Intro to Criminal Justice
Intro to Criminal Justice CJ 1010
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Popular in Criminal Justice
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Chapter 3 Explaining Crime Chapter Objectives 1 De ne criminological theory 2 State the causes of crime according to classical and neoclassical criminologists A Describe the biological theories of crime causation and their policy implications A Describe the different psychological theories of crime causation U39l Explain sociological theories of crime causation O Distinguish major differences among classical positivist and critical theories of crime causation l Describe how critical theorists would explain the causes of crime Overview This chapter presents an introduction to criminological theory It begins with explaining the classical and neoclassical approaches to the study of crime It discusses the Enlightenment movement and the classical thinkers Cesare Beccaria is presented as the Father ofthe Classical School and his ideas are discussed A modi cation of classical theory neoclassical theory is discussed The positivists approach to understanding crime is analyzed Certain biological theories are presented including biological inferiority criminal anthropology atavism bodytypes and others Heredity studies include family tree studies statistical comparisons twin studies and adoption studies Modern biocriminology studies are presented including limbic system disorders chemical dysfunctions minimal brain damage and endocrine abnormalities The psychological theories include intelligence and crime and psychoanalytic theories of crime causation Ideas first put forth by Sigmund Freud are IM3 l 1 discussed Psychopaths sociopaths and antisocial personalities are briefly explained The chapter then turns its attention to the sociological theories of crime causation The contributions of Emile Durkheim and his ideas on the collective conscience anomie and crime as normal behavior are presented to the student The Chicago School of Criminality is talked about Authors like Shaw and McKay are reviewed The concept of anomie and strain theory is presented Learning theories and the ideas of imitation and modeling are examined The important contributions of Edwin Sutherland and the theory of differential association is developed This includes introductions of learning theory positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement The chapter ends with discussions of critical approaches to explaining crime such as labeling theory con ict theory radical theory and other critical theories Lecture Outline Introduction to Criminological Theory A Theory An assumption or set of assumptions that attempts to explain why or how things are related to each other B Criminological Theory The explanation of criminal behavior as well as the behavior of police attorneys prosecutors judges correctional personnel victims and other actors in the criminal justice process ll Classical and Neoclassical Approaches to Explaining Crime A Classical Theory A product or the Enlightenment based on the assumption that people exercise free will and are thus completely responsible fortheir actions In classical theory human behavior including criminal behavior is motivated by a hedonistic rationality in which actors weigh the potential pleasure ofan action against the possible pain associated with it B Neoclassical Theory A modi cation of classical theory in which it was conceded that certain factors such as insanity might inhibit the exercise of free will IM3 l 2 lll Positivist Approaches to Explaining Crime A Biological Theories Biological theories of crime causation are based on the belief that criminals are physiologically different from noncriminals Biological lnferiority Criminal Anthropology BodyType Theory Heredity Studies Modern Biocriminology Tlhook B Psychological Theories 1 Intelligence and Crime 2 Phychoanalytic Theories 3 Humanistic Psychological Theory C Sociological Theories 1 Contribution of Durkheim a anomie b collective conscience Lecture Tip Emile Durkheim is still valuable to teach even in the 21st century His idea that crime is normal causes the students to view criminal activity and criminals in a very different manner When Durkheim writes that crimes creates social change ask the students to discuss the crimes of Ghandi Martin Luther King Thomas Paine and Nelson Mandela 2 The Chicago School 3 Anomie or Strain Theory 4 Learning Theories a lmitation or modeling theory b differential association theory 0 learning theory 1 positive reinforcement 2 negative reinforcement 3 extinction 4 punishment 5 Social Control Theories IV Critical Approaches to Explaining Crime A Labeling Theory B Conflict Theory C Radical Theory IM3 l 3 D Other Criminal Theories British or Left Realism Peacemaking Criminology Feminist Theory Postmodernism AQNA Key Terms Theory An assumption or set of assumptions that attempts to explain why or how things are related to each other p65 Criminological theory This is important because most of what is done in criminal justice is based on criminological theory p65 Classical theory A product ofthe Enlightenment period or the Age of Reason a period ofhistory that began in the late 1500s and lasted until the late 1700s p65 Utility The principle that a policy should provide the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number p68 Social contract An imaginary agreement to sacri ce the minimum amount of liberty necessary to prevent anarchy and chaos p68 Special or specific deterrence The prevention of individuals from committing crime again by punishing them p68 General deterrence The prevention of people in general or society at large from engaging in crime by punishing speci c individuals and making examples ofthem p68 Neoclassical theory A modification of classical theory in which it was conceded that certain factors such as insanity might inhibit the exercise of free will p69 Biological inferiority According to biological theories a criminal s innate physiological makeup produces certain physical or genetic characteristics that distinguish criminals from noncriminals p72 Criminal anthropology The study of criminal human beings p72 Atavist A person who reverts to a savage type p72 IM3 l 4 Limbic system A structure surrounding the brain stem that in part controls the life functions of heartbeat breathing and sleep It also is believed to moderate expressions of violence such emotions as anger rage and fear and sexual response p75 Psychopaths Sociopaths Antisocial personalities Persons characterized by no sense of guilt no subjective conscience and no sense of right and wrong They have dif culty in forming relationships with other people they cannot empathize with other people p78 Anomie Durkheim For Durkheim the dissociation ofthe individual from the collective conscience p81 Collective conscience The general sense of morality ofthe times p81 Chicago School A group of sociologists at the University of Chicago who assumed in their research that delinquent behavior was a product of social disorganization p82 Social disorganization The condition in which the usual controls over Anomie delinquents are largely absent delinquent behavior is often approved of by parents and neighbors there are many opportunities for delinquent behavior and there is little encouragement training or opportunity for legitimate employment p82 Anomie Merton and Cohen For Merton the contradiction between the cultural goal of achieving wealth and the social structure s inability to provide legitimate institutional means for achieving the goal For Cohen it is caused by the inability ofjuveniles to achieve status among peers by socially acceptable means p83 Imitation or modeling A means by which a person can learn new responses by observing others without performing any overt act or receiving direct reinforcement or reward p85 Differential association Sutherland s theory that persons who became criminal do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and isolation from anticriminal patterns p85 Learning theory A theory that explains criminal behavior and its prevention with the concepts of positive reinforcement negative reinforcement extinction punishment and modeling or imitation p86 Positive reinforcement The presentation of a stimulus that increases or maintains a response p86 IM3 l 5 Negative reinforcement The removal or reduction of a stimulus whose removal or reduction increases or maintains a response p86 Extinction A process in which behavior that previously was positively is no longer reinforced p87 Punishment The presentation of an aversive stimulus to reduce a response p87 Social control theory A view in which people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so p88 Labeling theory A theory that emphasizes the criminalization process as the cause of some crime p89 Criminalization process The way people and actions as de ned as criminal p89 Conflict theory A theory that assumes that society is based primarily on con ict between competing interest groups and the criminal law and the criminal justice system are used to control subordinate groups Crime is caused by relative powerlessness p90 Power differentials The ability of some groups to dominate other groups in a society p91 Relative powerlessness ln con ict theory the inability to dominate other groups in society p91 Radical theories Theories of crime causation that are generally based on a Marxist theory of class struggle p92 Class struggle For radical criminologists the competition among wealthy people and among poor people and between rich people and poor people which causes crime p92 Left realists A group of social scientists who argue that critical criminologists need to redirect their attention to the fear and the very real victimization experienced by workingclass people p95 Relative deprivation