rotterdam Caf de Unie 1924 JJP Oud Netherlands Utrecht HSchroder House 1923 1924 Gerrit Thomas Rietveld Netherlands Strasbourg France Caf L Aubette Supper Club 1928 Theo Van Doesburg Hilversum Holland City Hall 1929 1930 Willem Marinus Dudok u A Culture 111 Lecture 23 The Architecture of the Russian Avant Garde Every form is the petri ed snapshot of a process Therefore work is a station in evolution and not its petri ed aim El Lissitzky The modern engineer has created works of genius the bridge the steam locomotive the aircraft the crane The modern artist must produce objects equal to them in strength tension and potential organizing principles in terms of their psychophysiological impact on human consciousness Alexander Vesnin We do not need a dead mausoleum of art where dead works are worshipped but a livingfactory of the human spirit in the streets in the tramways in the factories workshops and worker s homes Vladimir Mayakovsky Constructivism Paintings Architecture was seen as one of the instruments for the building of socialism by means of the collectivization of life by means of the rationalization of labor by means of the utilization of scientific data The Constructivists advocated the build up of plastic bodies stereometrically and rejected the closed mass or volume Composition was to expand from Within defining inner directions of force They also called for the inclusion of time and real movement in their architecture Proun 1E 1921 El Lissitzky Sculpture Horizontal Arkhiteckton 1925 1926 Kazimir Malevich Buildings Project Paris France Moscow Russia Monument to the Third International 1919 1920 Vladimir Tatlin Lenin Tribune 1924 El Lissitzky Lenin Institute of Librarianship 1927 Ivan Leonidov Pravda Tower 1924 Vesnin Brothers Cloud Hanger 1925 El Lissitzky Architectural Fantasy 1930 lakov Chernikov Melnikov Zuev Club 1926 1927 llia Golosov Rusakov Worker s Club 1927 1928 Konstantin Melnikov House of the Architect 1927 Konstantine Melnikov USSR Pavilion Exposition des Arts Decoratif 1925 Konstantin A quot A Culture 111 Lecture 24 German Fxm Expressionism A loose term at best used to describe the collected work of architects like Michel de Klerk Hans Poelzig Bruno Taut and Eric Mendelsohn during the years 1910 to 1925 It is believed that their work manifested a tendency away from strict rationalist approaches to art Their work exhibits a desire to use form as an emotionally expressive medium One should be careful not to think of their work solely in terms of form since in some cases the expressive qualities have more to do with the attitude of the architect than with any pre determined stylistic series of shapes Eric Mendelsohn 11887 18531 Mendelsohn studied architecture in Berlin and Munich and received his degree in 1912he then opened his own office without working for another architect His practice was interrupted by service in the German army during WWI He became interested in Expressionism and made sketches during the war in the trenches These were exhibited in 1919 as Architecture in Steel and Reinforced Concrete He became a leading architect of the Expressionistic movement from 1919 through the 1930 s when he did his best work He eventually fled to England when Hitler took over Germany He went into partnership with Serge Cherm ayeff and they practiced in England and Palestine between 1933 and 1940 He came to the US in 1941 and practiced in San Francisco Bruno Taut 11880 19381 Paintings A Visionary architect Taut turned to paper architecture to explore visions of an ideal utopian world one that would overcome the sense of alienation produced by the new Modern world and reground man spiritually His sketches often employ the metaphoric image of the crystal as the symbol of a new pure world arising from the old Taut s watercolors published in his Alpine Architecture and Die Siadlkrane both in 1919 inspired a generation to pursue the development of an architecture of glass His Glass Pavilion of 1914 was the first step in making the concept feasible The Scream 1893 Eduard Munch Woman before a Mirror 1912 Kirchner Buildings Cologne Germany Project Potsdam Germany Berlin Germany Amsterdam Glass Pavilion Werkbund Exhibition 1914 Bruno Taut Factory 1915 Erich Mendelson HEinstein Tower 1920 1924 Erich Mendelson Schauspielhaus 1919 Hans Poelzig Project for an Of ce building for Friedrichstrasse 1921 Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe Project for Glass Skyscraper 1922 Ludwig 1Lies van der Rohe Eigen Haard Housing 1917 1920 1Lichel de Klerck Netherlands A In 1 Culture 111 Lecture 25Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus The Bauhaus Paintings The Bauhaus was the most famous art school