Culinary Arts NFS 1240
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lura Grant on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 1240 at Southern Utah University taught by Cynthia Wright in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/225493/nfs-1240-southern-utah-university in Food Science & Technology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Cakes There are two types of raised cakes 1 foam unshortened cakes and 2 buttered shortened cakes I Foam cakes I Foam cakes have a high proportion of eggs to our They are leavened solely by the air beaten into Whole eggs or egg Whites They contain very little if any fat and have a spongy texture I This is a category of cakes that are made with lots of stif y beaten egg Whites which makes them light and airy I An optimum foam cake is ne even textured It is leavened by steam I The three categories of foam cakes are I Those that contain no fat I Angel food cakes I Meringues I Dacuoises I Those Where the only fat is from egg yolks I Sponge cakes I Some biscuits I Those that contain fat butter shortening plus egg yolks I Genoises I Chiffons I Two methods for producing foam cakes I Separating egg method I Sponge cake A light and airy cake that contains three basic ingredients roomtemperature eggs sugar and our and is leavened solely by the air beaten into the eggs A basic sponge cake is made by beating the egg yolks and sugar until thick and lemon colored when beaters are raised the mixture will form a ribbon as it falls back into the bowl and then stif y beaten egg Whites with a little sugar are folded in Contains no fat A very versatile cake that can be avored with extracts nuts citrus zests liqueurs and can be baked in round cake pans or else a sheet pan Can be eaten plain or lled with Whipped cream buttercream jam or preserves fruit fruit purees nuts chocolate etc I Angel food cake Sometimes referred to as Angel Cake and because of its airy lightness is said to be the quotfood of the angels This cake has no egg yolks fat or arti cial leavening agent so it relies totally on stif y beaten egg Whites for leavening Its sole ingredients are egg Whites cream of tartar sugar our salt and avoring such as extracts Angel Food Cake has the highest sugar content of all the sponge cakes and this added sugar is needed to support and stabilize the Whipped egg Whites Because the egg Whites give the cake its volume and structure care must be taken when adding them to the dry ingredients so they do not de ate Traditionally baked in a ringshaped tube pan it is placed upside down to cool to prevent it from falling and sticking to the pan Usually served plain or with fresh fruit fruit purees andor Whipped cream A moist uffy featherlight delicate cake that is fat and cholesterol free I Meringue Simply a beaten mixture of egg Whites and sugar sometimes with cream of tartar that are baked in a slow oven to produce a delicately crisp White confection that seems to literally melt in your mouth There are two types of meringue soft and hard The difference between the two is the amount of sugar added to the egg Whites So meringue is made with only a small amount of sugar The Whites and sugar are beaten only to the soft peak stage and is then used as a topping for pies and cakes puddings mousses and the famous Baked Alaska The meringue is baked until the peaks are browned and the valleys are lightly browned I Whole egg method I Genoise Pronunciation zhaneWAHZ Named after its place of origin Genoa Italy it is a type of light and airy spongelike cake Different from a sponge cake in that the eggs are beaten Whole and a small amount of melted butter is added This makes it more tender and avorful but is less sweet than a regular sponge cake Whole eggs and granulated White sugar are warmed over a water bath and then beaten until very thick Flour and sometimes cornstarch are rst folded in and then melted butter usually clarified butter Can be avored with extracts ground almonds citrus zests or liqueurs The genoise is leavened solely by the air beaten into the egg and sugar mixture Must be careful not to de ate the batter when adding the our and melted butter This is a very versatile cake that is the base for many desserts It is usually baked in a round pan and can be eaten plain but is often times split 2 or 3 layers brushed with sugar syrup and lled with jams or preserves fruit purees fresh fruit Whipped cream buttercream andor nuts I The main difference between foam cakes and butter cakes is baking powdersoda is not used for leavening rise in foam cakes Both foam cake methods use beaten eggs to give the cake volume not a chemical leavening agent as in butter cakes When the eggs are beaten air cells form in the batter and these cells will expand in a hot oven giving the cake its volume and structure To make sure the beaten eggs reach their full volume it is important they are fresh the correct size and at room temperature I Separating eggs Cold eggs are easier to separate but room temperature eggs give more volume when beaten Therefore separate the eggs when they are cold and then cover the egg whites and yolks with plastic wrap prevents yolks and whites from drying out and bring to room temperature takes about 30 minutes before us1ng I To separate an egg Have two small bowls ready Over one bowl break the egg in half and allow the egg white to fall into the bowl as you carefully transfer the egg yolk back and forth between the two halves of the shell When the egg white has completely separated from the yolk put the yolk in the second bowl If separating another egg start with a clean third bowl for the new egg white so if you get some