This refers to inequalities In resources opportunities material goods etc that are de ned by a person as unfair or unjust p95 Peacemaking criminology An approach that suggests that the solutions to all social problems including crime are the transformation ofhuman beings IM3 l 6 mutual dependence reduction of class structures the creation of communities of caring people and universal social justice p95 Feminist theory A perspective on criminality that focuses on women s experiences and seeks to abolish men s control over women s labor and sexuality p96 Patriarchy Men s control over women s labor and sexuality p96 Postmodernism An area of critical thought that among other things attempts to understand the creation of knowledge and how knowledge and language create hierarchy and domination p97 Additional Activities Criminal Justice Websites httpwwwcrimetheorycom This website provides resources on the history development and teaching of criminological theory Among the available resources are glossary of terms and links to many crime theory sites The site also offers a unique quottimeline of criminological theoryquot quotexplorations in criminology theoryquot a quotgallery of criminologistsquot a list of upcoming events in the eld of criminology and suggested readings httpwwwcrimetimesorg This is a Web publication focusing on the biological aspects especially causes of crime and violence This comprehensive site includes the full text of many articles on the subject Not only is the current issue available but the site also offers many past issues ofthe Times mpjwwwuclacukBenthamProiect This website offers a great deal of information about Jeremy Bentham a proponent of the doctrine of Utilitarianism or the principle ofthe quotgreatest happiness for the greatest numberquot of people The site includes details of Bentham39s collected works information on his manuscripts and examples of his handwriting photos of Bentham39s preserved body dressed in his own clothes and images of Bentham39s will Anything a student could possibly want to know can be found on this website httpwwwcritcrimorg This is the website for the American Society of Criminology Division on Critical Criminology and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Section on Critical Criminology The site provides information about critical scholarship related to crime and justice The IM3 l 7 critcrimorg site is intended to link students scholars and researchers with interests in critical criminology httpfacultyncwcedutoconnorcriminologyhtm This website is created by Dr Tom O Connor from the North Carolina Wesleyan College It offers a comprehensive overview to students who are just learning about criminological theories It introduces the student to some basic terminology It provides a brief overview the various theories and places them in a timeline httpdurkheimitgocommainhtml This website offers an indepth look at Emile Durkheim one of the most prominent sociologists ofour time Durkheim s basic premise is that society is unique Durkheim coined the term anomie the dissociation of the individual from the collective conscience This site allows the student to not only look at Durkheim s view on crime but also offers a glance at Durkheim s position on suicide religion solidarity and division of labor httpencartamsncomencnetrefpagesRefArticleaspxrefid761555305 This website is dedicated to the German political philosopher and revolutionist Karl Marx cofounder with Friedrich Engels of scientific socialism modern communism It gives the students a brief overview of Karl Marx s scienti c socialism and offers insight into the communist manifesto httpwwwngcrccom This is the home page for national gang crime research center which dedicates its work to the research of gangs This is a nonpro t independent agency that holds its annual training conference in Chicago each August At the conference the most uptodate information on gangs is presented It also offers certification in various gang tracks INTERNET ACTIVITIES One Court TV s crime library is an excellent source for a more indepth study of the most notorious criminals Jeffery Dahmer is one ofthose notorious criminals Visit mpwwwcrimelibrarvcomserial killersnotoriousdahmernaked1html and read the chapters on Jeffery Dahmer After reading it answer the following questions in essay format 1 What was the name of Dahmer s first victim How did they meet What was their encounter like IM3 l 8 2 How did Jeffery Dahmer eventually get caught 3 Dahmer killed his first victim in 1978 His second victim was not killed until 1987 Explain why there was such a long time lapse between the first and the second victim yet relatively short time lapses between all the other victims 4 What were Dahmer s methods of selecting victims 5 What was Dahmer s criminal history like 6 What were the circumstances surrounding Dahmer s death Two The Of ce ofJuvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention publishes fact sheets Such a fact sheet can be found at httpc39todaycompdf7c39t1402pdf This article entitled Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program presents a brief overview of the research design used by the Causes and Correlates projects These projects are designed to improve the understanding of serious delinquency violence and drug use by examining how youth develop within the context of family school peers and community The program comprises three longitudinal projects the Denver Youth Survey the Pittsburgh Youth Study and the Rochester Youth Development Study Read the article and write a brief essay comparing and contrasting the Denver Youth Survey the Pittsburgh Youth Study and the Rochester Youth Development Study Three Abraham Maslow is the cofounder of the humanistic psychological theory He is the creator ofthe hierarchy needs To give the students a greater understanding of Abraham Maslow visit httpwwwshipeducgboereemaslowhtml After reviewing this page answer the following questions Explain the 5 basic needs Maslow describes in this hierarchy of needs What are de cit needs What is homeostasis What are salient needs Give some examples of salient needs What are being needs What is some of the criticisms of Maslow s hierarchy of needs O FnPFDN n OUI39I Visit httpwwwcrimetheomcom Click on Learning then on Explorations in Criminal Theory Under The Chicago School click on You Have to Have a Habitat then answer the following questions 1 What is social ecology IM3 l 9 2 What are concentric zones 3 Which zone seems like it would have the greatest crime problems and why Answers to lnChapter Questions Critical Thinking p 65 What is a theory Why is it important to understand the various theories of criminal behavior Answer A theory is an assumption or set of assumptions that attempt to explain why or how things are related to each other It is important to understand criminological theories because they in uence policy to understand the implications ofa given policy one must understand the theories behind it Critical Thinking p 70 1 Name four of the ways that classical criminologist Cesare Beccaria thought were best to prevent or deter crime Do you agree with Beccaria Why or why not Answer They are 1 to enact clear simple and unbiased laws 2 to educate the public 3 to eliminate corruption from the administration of justice and 4 to reward virtue Students opinions about these will vary some will want to add to the list some will feel that the list misses the point and others will agree with it 2 What are the main differences between classical and neoclassical theories Answer Classical theory focuses on free will while neoclassical theory concedes that certain factors such as insanity can inhibit the exercise of free will Career Box Criminologists p 71 There are many qualities a criminologists needs to succeed One of those skills is the ability to communicate Communication skills are essential to this position as they allow a criminologist to interview research subjects share their findings do presentations and dialogue with students You may include many other qualities which you might want to discuss with your students IM3 l 10 Criminal Justice Online p 73 Do you think that biological theories of crime causation adequately explain criminal behavior Answer Many students will feel that biological theories do not and cannot adequately explain crime on their own but they will probably agree that biological theories can partially explain whether a person becomes delinquent or criminal Photo Caption Body Types p 73 Why would delinquents more likely have a mesomorphic body type rather than an endomorphic or ectomorphic body type Answer According to Sheldon mesomorphs are more likely to be delinquent because their body types are associated with more aggressive personalities Other critics state that mesomorphs because of their greater physical strength are simply more likely to be selected for gang membership Criminal Justice Online p 78 Were you able to note any of the characteristics of a psychopath listed in Table 32 page 79 Answer The students will know a few of these characteristics but most of them will be guessing Brie y explain each of these characteristics ofa Psychopath to the students Photo Caption Emile Durkheim p 81 Do you agree Why Why not Answer Answers will vary Most will not completely agree because of the quote s implied deemphasis on individualism but they will agree that people need some bonding to social norms in order to avoid criminal behavior Photo Caption Basketball p 82 What kind of play activities do you think could later contribute to delinquent activities Answer Answers will vary widely and can include playing with matches or re play that involves violent physical contact such as playing pro wrestling pranks that involve hurting or belittling others and play that IM3 l 11 involves weapons or violent video games Remember