of the 203911 century The year of its founding was 1919 when Walter Gropius was asked to succeed Henri Van der Velde as the head of the School of Arts and Crafts He proposed the unification of the Wiemar Art Academy with its newly created Architecture and Craft department with van der Velde s School of the Arts and Crafts The resulting institution would according to Gropius eventually produce under one roof everything related to building architecture sculpture painting furnishings and handicrafts On March 20 1919 Gropius requested that the combined schools be called the Bauhaus Walter Gropius integrated a new curriculum covering all aspects of architecture and design was evolved Under his direction a new faculty comprised of such subsequently famous artists and designers as Paul Klee Lyonel Feiniger Wassily Kandinsky and Lazlo Maholy Nagy was built up and the Bauhaus rapidly became an international force In 1925 faced with a state government hostile to the Bauhaus Gropius moved the institution from Weimar to Dessau Here in the famous group of buildings designed by him the Bauhaus ourished In 1928 Gropius left the Bauhaus for practice turning the reigns over to Hannes Meyer Under Meyer the architecture department became central to the work of the school which now began an analytical and systematic research program into architecture and design that affected all departments The teaching program was system atized Activity in the school was rationalized into just four departments architecture advertising which now took in the form er print and graphic workshops together with the newly form ed photography workshop the textile department and the department of interior design Painting was now also taught formally for the first time This had the adverse effect of marginalizing painting that had previously been a central activity in the school Meyer was dismissed as director in 1930 under accusations of communism He was replaced by the more politically neutral figure of Mes van der Rohe Under his direction the stress laid on architecture became even greater than under Meyer The workshops became subsidiary production slowed and the work of the school was further rationalized to just two areas those of the exterior of the building and interior design The Bauhaus remained open until the Nazi closed it in 1932 Work of Wassily Kandinsky Work of Joseph Albers Work of Laszlo Maholy Nagy Industrial Arts Table Lamp 1924 William Wagenfeld and Karl Jucker Tea and Coffee Service 1924 Marianne Brandt Wassily Chair 1925 Marcel Breuer B33 Side Chair 1927 Marcel Breuer Culture 111 Modern man who no longer dresses in historical garments but wears modern clothes also needs a modern home appropriate to him and his time equippedwith all the modern devices ofdaily use Walter Gropius Walter Gropius 11883 19601 A Buildings Berlin Germany Weimar Germany Chicago Illinois Dessau Germany Basle Switzerland New York NY Great Educator and Architect his experiments at the Bauhaus changed architectural education in the world for decades to come He was born on May 18 1883 in Berlin His father Walter Adolf Gropius was also an architect The younger Gropius received his training in architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Munich and then served as apprentice in the office of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1910 His first important commission was the factory for the Fagus Company manufacturers of shoe lasts lt established him as a powerful and original designer and lead to his second famous building the pavilion for the German Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne in 1914 These projects attracted the favorable attention of the Belgian architect Henri van der Velde who was a power in the Werkbund and the head of the Weimar academy of Art When the outbreak of World War I made his resignation inevitable van der Velde recommended Gropius as his successor After serving three and a half years in the German army the 36 year old Gropius became head of the Weimar Academy and also the Saxon School of the Arts These he combined to form a new institution The Staatliches Bauhaus Gropuis ran the Bauhaus until 1928 when he returned to practice in Berlin He evetually left Germ any for London where he practiced for three years before leaving for the US to take a position a director of the GSD at Harvard in 1937 He held this position until 1952 when he again returned to practice in Cambridge Mass His new firm was the Architects Collaborative Sommerfield House 1921 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer Monument to the March Heroes 1922 Walter Gropius Chicago Tribune Competition 1922 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer The Bauhaus Building 1925 Walter Gropius Project for Petersschule 1926 Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer The Pan Am Building 1958 1963 Walter Gropius Emery Roth amp Sons and Pietro Belluchi Culture 111 Charles Jeanneret Le Corbusier When the concept of new times will be relevant when contemporary harmony will be grasped exalted by a new mentality conqueredby the decision to move forward and not backward when we shall be turned toward life and not congealed in death times will be oriented unanimously toward clarity toward joy toward limpidity The hour is near believe it It sounds simultaneously in all countries in Argentina as in France as in Japan Le Corbusier Le Corbusier Charles Edouard Jeanneret 11887 1965 Born at Chaux des Fonds Switzerland Le corbusier s father and mother engraved watches at the age of 13 he left elementary school to serve as an apprentice to an engraver at a local art school Here he teacher started him on the way to understanding art and architectural history Around 1906 he made several knapsack trips throughout Europe sketching and observing architecture He was profoundly impressed by what he saw in Greece He worked for Josef Hoffmann in Vienna in 1907 and in 1908 he went to Paris where he joined the atelier of Auguste Perret for 18 months Here he learned to love concrete as a great expressive modern material In 1910 he traveled to Germany where he worked in Peter Behren s studio for about 6 months along with Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius During WWI he taught school in Switzerland After the war he founded the magazine L Espirit Nouveau with Amadee Ozenfant and Paul Dermee Articles that appeared in this magazine by Le Corbusier were reprinted in a book Vers Une Architecture in 1923 it is translated into English as Towards a New Architecture He was also one of the original organizing members of the Congress of Modern Architecture or ClAM as well as the author of the Athens Charter Writings Esprit Nouveau Magazine publication 19202 1925 Vers Une Architecture Towards a New Architecture1923 Urbanism The City of Tomorrow 1925 Modular ampII 1948 amp 1955 A In Le Corbusier s Five Points for a New 1 The Supports Corbusier calls for the elevation of the building on what he terms Pilotis exposed foundation piers that elevate the structure above the ground and allow it to pass beneath They are conceived as independent of the interior arrangement of the building 2 The Roof Garden designed to help maintain a constant temperature and humidity in a concrete building they also serve to recapture the built up area of land in an urban environment He views these as the most favored space in the structure 3 Free Plan The support system carries the intermediate ceilings and rises up to the roof The interior walls may be placed wherever required each floor being entirely independent of the rest There are no support walls Structure is the mino System 4 The Horizontal Window Rectangular openings in wall that extend from support to support allow for maximum light and air Now called strip or ribbon win ows 5 Free Design of the Facade By projecting the floor beyond the supporting pillars like a balcony all round the building the whole facade is extended beyond the supporting construction It thereby loses its supportive quality and the windows may extend to any length at will The facade may thus be designed freely A In 1 Culture III Lecture 26 Image and Idea in Corbusier s Early Works Buildings Project Stuttgart Germ any Garches Near Paris Paris France Poissy France Geneva Switzerland Moscow Russia Maison Domino New construction system Le Corbusier Single House Citroen House Wiessenhof Siedlung Housing Estate 1927 Le Corbusier Villa Stein de Monzie 1926 Le Corbusier Pavilion de L Esprit Nouveau Exhibition des Arts Decoratifs 1928 Le Corbusier Villa Savoye 1929 1930 Le Corbusier Project for League of Nations 1927 Le Corbusier Project for the Palace of the Soviets competition Entry 1931 Lecture 27 Form and Meaning in Corbusier s Later Works Buildings Paris France Marseilles France Chandigarh India Near Lyons France Near Ronchamp France Zurich Switzerland Cambridge Mass Swiss Pavilion Cite Universite 1930 1931 Le Corbusier Unite de Habitation 1945 1952 Le Corbusier Government Center 1951 1956 Le Corbusier High Court Building General Assembly Building Secretariat Monument of the Open Hand La Tourette Monastery 1957 1960 Le Corbusier Notre Dame du Haut 1950 1955 Le Corbusier Heidi Weber s Pavilion Le Corbusier 1956 Le Corbusier The Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts Harvard University 1959 1963 Le Corbusier A quot Culture 111 Mies Van der