yolk in the egg white bowl you don39t contaminate the first white The whites will not whip properly if there is any yolk in them To remove yolk39 take an empty egg shell and dip it into the white where the yolk is The yolk will be attracted to the shell Another method is to crack the egg and then place the egg in your cupped hand Separate your fingers and let the white run through your ngers into a bowl Place the yolk in another bowl I The separated egg method is the most common and some recipes use both the egg yolks and whites sponge while others only use the egg whites angel food meringue I Egg yolks are beaten with most a little is used when whipping the whites of the granulated white sugar superfine or castor produces a finer textured cake and a smoother meringue until the mixture is thick and lemon colored takes about 5 minutes Beating creates tiny air cells which expand when the batter is placed in a hot oven I In a clean bowl whip the egg whites with a little sugar to produce a meringue Start on low speed to break the whites up When foam appears on the whites add the cream of tartar approximately 18 teaspoon for every two large egg whites When whipping the whites cream of tartar acid is used to stabilize them and helps the whites reach full volume Gradually increase the speed to mediumhigh until almost stiff and then add the sugar in a steady stream until the whites are stiff but not dry Should be thick and shiny The egg whites and our are then gently folded into the egg yolk mixture using a whisk or rubber spatula taking care not the de ate the batter Gently pour the batter into the prepared pan as per your recipe and smooth using an offset spatula Bake as instructed in your recipe I Butter or shortened cakes I Butter or shortened cakes contain fat butter margarine shortening and rely on a chemical leavening agent baking powder baking soda for their rise They are avorful and have a good texture and volume he Americanstyle butter cake evolved from the English pound cake recipe of 1 pound of our 1 pound of sugar 1 pound of butter and 1 pound of eggs I Other examples of butter cakes are the white and yellow cake coffee cakes teacakes and fruitcakes Some butter cakes are rich and avorful enough to stand alone fruitcakes teacakes or with a sifting of confectioners sugar or drizzled with a glaze Others layer or sheet butter cakes taste even better with a layer of frosting lemon curd jam and preserves nuts or even ice cream Methods of Mixing Most Americanstyle butter cakes are prepared using one of three methods The most popular of the three is the creaming method This is the easiest and produces the lightest cake with the best volume The one bowl quick or blending method is the quickest and easiest cake to make and produces a meltinyourmouth texture but it is denser with less volume than a cake made with creaming method The combination method is similar to the creaming method but involves whipping the egg whites separately from the yolks and then adding them to the batter I Creaming method I Of the three methods the creaming method is the most common and produces the lightest cake with the greatest volume To start the butter should be unsalted of good quality and at room temperature 65 70 degrees F 18 21 degrees C Butter that has a high butterfat content produces more air bubbles and tends to produce less curdling The type of sugar used can vary by recipe from regular granulated white sugar to superfine castor white sugar I To begin place the butter and sugar in a mixing bowl and start beating these two ingredients on low speed The creaming of the butter and sugar produces air bubbles in the fat created by the rubbing of the sugar crystals against the fat These holes will get larger and multiply as you continue beating Starting on low speed and then gradually increasing the speed allows the air bubbles to form and strengthen Starting at too high a speed could damage or break the fragile air bubbles which will cause the nished cake to be heavy with a compact texture The goal is to have maximum aeration that is lots of air bubbles in the fat A well aerated batter means a cake with good volume and a so crumb Beating time can range anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes so be sure to follow your recipe I The conventional method of mixing involves a creaming of the fat incorporation of sugar and creaming adding of eggs and creaming It is at this point that the air cells are formed After creaming the dry and liquid ingredients are added alternately mixing after each addition I One bowl quick or blending method I The one bowl or quick method produces a cake which is very moist dense with a fine and velvety texture As the name implies this method is faster and easier than the creaming method as the creaming step of the butter and sugar is eliminated All the dry ingredients are first put into a mixing bowl and then soft butter and a little liquid are added This is thoroughly beaten together and then the eggs avoring and remaining liquid are added Since the liquid is added after the butter and our are combined it reduces the gluten formation in the flour because the fat has had a chance to coat all the flour before the toughening action from the liquid can take place This is why this method produces a meltinyourmouth cake less gluten is formed However using the one bowl method does not produce a cake with as much volume as the creaming method This is because the butter tends to melt into the batter so it doesn39t form as many air bubbles needed for maximum volume as in the creaming method The temperature of the ingredients plus the mixing speed are very