that the operative word in the question is could all ofthese activities will have different effects on different children Photo Caption Gangs p 84 What are some other reasons why juveniles join gangs Answer There may be many reasonsjuvenilesjoin gangs Family life and the absence ofa father is a big part ofthe problem Other reasons can include a desire to make quick money although many gang members never actually achieve this goal a need for selfprotection especially in gang infested neighborhoods and a desire to belong to an approving peer group which may sometimes substitute as a family Critical Thinking p 89 1 What are the ve key assumptions ofthe positivist school of thought Human behavior is determined and not a matter of free will oCriminals are fundamentally different from noncriminals Social scientists can be objective oCrime is frequently caused by multiple factors Society is based on consensus not on a social contract 2 How would you describe bodytype theory What is the major criticism of this theory Answer Sheldon s bodytype theory states that everyone s body type is a combination ofthree main types the endomorph mesomorph and ectomorph The main criticism is that mesomorphs who have a higher tendency to be delinquent are more likely to be delinquent because of social selection not because of biological inferiority Remind students that the mesomorphic body type is also ideal for certain legitimate careers such as law enforcement re ghting and most sports It does not necessarily predict delinquency 3 Explain psychoanalytic theory and some of the problems associated with it Answer Psychoanalytic theory basically states that crime like other disorders is symptomatic of more deeply seated problems if these problems are solved criminal behavior will disappear Problems with this theory include IM3 l 12 Most research suggests that most criminals are no more psychologically disturbed than the rest ofthe population Psychological disturbances are not necessarily the causes of criminal behavior Psychoanalytic theory generally ignores social causes of crime and the environmental circumstances in which a crime occurs Psychotherapy does not focus on solving the problems between the offender and the environment in which the crime occurs Much of psychotherapy is scientifically untestable Deepseated problems may or may not be directly related to the criminal behavior 4 Explain learning theory Do you think this theory has merit Answer Learning theory statesthat people learn new responses such as criminal behavior through imitating or modeling other people Student opinions of learning theory will vary Photo Caption Abortion Demonstration p 91 What kinds of group con icts are more likely to lead to crime Answer Answers will vary and students should be able to name several group conflicts that occur in today s society Some common con icts are those between minorities and police which have led to some incidents of police brutality and citizen attacks on police between political extremists and the federal government which have led to terrorist acts such as the Oklahoma City bombing and between religious extremists and women s health care advocates which have led to violent acts against abortion clinics Critical Thinking p 97 1 How would you explain labeling theory Answer Labeling theory states that the criminalization process the ways that people and actions are de ned as criminal creates a negative social reaction that can lead to further crime 2 What is peacemaking criminology Is this theory realistic Answer Peacemaking theory suggests that the solution to crime is the reduction of suffering caused by society It emphasizes inner rebirth and empathy Students will probably agree that this can be realistic on an individual level but difficult to implement in policy IM3 l 13 3 Explain feminist theory and its key criticisms Answer Feminist theory attempts to correct the overemphasis on male offenders in criminological thought by focusing on female offenders victims and on gender disparities in the system Its key criticisms are that it overemphasizes gender and that different feminist theorists disagree on how to change the criminal justice system Answers to Review Questions p 99 1 What are two undesirable consequences of the failure to understand the theoretical basis of criminal justice policies Answer The two undesirable consequences are 1 If criminal justice policy makers do not understand the theories on which proposed policies are based they will be unaware ofthe research related to these theories This research will reveal the conclusions that will probably be reached by following these policies Future problems can be avoided by understanding what kind of success rates and possible problems are likely 2 Criminal justice policies invariably intrude on people s lives by arresting and imprisoning them Therefore the theories that in uence policies must be sound in order to justify this disruption You will also want to remind students that criminological theories cover the entire criminal justice system criminals juveniles victims police courts and corrections However this chapter focuses on crime theories 2 Before the Enlightenment and classical theory what was generally believed to be the cause of crime Answer Crime was considered to be the work of the devil and thus was equated with sin For examples of how law and religion have been combined in the past you can point to the Salem Witch Trials and also to the Spanish Inquisition w Who was arguably the best known and most influential of the classical criminologists and how did his ideas become known Answer The most in uential classical criminologist was Cesare Beccaria who anonymously published An Essay on Crimes and Punishments in 1764 He is still well known for this contribution which was the foundation of what is now called classical criminological theory IM3 l 14 P 0 You can also mention to students that he did very little to promote his book publicly and was at first afraid of public criticism However when he saw that people were responding favorably to his ideas his association with the book became public knowledge What is the difference between special or specific deterrence and general deterrence Answer Speci c or special deterrence is the prevention ofa punished person from committing crime again In other words it focuses only on people who are known to have committed crime Types of specific or special deterrence can include incarceration execution and probation General deterrence is the act of punishing speci c individuals to prevent people in general or society at large from engaging in crime Types of specific or special deterrence can include 1 Public punishments ofthe past such as the public whippings brandings and executions 2 Public punishments ofthe present such as picking up the litter alongside a highway 3 Any punishment in which someone is given a severe or unusual sentence to make an example ofthem General deterrence can be considered a way to educate the public about crime although people may debate the ef cacy ofthis approach To initiate a discussion about this you can ask students to name examples of speci c deterrence and general deterrence if they do not fully understand the concept you can give some examples to help them think of others Next you can ask them which would be most effective and why What are five problems with positivist theories Answer First ofall you will probably want students to understand that positivist theory has several merits Although the current trend in criminal justice could be seen as more punitive with a greater emphasis on personal responsibility positivist theories though not perfect still provide much insight about the causes of crime The five main problems with positivist theory are 1 Overprediction Positivists who state that poverty causes crime do not take into account or explain the many poor people who do not commit crime IM3 l 15 2 Taking the legal de nition of crime for granted Positivists do not examine the question of why certain behaviors are defined criminal while others are not 3 Consensual worldview Positivism assumes that most people agree about most things most of the time Problems with this assumption are apparent when one considers the death penalty which is legal in some countries illegal in others and hotly debated worldwide including in the United States where different states may have completely different approaches toward the death penalty 4 Determinism Central to positivism is the beliefthat individuals do not have choice over their actions but only adapt and react to circumstances outside their control This belief ignores the fact that humans also create new circumstances or ways of thinking 5 Problems with objectivity Positivism assumes that social science is objective but the description and evaluation of criminal behavior is fundamentally moral and therefore subject to bias 6 What is the position held by most criminologists today regarding the relationship between biology and crime Answer Some oftoday s criminologists believe that biochemistry helps determine the difference between criminals and noncriminals by revealing a complex interaction between biochemical and environmental factors Examples of methodologies that attempt to determine the link between biology and crime are criminal anthropology study of body types heredity studies and examinations of brain chemistry Students should understand that the position of biological theories has changed considerably over time For example Lombroso s theory of physical criminal types is an earlier position that is generally not followed today They should also understand that few criminologists deny that biology has some influence on human behavior Therefore although biological theories have seen dramatic change they are still in uential 7 What does research indicate about