Rohe We are not at the end but at the beginning ofan epoch We have science we have technology we have industrialization All are accepted as part of progressive existence the question is how to guide them in a direction that is bene cial to all ofus Mies van der Rohe Architecture is the will ofan age conceived in spatial terms Mies van der Rohe Less is More Mies van der Rohe Mies van der Rohe 11886 196 Mies was born at Aix la Chapelle in Germany the son of a master mason He was associated with building from childhood In 1905 he was apprenticed to Bruno Paul in Berlin he was a designer of furniture and interiors In 1907 Mies received his first commission as an architect From 1908 to 1911 he worked in the office of Peter Behrens along with Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier 1lies learned much from Behrens classical approach and his precision in detail during these years He also got some field experience supervising Behrens German Embassy in Leningrad Mies was head of the Bauhaus at the time it was closed by the Nazis He came to the US in the 1940 s where he directed the architectural program at HT in Chicago Mies concentrated on pure form and pure detail He developed the beautiful prototype for the building in the new technology but it is always a hand finished prototype not the production line article Mies great aesthetic contribution has been in the area of refinement He is close to the Greeks in his attitude toward refinement and in his apparent classical approach Industrial Design Barcelona Chair 1929 1lies van der Rohe Weissenhof Chair 1929 Mies van der Rohe In A A Culture 111 Lecture 28 The Eaer Mies Buildings Project Berlin Germany Brno Czech Republic Barcelona Spain Lecture 29 Mies in the US Chicago Ill Plano ill New York NY Berlin Germany Van der Rohe Of ce building for Friedrichstrasse 1991 1 es van der Rohe Skyscraper of Steel and Glass 1921 Mies van der Rohe Concrete Of ce Building 1922 1923 Mies van der Rohe Brick Villa 1923 1 es van der Rohe Monument to Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg 1926 Mies van der Rohe HTugendhat House 1928 1930 1 es van der Rohe Barcelona Pavilion International Exhibition 1929 Mies van der Rohe Campus of HT 1939 1956 Mies van der Rohe Memorial Hall 1946 Metallurgy Hall Minerals and Research Building 1943 Boiler Plant 1950 Library and Administration 1944 Chapel 1936 56 Crown Hall College of Architecture 1952 1956 Lake Shore Drive Apartments 1948 1951 Mies van der Rohe Project of the Chicago Convention Hall 1953 Mies van der Rohe Farnsworth House 1946 1951 Mies van der Rohe Seagram s Building 1954 1858 1 es van der Rohe New National Gallery 1962 1967 1 es van derRohe A In 1 Culture III Lecture 30 The International Style The International Style n the 1930 s the term International Style came to describe a new approach to building evolved by architects such as Le Corbusier Mies van der Rohe Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus School The 1932 exhibition The International Style heald at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and organized by HR Hitchcock and Philip Johnson did much to popularize and define the Style Their catalogue of the same title defined the three principles of the Style as 1 Architecture as Volume 2 The Principle of Regularity and 3 The avoidance of Applied Decoration The International Style with its rationalist formal idiom and solutions to construction problems was the model for modern building well into the late 1980 s Using modern materials such as steel glass and concrete it established an aesthetic founded o the trill of pushing architecture to the limits of technical and economic viability Buildings Stuttgart Germ any Berlin Germany Rotterdam Netherlands Viipuri Finland Helsinki Finland Paris France Am sterdam Netherlands Beeston England Como Italy Weissenhof Estate Exhibition 1927 Mart Stam Hans Scharoun Ludwig Hilberseim er Le Corbusier Mies van der Rohe and others Britz Siedlung 1928 Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner Van Nelle Tobacco Tea and Coffee Factory 1926 1929 Johannes Andreas Brinkman and Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt Viipuri Public Library 1927 Alvar Aalto Paimio Sanatorium 1929 1933 Alvar Aalto Maison de Verre Glass House 1928 1932 Pierre Chareau Open Air School 1929 1930 Johannes Duiker Boots Factory 1930 1932 Sir Evan Owen Williams Casa Del Fascio 1932 1936 Giuseppe Terragni A quot Culture 111 Lecture 31 New Images of the City Contemporary City for three Million Inhabitants 1922 Le Corbusier Plan Voisin Plan for Paris City Center 1925 Le Corbusier Ville Radieuse 1930 Le Corbusier


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