important with this method so be sure to follow your recipe39s instructions I The onebowl method of mixing is essentially a muffin method of mixing The milk oil and egg are mixed together The dry ingredients are mixed and then these two are mixed Cakes made by the muffin method of mixing generally have a coarser texture Additionally they generally have a shorter shelf life otherwise stale quic er I Combination method I The combination method is when whipped egg whites are added to the creamed ingredients This method gives additional volume and light texture to your cake Some recipes that call for the creaming method can be changed to this method by simply separating the eggs beating the whites separately with a little of the recipe39s sugar and then adding the whites to the finished batter With all three methods once the batter is mixed it is then placed in greased and floured pans sometimes lined with parchment paper The batter should fill approximately 12 to 23 of the cake pans to allow room for the batter to expand Pan size matters they come in a wide range of sizes from a round cake pan to a loaf pan Different size pans hold different capacities volumes of batters and this must be taken into account when substituting one pan size for another in a recipe If you use a larger pan than asked for in a recipe this will change the depth of the batter shallower and therefore the batter will bake much more quickly Likewise if you use a smaller pan than asked for in a recipe this will also change the depth of the batter deeper and therefore the batter will take longer to bake If you have a problem with over browning of the edges of your cake you can place reusable BakeEven Strips available at most cake supply stores around the outside of the cake pans Make sure you take into account that dark andor dull colored pans absorb more heat than aluminum andor shiny pans and therefore the batter will bake faster Lower the oven temperature by 25 degrees F if using a glass pan to prevent over browning The oven temperature affects both the texture and look of the cake How hot the oven temperature determines how long it takes for the batter to set The longer it takes for the eggs milk and flour to coagulate the more time the air cells in the batter have to grow larger and produce volume in the cake Too hot and the outer edges of the cake will set before the middle has a chance to fully bake This is why it is important to have an accurate oven temperature Having a free standing oven thermometer in your oven will give you a proper reading on temperature as some ovens are not calibrated properly The oven should always be preheated about 15 minutes before placing the pans in the oven If baking more than one layer at a time arrange the cake pans so they are about 2 inches 5 cm apart and 2 inches 5 cm from the sides of the oven This ensures adequate air circulation and promotes even baking Do not open the oven door especially during the rst 15 minutes of baking as the oven temperature drops about 25 degrees F every time the oven door is opened Butter cakes are done when a toothpick inserted in the center of the cake comes out clean Remove the baked cake from the oven and cool on a wire rack for about 10 minutes before releasing There are formulas for butter cakes that professionals follow and deviations from these formulas of about 20 can be supported This is why you have so many different recipes for one type of cake Some alterations in using eggs can be made Egg whites and yolks play different roles in cake making and changes in the balance of whites and yolks will affect the baked cake For example in layer cakes you can replace one whole egg with either 2 egg yolks or else l 2 egg whites to change the texture Using yolks will produce a more avorful cake with a darker color but a cake with less structure Using whites will produce a softer cake because egg whites do not firm up as much as egg yolks when baked Types of fats butter margarine shortening sugars regular superfine or brown and ours allpurpose or cake used also affect the cake The Role of Ingredients in Cake I The role of baking power is to enlarge the bubbles in the fat causing the cake to rise to its potential I Fats tenderize the cake softening and moderating the structure and enhance avor I Sugar tenderizes and moistens a cake I Lowprotein our is preferred for cakes se cake our pastry our or Southern allpurpose our I Eggs are drying and leavening agents they help emulsify blend the batter39 if a cake is dry leave out one egg white Cake Pans T0 Grease or Not to Grease When a recipe asks you to prepare your pans you probably will grease them with shortening margarine or butter and then lightly our them This allows the batter to rise by climbing up the sides of the pan and will prevent sticking To grease a pan spread fat evenly with a paper towel square of waxed paper or your fingers getting into all corners Put about 2 tablespoons of our into the pan and tap lightly frequently turning the pan to cover all the grease Transfer excess our to the next pan and repeat the process To release excess our from a pan tap it lightly upside down over the sink Sometimes you will be asked to line the pan with parchment paper or wax paper You might butter the pan then line with paper then butter and our the paper All methods are designed to allow easy release of the nished cake Preparing the pan should be the rst step in baking a cake so that you immediately can pour the batter into the pan and pop it into the oven Batter that sits around loses volume Pans for angelfood and chiffon cakes are not greased Paper liners o en are used to ease the removal