the relationship between intelligence and both juvenile delinquency and adult criminality Answer Students should state that the research is inconclusive They should be able to name Sutherland s 1931 review of 350 studies on this topic Sutherland concluded that although intelligence may be a factor in individual cases the distribution of intelligence scores among criminals and delinquents is very similarto that ofthe rest of the population In other words criminals did not appearto be more or less intelligent than noncriminals IM3 l 16 In the mid1970s two studies con rmed that delinquents had average le that were eight points lowerthan nondelinquents However this difference is not substantial Low intelligence levels cannot account for increases and decreases in crime nor can it account for crimes that require at least average intelligence such as whitecollar crimes and political crimes 8 What are problems with psychological or psychoanalytic theories of crime and their policy implications Answer These theories have several problems including Most research suggests that most criminals are no more psychologically disturbed than the rest of the population Psychological disturbances when present are not necessarily the causes of criminal behavior Psychoanalytic theory generally ignores social causes of crime and the environmental circumstances in which a crime occurs rather crime is considered to be the criminal s personal problem In addition there are many problems related speci cally to the use of psychotherapy in relation to crime and criminals Much of psychotherapy s results are scienti cally untestable Psychotherapy focuses on rehabilitating the offender not on solving the problems between the offender and the environment in which the criminal behavior occurs Psychotherapy does not focus on resolving criminal behaviors but on more deepseated problems that may or may not be directly related to the criminal behavior Again although this list is long students should understand that psychoanalysis can make a useful contribution in understanding and rehabilitating criminals 9 In what ways did Durkheim believe that crime was functional for society Answer Emile Durkheim believed that crime was a social fact that is crime is a social institution that people must accept Because it is a social fact according to Durkheim it is functional for society for the following reasons Crime marks the boundaries of morality You will want to note to students that this changes signi cantly over time and from culture to culture For instance rape used to be a capital offense in the United IM3 l 17 States but is no longer On the other hand in Pakistan and Afghanistan thousands ofwomen are currently imprisoned for being rape victims This is because of strict laws in those countries against fornication whether consensual or nonconsensual Crime provides a means of achieving necessary social change A perfect example of this is the ongoing civil disobedience violations committed by the American civil rights movement from the 1950s through the 1970s Durkheim believed that although too much crime can destroy society crime can be contained within reasonable boundaries 10 What is a potential problem with the theory of the Chicago School Answer The potential problem is that it assumes that social disorganization causes delinquency when in fact both social disorganization and delinquency may be caused by other larger factors An example given in the textbook is the stillcommon occurrence of redlining in which banks will refuse to lend money in areas because of the race and ethnicity ofthe inhabitants Another example is the gradual disappearance overthe last 30 years of bluecollar industries that formerly supported working class Americans Thousands even millions of bluecollarjobs in industries such as automobile manufacturing textiles and shoe manufacturing have been relocated to countries in which employees will accept much lower wages This has significantly depleted the resources of workingclass urban communities You can ask students to name other examples of how politicians and large businesses can create social disorganization in working class and poor communities 11 What is a criticism of most anomie theories Answer One large problem is that anomie theories tend to rely on of cial statistics ie police and court records as measures of crime In turn these theories focus disproportionately on lowerclass crime and delinquency but essentially ignore whitecollar and political crimes You can use this opportunity to ask students why whitecollar and political crimes seem to get much less attention than street crime Compare a corporation polluting a city s water supply versus a person mugging and murdering another person Which crime causes more harm in the short term The long term Which puts more human lives in jeopardy Which is easier to prosecute IM3 l 18 You can also remind students that official statistics are less than reliable because they neglect to include a great deal of crime 12 Who was the first twentiethcentury criminologist to argue forcefully that crime was learned and what is his theory called Answer This was Edwin Sutherland who was also discussed in Answer 7 His theory was called differential association and he developed it between 1934 and 1947 This theory stated that people become criminals because of contact with other criminal patterns and because of isolation from non criminal patterns Ask students to name Sutherland s nine propositions without looking at their text and see how many they remember 13 What is arguably the major problem with social control theory Answer Social control theory assumes that delinquency will occur if social controls are not strong enough to prevent it In other words juveniles are assumed to become delinquent if the proper social controls do not stop them from doing so In addition social control theory does not explain how some juveniles become attached to criminal patterns while others do not It also does not explain delinquency by juveniles who are properly socialized or non delinquency by juveniles who are not properly socialized 14 What is secondary deviance and how does it occur according to labeling theorists Answer Secondary deviance is the commission of a crime subsequent to a person s first criminal act and their subsequent labeling as a criminal It occurs after a person is convicted of an initial criminal act which is called primary deviance Once this person is labeled a criminal according to labeling theory they accept the theory and begin to behave in ways to fulfill it that is they show recidivism and continue to commit crimes 15 What are major criticisms of conflict theory Radical theory Answer Conflict theory generally fails to specify the sources of power in society it ignores the fact that power in society does not necessarily come from being smarter or better educated but from the ownership of private property Radical theory is basically reformist That is it generally assumes that crime and other social problems can be corrected by existing social institutions This may or may not be true IM3 l 19 For both theories proving them is next to impossible One cannot control all ofthe variables in society to be able to design any research strategy You can ask students Do they feel that the existing criminal justice system would truly be able to eliminate crime if its existing agencies ran more smoothly and ef ciently Or would they need to be changed substantially in order to eliminate crime Why 16 What contributions to criminological theory have been made by British or left realism peacemaking criminology feminist theory and postmodernism Answer British or left realism believes that crimes against the working class are committed not only by the powerful but also by members of their own class Certain types of community policing are examples of policies stemming from left realism Peacemaking criminology suggests that the solution to crime and other social problems is the reduction of suffering caused by class structures social injustice and other factors It emphasizes inner rebirth and empathy Feminist theory in relation to crime theory covers three main areas 1 the victimization ofwomen 2 gender differences in crime and 3 disparities in the differences in the treatment of male and female offenders by the criminal justice system Postmodernism argues that the law cannot be interpreted in one way only and that these different interpretations depend in part on the social context in which they arise In addition the law always has a political agenda An example ofthis can be the continued emphasis of street crime as opposed to whitecollar crime within the criminal justice system NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR You will want to note to students that politics play a significant role in policy making this knowledge will be helpful to them when they begin their criminal justice careers In addition and perhaps more importantly nearly any criminological theorist could be accused of lacking objectivity You will want to refer students to Answer 5 which points out that it is dif cult to apply objective reasoning to the essentially moral task of examining and defining criminal behavior IM3 l 20 Answers to Critical Thinking Exercises p 100 The Dahmer Case 1 Answers can include the following a 0quot Answers will vary Some students may feel that classical or neoclassical theories apply because of Dahmer s apparent free will Some may feel that labeling theory applies because the murders were acts of secondary deviance made after Dahmer was convicted and labeled a criminal Others will feel that psychoanalytic theories would explain a great deal of his behavior Students answers will vary regarding crime prevention since Dahmer s crimes were unknown until he was caught Some may state that his parents provided inadequate social controls Many will feel that life imprisonment was an adequate correctional policy and others will state that he deserved the death penalty Breaking the Law 2 Answers can include the following a 039 Several theories can explain this Classical theory would state that since the punishment is not swift certain or severe crime is not being deterred Positivist theory may state that Stacey is in uenced by several other factors that cause her to speed such as the ow oftraf c or the need to get to work on time Learning theory would state that Stacey is surrounded in her daily travels by other people who also speed but rarely get caught Students will likely think of several other explanations Answers will vary For instance classical theory would recommend that speeders be targeted and ned heavily to deter future speeding Students will be able to name many other possible answers IM3 l 21 Chapter 5 History and Structure of American Law Enforcement Chapter Objectives Brie y describe the jurisdictional limitations of American law enforcement l Trace the English origins of American law enforcement A Discuss the early development of American law enforcement A Describe the major developments that have occurred in policing in America 01 Describe the structure of American law enforcement O Explain the relationship between the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security 1 Discuss the development and growth of private security in the United States Overview The chapter begins with a discussion ofthe English roots of American law enforcement It explains the tithing system which was policing done at the most rudimentary level Families were responsible for keeping the peace and for helping other families catch criminals after the hue and cry was sounded The constable watch system made all male citizens between the ages of 15 and 60 responsible for the safety ofthe neighborhoods Later the Bow Street Runners became an important part of policing in London The most signi cant contribution from the British was the London Metropolitan Police In 1829 Sir Robert Peel created the rst modern police department which became the model for American cities Law enforcement in America began in New England and spread west with the colonists Boston had a night watch as early as 1634 but it was not what we would call a police department It was not until 1844 that New York City combined its day and night watches to form the first paid uni ed police force in the United States IMS l 1 The Southern States and the Western States developed their own police style on the frontier of American expansion Eventually state police agencies like the Texas Rangers and the Pennsylvania State Police were formed The chapter then describes modern policing in its current bureaucratic form America is a system of local policing governed by local authorities The city police department and the county sheriff department are the basis for law enforcement in America Of course this is not true in Europe which uses a more federal system of policing At the next level are the state police State law enforcement is divided into the State Police Model and the Highway Patrol Model The federal government has its own type of policing which includes the FBI DEA INS ATF and other federal agencies Of course under the Department of Homeland Security we now have several federal agencies that have been consolidated into one in an effort to increase effectiveness The chapter ends with a discussion of private security in America and how it assists every day law enforcement in the performance oftheir duties Lecture Outline l The Limited Authority of American Law Enforcement ll English Roots A The Tithing System Frankpledge System 1 Ten families a tithing became a group and agreed to keep the peace 2 Ten tithings were grouped together to form a hundred 3 One or several hundreds constituted a shire The shire was under the direction ofa shire reeve later to be known as the sheriff B The ConstableWatch System 1 Created by the Statute ofV nchester 2 One man from each parish to be selected as constable 3 All male citizens between the ages of 15 and 60 must join the hue and cry The police were the police and the system of policing was local C The Bow Street Runners 1 Founded by Henry Fielding 1748 2 Appointed to apprehend criminals and recover stolen property IMS l 2 Lecture Tip Four years after Henry Fielding s appointment to this post he became ill His halfbrother John Fielding took over for him and ran the organization for over twenty years John Fielding was known as the Blind Beak because he was blind D The London Metropolitan Police 1 London Metropolitan Police Act 1829 This act established the rst largescale uniform organized paid civil police department in London It began with over 1000 men 2 Started by Sir Robert Peel who felt that the basic mission of the police was to prevent crime and disorder I The Development of American Law Enforcement A Early American Law Enforcement 1 Boston had a night watch as early as 1634 but it was not what we would call a police department B Law Enforcement in the Cities 1 New York City combined its day and night watches to form the rst paid uni ed police force in the United States in 1844 The force actually started on May 23 1845 C Law Enforcement in the States and on the Frontier 1 Southern Slave Patrols 2 Frontier Law Enforcement 3 State Police Agencies a Texas Rangers b Pennsylvania State Police 1905 U Professionalism and Reform 1 August Vollmer and the professional model quot39 Conflicting Roles The role of police in a free society has always been dif cult to define Are they crime ghters social worker public servants or a combination of all three n Community Policing A contemporary approach to policing that actively involves the community in a working partnership to control and reduce crime IM S l 3 IV The Structure of American Law Enforcement A Local Policing and Its Functions Municipal or City Police Departments 1 Law Enforcement Crime Fighting 2 Order maintenance or peace keeping 3 Service 4 Information gathering B County Law Enforcement Most Sheriffs are elected C State Law Enforcement 1 State Police model The agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police but can exercise them anywhere within the state 2 Highway Patrol Model The agency and its officers focus on highway traf c safety enforcement of the state s traffic laws and the investigation of accidents on the state s roads highways and property States that employ the highway patrol model usually have State Bureaus of Criminal investigation to handle criminal matters D Federal Law Enforcement 1 Federal agencies operate across the entire nation 2 Usually federal police do not have a peacekeeping function 3 Some federal agencies have an extremely narrow jurisdiction E The Department of Homeland Security Border and Transportation Security BTS Emergency Preparedness and Response EPR Science and Technology SampT Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection IAIP Management Budget management and personnel issues onoNe F American Private Security 1 Contract Security Protective services that a private security firm provides to people agencies and companies that do not employ their own security personnel or that need extra protection 2 Proprietary Security Inhouse protective services that a security staff provides for the entity that employees it G Reasons for Growth 1 Declining Revenues for Public Policing IMS I 4 2 The Private Nature of Crimes in the Workplace 3 Better Control and Attention to the Problem 4 Fewer Constitutional Limitations H lssues lnvolving Private Security 1 Legal Status and Authority 2 Public Policing in a private capacity 3 Qualifications and Training 4 Diminished Public Responsibility Private Security s Role in the Fight against Terrorism Key Terms Jurisdiction The right or authority of a justice agency to act in regard to a particular subject matter territory or person p 147 Tithing system A private selfhelp protection system in early medieval England in which a group of 10 families or a tithing agreed to follow the law keep the peace in their areas and bring law violators to justice p 148 Shire Reeve ln medieval England the chief law enforcement officer in a territorial area called a shire later called the sheriff p 148 Posses Groups ofablebodied citizens ofa community called into service by a sheriff or constable to chase and apprehend offenders p 148 Constablewatch system A system of protection in early England in which citizens under the direction ofa constable or chief peacekeeper were required to guard the city and to pursue criminals p 148 Constable The peacekeeper in charge of protection in early English towns p 148 Peel s Principles of Policing A dozen of standards proposed by Robert Peel the author of the legislation resulting in the formation of the London Metropolitan Police Department The standards are still applicable to today s law enforcement p 150 Slave patrols The earliest form of policing in the South They were a product of the slave codes p 154 IMS l 5 Community policing A contemporary approach to policing that actively involves the community in a working partnership to control and reduce crime p 158 State police model A model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its of cers have the same law enforcement powers as local police but can exercise them anywhere within the state p 169 Highway patrol model A model of state law enforcement services in which of cers focus on highway traf c safety enforcement of the state s traffic laws and the investigation of accidents on the state s roads highways and property p 169 Contract security Protective services that a private security firm provides to people agencies and companies that do not employ their own security personnel or that need extra protection p 179 Proprietary security lnhouse