of the cake Dark pans absorb more heat than light ones and cook cakes faster They also can leave a dark crust Glass pans bake faster than dark metal pans For best results choose heavy dull metal straightside pans Preparing pans for baking cakes Solid shortening is better than butter for coating pans because it does not contain any water39 butter and margarine contain water and this may cause the cake to stick in places Solid shortening is also less expensive tasteless and odorless Finally solid shortening does not burn as easily as butter and it holds a dusting of our better Pans should be filled no more than 12 to 23 full This allows the batter to rise during baking without spilling over the edges Preparing pans for shortened cakes If the baking pans are prepared before the cake batter is mixed the batter can be transferred to them immediately a er mixing Allowing the batter to stand in the mixing bowl more than 15 to 20 minutes before placing it in the baking pans is undesirable as transfer of the batter at that point may have adverse effects on the volume and texture of the baked product Pans may be greased on the sides and bottoms or the sides may be left dry If the sides of the pan are not greased the cake volume may be somewhat greater because the cake structure is supported by clinging to the sides of the pan Flouring the greased bottom of the pan aids in removing the cake from the pan but the our coating should be light An alternative procedure is to cut a piece of waxed paper to t the bottom of the pan Preparing pans for unshortened cakes Pans are not greased for either type of sponge cake It is desirable to have the mixture cling to the sides of the pan until it is coagulated by the heat of the oven A er baking the pan is inverted and allowed to stand until the cake is thoroughly cooled This give the delicate cake structure a chance to set with the least amount of strain placed on it Baking 21 Cake Always preheat your oven Most cakes bake at a temperature of from 325 to 375 averaging 350 Place cake pans in the center of the rack with the rack in the center of the oven to ensure even heating If you doubt your oven39s accuracy use a thermometer to set the proper temperature Resist the urge to peek at a cake until it is almost done baking Opening the oven door allows cool air to sweep in and disturb the temperature The cake could fall High Altitude Cake Baking The higher in elevation you are the less air pressure there is The low air pressure causes water to boil at lower temperatures thus increasing the time it takes to boil and cook whatever food you39re preparing The lowered air pressure also tends to cause baked goods to rise faster This requires a change in the proportion of ingredients used in leavened foods Occasionally you may even need to adjust the baking temperature in your oven as well which means the liquids will evaporate faster When too much liquid evaporates from your batter the rest of the ingredients become concentrated This generally means you end up with too much sugar in the batter Too much sugar will prevent the cake from setting and you39ll find a gooey mess on your hands At the same time the air bubbles trapped in the batter will be rising faster and developing a sneaky little habit of escaping into the atmosphere When these air bubbles rise too fast your cake will rise fast and high then fall This will create a dense dry mess of a cake Cooking at high altitudes generally requires two basic adjustments increase in time for boiled foods 2 A change in the proportions of ingredients used in leavened foods such as cakes and yeast breads In some instances a change in baking temperature may also be necessary Most cake recipes need no modification for sea level up to the altitude of 3000 feet Above that it is o en necessary to adjust recipes slightly Usually a decrease in leavening or sugar or both and an increase in liquid are needed Remember ingredients such as eggs or butter are considered liquids For any baked goods that rise yeast breads cakes or breads made with baking powder etc it is important to adjust the recipe so that the rapid rise time doesn39t make the resulting bread or cake too dry This can be done as follows For yeast cakes I Yeast cakes rise more quickly at high altitudes so be sure to watch your dough carefully and judge the rise time by the change in the dough39s bulk not by the amount of time it takes Proofing time for yeast cakes should be reduced For cakes using baking powder I Don39t overbeat the eggs Overbeating adds too much air to the cake I Raise the baking temperature slightly39 the faster cooking time will keep the recipe from rising too much At elevations over 3500 feet the oven temperature for batters and doughs should be about 25 degrees F higher than the temperature used at sea level I Decrease the amount of baking powder slightly39 this also prevents the recipe from rising too much For foam cakes I Don39t overbeat the eggs Foam cakes have a very delicate egg protein structure I Reduce sugar slightly to help compensate for the liquid loss I Increase whole eggs or egg whites to compensate for the liquid loss Cakes tend to stick more when they are baked at high altitudes So be sure to always grease your baking pans well and dust them with flour or line them with parchment paper Exceptions are angel food cakes and sponge cakes which should always be baked in ungreased pans Also ll pans only 2 full of batter not the usual 23 full as high altitude cakes may overflow Follow the guidelines below for more specific adjustments When adapting a recipe for high altitudes always start out with the smallest adjustment then