protective services that a security staff not classified as sworn peace of cers provide for the entity that employs them p 179 Additional Activities Criminal Justice Web sites wwwdhsgovdhspublic This is the home page for the Department of Homeland Security It has uptodate news on the current events pertaining to homeland security This site also has job offerings for students who may be interested for working for the department of homeland security mpjwwwthecorenusedulandowvictorianhistorvpeelhtml This website offers a timeline of Sir Robert Peel s life starting with his birth on February 5 1788 and ending with his death on June 29 1850 httpwwwspartacusschoonetcoukPRpeehtm This website offers a look at Sir Robert Peel s life and work httpwwwspartacusschoonetcoukJ eldinghtm This initial web page on Henry Fielding offers additional insight into his life and work Once the student clicks on Bow Street Runners a whole new page open with additional options to learn more about the Bow Street Runners operation IMS 1 6 wwwmetpoliceuk This is the web site forthe London Metropolitan police It allows the student to explore the mission ofthe Metropolitan Police as well as learn about the organizational structure ofthe organization wwwncygovhtmInypdhomehtml This is the comprehensive web site of the New York City Police Department NYPD is probably the most popular police department however students could explore the police department in their home city httpwwwtexasranqerorqindexhtm This website on the Texas Rangers gives a historical overview of the Texas Rangers In addition it offers insight into today s Texas Ranger It also has a special link just for students that can assist students in their research ofthe Texas Rangers httpwwwfbigovhgtdacademyacademyhtm This is the of cial website of the FBI Academy which is located on the United States Marine Corps Base at Quantico Virginia The Facility which opened in the summer of 1972 is situated on 385 wooded acres of land providing the security privacy and safe environment necessary to carry out the diverse training and operations functions for which the FBI is responsible Students can learn more about this facility by exploring its comprehensive website The following is a comprehensive list of many ofthe federal law enforcement agencies Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms Bureau of Prisons Department of Justice Department of Treasury Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Federal Protective Services Fish and Wildlife Service 39 39 quot I and Nah quot quot I Service INTERPOL National Central Bureau USNCB Internal Revenue Service IMS I 7 National Park Service Naval Investigative Service DOD Postal Inspection Service US Coast Guard US Customs Service US Secret Service US Marshals Service Internet Activities One The Metropolitan Police Service Historical Archives contains a wealth of information on the history of policing in England To learn more about the history go to wwwmetpoliceukhistomarchiveshtm Read this article After reading this article create a timeline of policing in England After you have created this timeline go to httpwwwmetpoliceukhistomtimeline1829 1849htm and fill in additional information from 1829 until 1849 From this website the student can go and study subsequent eras in British policing The student can also use the Robert Peel and Henry Fielding websites referenced above in additional web readings Two Jack the Ripper is probably the most written about serial rapist and murderer in England Read his story at httpwwwmetpoliceukhistomripperhtm and at httpwwwcrimelibrarvcomiackiackmainhtm After reading these articles answer the following questions 1 The identity of Jack the Ripper was never solved However there are speculations as to who he may have been Who were the suspects and why were they suspects 2 What was the pro le of Jack the Ripper 3 Why should Michael Ostrog not be included in the list of suspects 4 Why should Francis Tumblety not be included in the list of suspects 5 Why should the Duke of Clarence not be included in the list of suspects IM S l 8 4 Many believe incorrectly that the Whitechapel Murders and the Ripper Murders were the same Explain the differences and the similarities between the Whitechapel murders and the Ripper murders 5 Name the 11 victims of the Whitechapel murders Give as much background information as possible into each of these murders Of these 11 which ones are most likely not Ripper murders Why 6 How did Jack the Ripper get his name Students should be encouraged to visit additional website on Jack the Ripper to answerthese questions in more detail Three The Bureau of Justice Statistics offers data on crime rates and victimization rates but it also offers date on law enforcement The BJS breaks the Law enforcement statistics down into both state and federal Visit both the federal statistics at httpwwwo39pusdo39govb39sfedlehtm and the state and local statistics at httpwwwo39pusdo39govb39ssandllehtm After reviewing these statistics answer the following questions 1 How many fulltime law enforcement of cers are there at the federal and the state and local level 2 What percentage of the officers in the federal system is female 3 What percentage of the officers in the federal system is a racial or ethnic minority 4 What is the largest agency by means of personnel at the federal level 5 What percentage of the officers in the state and local system is minority What have the most recent trends been 6 What were the education and training requirements for state and local of cers in 2000 Four Visit the Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms at httpwwwatfgov Read the Breaking News on the front page then explore other areas within the ATF website Be sure to take a look at their Most Wanted page Once you have explored the site and read the Breaking News answerthe following questions 1 What current issues are covered in Breaking News 2 What is the ATF s responsibilities regarding alcohol tobacco and rearms How are the responsibilities for each section similar and different 3 Compare the ATF s Most Wanted page with the FBI s 10 Most Wanted which can be accessed through a link at httpwwwfbigovmostwanthtm a How do the two compare b Do some suspects appear on both lists IMS l 9 4 What is GREAT a Describe its mission b Does your state have a participating agency If so where is the closest one located to you c What type oftraining does GREAT offer 5 What is the National Church Arson Task Force a How did it get started b What other agencies are involved with the NCATF c What statute governs the NCATF Solutions Answers to lnChapter Questions Photo Caption Drunk Driving p 147 Should citizens have more contact with the police in nonlaw enforcement situations Why or why not Answer Many students will agree that they should because this will help the police to better understand the needs of the community and help the community understand the capabilities of the police Critical Thinking p 148 Why do you think it is important that law enforcement agencies have limited authority Answer Students answers will vary but some possible answers are to prevent a duplication of efforts to avoid competition over cases and to make it clear to citizens who they can contact for help Critical Thinking p 150 Do you think any of the early English systems of law enforcement ie tithing could work today Why or why not Answer Students may make a connection between the tithing and constablewatch systems with community policing and many will agree that communities need to be more involved ifthey want to solve crime problems Specific answers will vary IMS l 10 Photo Caption Newport Police p 153 How do current police of cers differ from those depicted in the photo Answer Answers will vary Some will point out that demographics have changed somewhat and that more women and minorities are police officers today that training has changed drastically with today s police completing academy training before serving as officers and that the patrol aspect has changed signi cantly with far less foot patrol and other different types of patrol in its place Photo Caption Texas Rangers p 155 Why and how do you think the Rangers have endured for so long Answer Many will attribute the Rangers long life to their crimefighting success to their versatility and to positive American attitudes toward the West Criminal Justice Online p 155 Why do you think the Texas Rangers have elite status Answer Students answers will vary but some possible answers are their broad authority their talent for investigation and their frontier roots and long heritage Photo Caption Police Brutality p 157 Have new standards of conduct and training ended brutal police tactics Why or why not Answer Answers will vary depending on students opinions of police conduct A should agree that it has not ended brutality entirely and there may be disagreement as to how much brutality has decreased Indeed the professor should remind the students ofthe following cases Abner Louima Anadou Diallo and Rodney King Critical Thinking p 159 1 Which ofthe major changes in the organization and operation of police departments listed on page 167 do you think brought about the most significant change Why IMS 11 Answer Students answers will vary Some will cite the development of professional municipal and state police the reforms brought about by Vollmer the overall tougher hiring standards and the increasing emphasis on education to help professionalize the ranks 2 What do you think are the key bene ts of community policing Why Answer Answers may include that community policing gets the public involved in preventing crime builds bonds and trust between police and communities and helps police call on the community to help them solve social issues that cause crime Students will probably come up with several other answers in addition to