add more adjustments later and only if necessary Keep in mind that any or all of these adjustments may be required for every recipe is different in its balance of ingredients Only repeated experiments with each different recipe can give the most successful proportions to use It39s a good idea to keep notes of how you adjusted your recipes until you know what works best for your particular location Collapsing cakes over owing batters brittle cookies If you live at an altitude of 3000 feet or higher you may have experienced these problems At high altitudes lower air pressure and generally lower humidity cause liquids to evaporate more rapidly These conditions allow baked goods to rise more easily and lose moisture faster Rapid rising can make gas bubbles coalesce resulting in a course texture In extreme cases it can cause batters to over ow the pan because they have not setup sufficiently or rupture cell walls resulting in collapse Rapid evaporation concentrates the sugars in a recipe and makes the product prone to sticking to the pan Baking pans Because baked goods expand more at high altitude use larger pans or increase the number of pans and use less batter per pan Baked goods also have a greater tendency to stick to the pan at high altitude Except for angel food and sponge cakes always grease pans generously and dust them with flour or use a baking liner such as parchment paper Oven temperature Higher oven temperatures assist in establishing structure offsetting some of the effects of rapid leavening Increase temperatures anywhere from 15 F to 25 F Delicate cakes and recipes with high chocolate content as well as most cookie recipes are an exception because of their tendency to burn Baking time Due to the higher oven temperatures mentioned above baking time should be reduced accordingly There are no set rules for this so monitor the progress of the baking process and resign yourself to a trial and error method Cakes are most vulnerable to these phenomena because of their delicate balance of liquids and sugars though other recipes can be affected as well Unfortunately there is no one simple set of rules that can accommodate every situation but here are some general guidelines followed by recipespecific tips Guide For Cake Baking At High Altitudes Adjustment for 3000 feet I Reduce baking powder for each teaspoon decrease 18 teaspoon I Reduce sugar for each cup decrease 0 to 1 tablespoon I Increase liquid for each cup add 1 to 2 tablespoons I Increase oven temperature by 25 F Adjustment for 5000 feet I Reduce baking powder for each teaspoon decrease 18 to A teaspoon I Reduce sugar for each cup decrease 0 to 2 tablespoons I Increase liquid for each cup add 2 to 4 tablespoons I Increase oven temperature by 25 F Adjustment for 7000 feet I Reduce baking powder for each teaspoon decrease A teaspoon I Reduce sugar for each cup decrease 1 to 3 tablespoons I Increase liquid for each cup add 3 to 4 tablespoons I Increase oven temperature by 25 F Some people who grew up in high altitude areas think the dip in collapsed cakes was designed as a reservoir for frosting Fallen cakes taste just ne but if you want yours to look good without making a triple batch of frosting refer to the general guidelines above and these more specialized tips I Use allpurpose flour instead of cake our Allpurpose flour provides more structure because of its higher gluten content I Use a Bundt pan39 they have more surface area for cake batter to cling to while baking I Fill pans 2 full instead of the usual 23 I If large air pockets are a problem try zigzagging a table knife through the batter or dropping the pan from an inch or two above the counter just before baking to help eliminate excess air bubbles Determining Doneness In addition to following the baking time suggested in the recipe several simple tests can be used to determine doneness Whichever tests are used avoid opening the oven door to check the cake s progress Cold air or a drop in oven temperature can cause the cake to fall Use a timer to note the minimum suggested baking time Then and only then should you use the following tests to evaluate the cake s doneness I Appearance 7 The cake s surface should be a light to golden brown Unless noted otherwise in the recipe the edges should just begin to pull away from the pan The cake should not jiggle or move beneath its surface I Touch 7 Touch the cake lightly with your nger It should spring back quickly without feeling soggy or leaving an indentation I Cake tester 7 If appearance and touch indicate that the cake is done test the interior by inserting a toothpick into the cake s center With most cakes the tester should come out clean If wet crumbs cling to the tester the cake probably needs to bake a bit longer If the recipe provides particular doneness guidelines they should be followed For example some flourless cakes are fully baked even though a cake tester will not come out clean Cakes should be removed from the oven and cooled on a rack to allow air to circulate evenly around the pan Tube cakes such as angel food often are cooled upside down This is why angelfoodcake pans have those little feet on the tops Sources Cakes httpwwwjoyofbakingcomcakes html Baking 911 httpwwwbaking9l l comcakeslOlhtm The Cook s Thesaurus httpwwwfoodsubscomCakes html f html Foam Cake httn39 fond PdU Irm High Altitude Cake Baking httn39 allrecine 39 in article 154Plasp How Sweet It Is httpWWW a central f inulm le 01117 html High Altitude Baking and Cooking httpwww f m 39 39 39 inu altitude html Introductory Foods Bennion and Scheule On Cooking Labensky and Hause
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