these Criminal Justice Online p 159 Based on what you have learned from the Web site do you think that you would be interested in a career with the Secret Service Why or why not Answer Student answers will vary but many will be intrigued by this well respected agency Critical Thinking p 172 1 What do you think are the pros and cons of working at the local state and federal levels of law enforcement Answer Students answers should reflect an understanding ofthe duties risks and rewards of working at each of these levels They should also considerthat some local police agencies are larger and more complicated than others some state police agencies have broader authority than others and some federal agencies such as the FBI or DEA encounter more violent crime than others 2 Do you think that any one of the three major areas of law enforcement local state federal is more prestigious Why Answer Some students will take a topdown approach and place federal law enforcement at the top followed by state and then local law enforcement However answers will vary Photo Caption Private Security p 180 Is this a positive trend Why or why not Answer Answers will vary One positive side is that an individual or company can obtain a limitless amount of security Negative consequences IMS l 12 are poor security personnel training a generally incomplete understanding among security personnel regarding how to properly handle criminals and crime scenes and a lack of police services for those who cannot afford private security Critical Thinking p 184 1 What do you think are some ofthe bene ts and drawbacks of being a private security of cer Answer Student answers should re ect an understanding of how security work can differ signi cantly from policing Their pros and cons can cover among other things job security and generally lower risks of danger 2 Do you think that stricter quali cation standards should be established for private security personnel Why or why not Answer Many students will agree that stricter quali cations are necessary If any do not ask them why and ask both sides to cite examples to support their case Answers to Review Questions p 186 1 What is meant byjurisdiction Answer Jurisdiction means a speci c geographical area in criminal justice it means the right or authority ofa justice agency to act in regard to a particular subject matter territory or person For example a city s police may not patrol or answer calls for service outside the city s boundaries unless cooperative pacts with those otherjurisdictions have been developed Federal jurisdiction is not based on any boundaries other than those ofthe United States instead it focuses on an agency s role in investigating and prosecuting certain types of crimes that are relevant to their area of expertise For example in a bank robbery if mail of any sort is stolen both the Postal Inspections Service and the FBI are likely to investigate the case 2 What was the tithing system Answer The tithing system also called the frankpledge system consisted often families or a tithing who were required to become a group and agree to follow the law keep the peace in their areas and bring law violators to justice They worked together as a minicommunity to watch out for each other and hunt criminals together Over even larger areas ten tithings were IMS l 13 grouped togetherto form a hundred and one or several hundreds constituted a shire which was similar to a modern American county As an aside you can remind students that the shire was run by the shire reeve which was later called the sheriff and was the forerunner ofthe American sheriff 3 Who were the Bow Street Runners Answer The Bow Street Runners were founded in 1748 by Henry Fielding a London magistrate and literary gure The Bow Street Runners apprehended criminals and recovered stolen property mainly in the Bow Street section of London hence their name They were the rst British detective force and as such helped pave the way for a more professional and betterorganized response to the crime problems that were dramatically increasing in London by the end ofthe eighteenth century 4 In what year was the London Metropolitan Police founded Answer In 1829 the British Parliament approved the London Metropolitan Police Act which created a 1000of cer police force with professional standards The London Metropolitan Police replaced the less professional and haphazard community law enforcement systems then in use such as the constablewatch system 5 Who was Robert Peel What name is given to his 12 standards for policing Answer Sir Robert Peel was the British Home Secretary who persuaded Parliament to create the London Metropolitan Police His military approach to policing as well as some of his other principles remain in effect today throughout the world His 12 standards are known as Peel s Principles of Policing which are also highlighted in Table 51 on page 150 They are 1 The police must be stable efficient and organized along military lines 2 The police must be under government control 3 The absence of crime will best prove the ef ciency of police 4 The distribution of crime news is essential 5 The deployment of police strength both by time and area is essential 6 No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command oftemper a quiet determined manner has more effect than violent action 7 Good appearance commands respect 8 The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of ef ciency 9 Public security demands that every police of cer be given a number 10 Poice headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people IM S l 14 11 Poicemen should be hired on a probationary basis 12Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength You can ask students the following questions to ensure that they understand these principles Which ofthese are still used in American law enforcement today Do all of these still seem appropriate for law enforcement Do any ofthese seem outdated Why or why not 6 What system of English policing did the colonists bring to America Answer American colonists who began emigrating from England long before the creation ofthe London Metropolitan Police in 1829 brought the constablewatch system with them Boston established a night watch as early as 1634 The watch system at least in the cities was the means of preventing crime and apprehending criminals for the next two centuries until New York City created the rst metropolitan police force in the nineteenth century Under the constablewatch system the people were the police Uninterested citizens could pay for watch replacements which led to overall poor policing Boston and other cities frequently deployed the most elderly citizens and occasionally sentenced minor offenders to serve on the watch You can ask students what elements of the constablewatch system seemed useful and if those could be brought back to policing today If any of them bring up community policing be sure to remind them that community policing will be discussed in the next chapter 7 What were the slave codes Answer The slave codes which began in 1712 protected the slaveholders property rights in human beings while holding slaves responsible for their crimes and for other acts that were not crimes if committed by free persons Under some slave codes enslaved people could not hold meetings leave the plantation without permission from the master travel without a pass learn to read and write carry a rearm trade or gamble The method of enforcing the slave codes was the creation of the Southern US s earliest form of policing the plantation slave patrols Every Southern colony enacted slave codes and had slave patrols to enforce them IMS l 15 8 What group is considered to be the first state police agency Answer Pennsylvania established the state police organization in 1905 Its statewide authority made it unpopular in some communities especially those where the enforcement of state laws had been laidback or nonexistent The use of motor patrol extended the authority of state police agencies and some evolved into the highway patrol model that students read about in this chapter Every state had a state police by the 19305 You can emphasize to students that state police were created in response to the laxity of some sheriffs and constables to control crime along with emerging crime problems that exceeded the local community s ability to deal with it 9 How did August Vollmer change policing Answer August Vollmer was the chief of police of Berkeley California from 1909 to 1932 He was one of several reformers within law enforcement who recognized that police needed better standards and training in order to retain public confidence and apprehend criminals Vollmer s efforts created a new era of professional policing Vollmer and his advocates emphasized training and education as two of the key ingredients of professionalism in policing He held college courses on police administration which were unusual then but today are the norm His beliefs that the police should stay out of politics and that politics should stay out of policing were nothing short of revolutionary in a time when politics controlled and corrupted many large police forces You can ask students How did Vollmer s ideas change policing Do all police agencies have high educational and training standards Why or why not Do you agree with his philosophy Why or why not 10 How did police response to the demonstrations and civil disorders of the 1960s affect policing Answer By the end of the 19605 strong doubts about the role of the police emerged Some citizens saw the local police as armies of occupation and some confrontations between police and citizens resulted in violence several examples of this occurred during the Civil Rights movement and protests against the Vietnam War IMS 16 In response to this decline in public con dence police leaders saw that standards and training had to be improved In response four blueribbon commissions studied American police and provided reports National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders 1967 President s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice 1967 National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals 1973 American Bar Association s Standards Relating to Urban Police Function 1973 All four reports called for Careful selection of law enforcement of cers Extensive and continuous training Better police management and supervision Internal and external methods of maintaining integrity in police departments You can ask students How did this affect police selection in terms ofthe details involved in the selection process What new of cer qualities were considered in the new selection process How did this improve police selection 11 What is community policing Answer ln community policing the people ofa community and the police form a lasting partnership in order to jointly approach the problems of maintaining order providing services and ghting crime In community policing the emphasis shifts from fighting crime to keeping peace and delivering social services with the ultimate goal oferadicating the causes of crime in a community When police show they care about the minor problems associated with community disorder two positive changes are likely to occur A Citizens will develop better relations with the police as they turn to them for solutions to the disorder B Criminals will see that residents and the police have a commitment to keeping all crime out ofthe neighborhood Community policing places a greater emphasis on foot patrol meeting residents and business owners and solving community problems with a serviceoriented approach IMS l 17 Be sure to remind students that community policing will be discussed thoroughly in Chapter 6 12 What are the four main functions of local police Answers A Law enforcement examples are investigating a burglary arresting a car thief serving a warrant ortestifying in court B Order maintenance or peacekeeping examples are breaking up a ght holding back a crowd at a sporting event or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent C Service examples are taking people to the hospital escorting funeral processions delivering mail for city of cials or chasing bats out ofa caller s house D nformation gathering examples are determining neighborhood reactions to a proposed liquor license in the community investigating a missing child case or investigating and reporting on a dangerous road condition Some police academies teach recruits the functions ofa police of cer by using the acronym PEPPAS P Protect life and property E Enforce the law P Prevent crime P Preserve the peace A Arrest violators and 8 Serve the public You will want to remind students that this covers only a small amount ofthe variety of police work covered in local police agencies To start a discussion you can ask students Does the PEPPAS acronym cover everything you feel is essential to good policing Why or why not When looking at the four major functions listed can you think of any others 13 Why do county sheriffs have more political clout than police chiefs Answer First most sheriffs are elected by the public therefore they must have a certain amount of political skills to obtain office and reelection Second although they depend on an elected board of county commissioners or supervisors fortheir funding sheriffs generally have more freedom in running their agencies than do police chiefs Third the sheriff has the authority to award patronage jobs ie use favoritism This adds to the sheriffs power and in uence in a county since he or she can use the of ce to accrue favors from others in exchange for the patronage jobs This is a IMS l 18 negative side of the sheriffs role that has drawn much criticism You can ask students how they think favoritism can be stopped 14 What is the difference between a state police model and a highway patrol model of state law enforcement Answer Each state police agency has more or less adopted one oftwo policing models The state police model is when the agency and its officers have essentially the same enforcement powers as local police but can work cases or enforce the law anywhere within the state s boundaries One famous example is the Texas Rangers part of the Texas Department of Public Safety The highway patrol model exists where of cers focus almost exclusively on highway traf c safety enforcement of the state s traffic laws and investigation of accidents on the state s roads and highways Although they can retain responsibility for investigating criminal violations on state property their authority is generally more limited 15 Name some federal law enforcement agencies Answer You can refer students to Table 52 on page 171 which lists many federal law enforcement agencies Immigration and Naturalization Service INS Federal Bureau of Prisons Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI US Customs Service US Secret Service US Postal Inspection Service Internal Revenue Service IRS Drug Enforcement Administration DEA US Marshals Service Administrative Of ce ofthe US Courts National Park Service Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms US Capitol Police GSA Federal Protective Service US Fish and Wildlife Service US Forest Service You can ask students ifthey can name others IMS I 19 16 Distinguish between contract and proprietary private security services Answer Private security is often classified as either contract or proprietary Contract security companies offer protective services for a fee to people agencies and companies that do not employ their own security personnel A state university for example may employ private security officers to work at a football game Proprietary security agents and personnel provide protective services for the entity that employs them For example the Ford Motor Company employs its own security forces at its large manufacturing plants You will want students to understand that although police of cers sometimes moonlight as security guards neither contract nor proprietary security guards are police of cers in the capacity of their security work 17 What are some successes and problems in the war in terrorism Answer This is an extremely dif cult question to answer and a student s response may be based on hisher political agenda As professors we must try to be politically neutral This is very dif cult to do on this issue There are many who feel the invasion of Iraq is part of the ght against terrorism There are more who believe the invasion of Iraq had nothing to do with the ght against terrorism and distracted valuable resources from the war against terrorism Indeed history may record that the invasion of Iraq produced more terrorists acts then it deterred 18 How do the employment qualifications for private security personnel in the United States compare and contrast with the qualifications to be a police officer deputy sheriff state police or federal agent Answer Students answers should indicate the relatively low standards especially when one considers the level ofdiscretion and lack of procedural standards that surround security work Minimum qualifications for private security personnel at all levels ofemployment are increasing but still do not compare to the public police For example Few states enforce any educational physical or background integrity qualifications for private security personnel In most states the training required to become a private security of cer is less than a week long In some states armed security officers must attend a rearms course including a section on the laws applicable to the use of deadly force and must successfully complete a practical firearms qualification test However this is generally less training than police of cers receive and there is no IMS I 20 equivalent of a standard field training operations FTO program for onthe job training In nearly all states public police officers who work off duty in a private policing capacity are exempt from any private security training even ifthe nature of their private police work is substantially different from their police department functions You can ask students How do the lowered qualifications affect people who must report crimes through their company s security division How should security personnel raise their minimum standards Overall do you feel that security personnel in the United States today perform their jobs adequately Why or why not Critical Thinking Exercises p 187 Neighborhood Watch Students answers should re ect an understanding of community policing as well as the possibility of liability issues when private citizens take on self policing roles A night watch is an excellent idea but care must be taken so that individuals are not injured Volunteers should be selected from a wide crosssection of the population so that all neighborhoods are covered Many students will agree that volunteers should be required to undergo training that will familiarize them with the law and with the best way to handle potentially violent offenders Although students answers will vary on exactly what should be done and how they should be realistic and carefully considered Remind them that in a real life situation the lives of citizens would be placed unnecessarily at risk by poorly conceived strategies Public Officer or Private Citizen Students opinions will vary on this one and many will bring up different but valid points To help them clarify their positions point out that the offduty of cer did not have back up could not obtain back up and was not in work mode which would have given him a different level of alertness and capability Also there is a possibility that he was not armed Ask the students to consider these possibilities before making a nal judgment of the matter IMS l 21