IW Polynesian Perspectives
IW Polynesian Perspectives ENGL 2010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Williamson MD on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2010 at Southern Utah University taught by Eric Morrow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/225507/engl-2010-southern-utah-university in Foreign Language at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
English 2010 Intermediate Writing The Rhetoric of Satire and Humor Satire Its Characteristics and History Satire Writing in a comic mode that holds a subject up to scorn and ridicule often with the purpose of correcting human Vice and folly Satire I The range of satire A A ubiquitous art form 1 Evidenced in literature music Visual art theater film TV etc II Types of satire A Direct attack or diatribetragical 1 Explicit attack on the target of ridicule B Menippeancomical 1 Indirect and subtle attack as the reader must infer the targets of criticism III History of satire A Possibly possesses primitive origins 1 Used in rituals by primitive cultures to drive away evil spirits and rid the community of sin and guilt a Ridicule as a magical weapon 1 Reports of tribesmen who were ridiculed getting sick and dying B Satire in ancient Greece 1 Legend of Archilochus a Suicide of Lycambes and Neobule C Satire in ancient Rome 1 Formal verse satire a Horace Mild mockery and playful witsubtle and indirect b Juvenal Vicious attacks because of anger and frustrationdirect and over thetop D Satire in the Enlightenmentmost of the 18th century 1 Considered the greatest age of satire 2 Satire as a tool for reformers to highlight vice folly and contradiction a Enlightenment idealism vs reality Satire Cont III Purposes of satire A The correction of vice and the reinstatement of virtue 1 Encourage social changereform 2 Encourage the status quo social adhesive B A form of catharsispurging or purification l A safety valve for anger and frustration 2 A stress reliever 3 An outlet for inner feelings of insecurity a Freud s notion of psychic relief via humor satire C A method of challenging political power D A way of bringing people and groups closer IV Methods of satire A Ironical method 1 Hypocrisy the satirist wants to attack and reform B Types of irony l Irony An incongruity or something not consistent with what s expected a contrast between the real and the ideal 2 Verbal Irony Irony in which a speaker means the opposite of what he says 3 SituationalCircumstantial Irony A discrepancy between what might reasonably be expected and what actually occurs between the appearance of a situation and its reality C Wit to make the attack clever D Humor to make the attack funny V Literary techniques often found in satire and humor these are often the ingredients in an effective satiricalhumorous work 1 Black humoraka black comedy dark humor gallows humor Sardonically humorous effects derived from mordant wit and morbid or grotesque situations that deal with anxiety suffering or death 2 CaricatureExaggeration A distorted often exaggerated representationcan be both physical and emotional to produce a ridiculous effect most typically as a character or person is presented as possessing a single dominant trait or stereotypes which are then carried to comedic extremes 3 Verbal exaggerationoverstatement A source of humor in which the character speaker uses hyperbole 4 Absurdity The use of the completely unreasonable and the ridiculous for humorous effect The laws of nature simply won t allow for it 5 Distortion The changing of a perspective of a condition or event by isolation or by stressing some aspects and deemphasizing other 6 Slapstickphysical humor Humor derived from exaggerated and absurd physical action 7 Innuendo A veiled re ection or subtle hint often sexual andor vulgar in nature attacking a person s character or reputation 8 Ambiguity Humor arising from the possibility of more than one meaning 9 Parody A comic or satirical imitation of a piece of writing exaggerating its style and content and playing especially on any weakness in structure or meaning of the original English 2010 Intermediate Writing Logical and Emotional Fallacies Why should you look for fallacies in rhetoric 1 To spot distortions in rhetoriei 2 To avoid them in your own argumentative writing How do you protect yourself from fallacies when considering arguments 1 Be skeptical take claims with a grain ofsalt 24 C heck source documentation carefully 3 Research a claim to ensure validity 4 Understand fallacy terminology Fallacy Terminology Fallacies Mistakes missteps or deliberate deceit in the process of rhetoric ogos pathos and ethos 2 Logical Fallacies False beliefs caused by errors in reasoning Emotional Fallacies Arguments designed to appeal to feelings and override logical judgment Logical Fallacies 1 Card Stacking Stacking evidence in a slanted distorted or fabricated way in order to strengthen one side of an issue at the expense of another viewpoint 2 EitherOr Fallacy The oversimpli cation of an argument by presenting an issue as black or white when other alternatives exist 3 F alse Analogy An invalidl extended comparison in which two things are thought to be similar when in fact they39re not 4 Red Herring irrelevant and misleading support that pulls the audience away from the real argument 5 Begging the QuestionCircular Argument An arguer simply avoids an issue and restates the same point in different words 6 Hastv Generalization A broad general statement without supporting evidence such as inferences as fact stereotyping insufficient sampling 7 Non Seguitur quotIt does not follow In other words the conclusion does not follow from the evidence 8 Post Hoe Fallacv When a cause and effect relationship is argued but in reality the two events only exist together Emotional Fallacies I How do emotional fallacies Work A They are employed to arouse strong feelings in an audience B They are based on the concept of transfer 1 Transfer is a device of association in which the connotationsdecper embedded meanings of wordsand possibly images manipulate our responses a Positive transfer presents ideas in the most pleasing most positive fashion b Negative transfer presents ideas in way that plays on our negative emotions such as fear anger envy etc ll What do you do about emotional fallacies A Make sure emotional appeals do not override logical thinking consistently B Make sure emotional appeals do not interfere with fairness and objectivity C Make sure emotional appeals are controlled and ethical D Make sure you re aware of different types of emotional appeals and be vigilant Ill Seven common emotional fallacies Argumentum ad HominemStraw Man An argument attacking a person39s character These personal assaults come in the form ol namecalling mudslinging and smear tactics B Bandwagon The argument of common practice an audience is urged to do something because everyone else is doing it C Ad PopulumPlain Folk The argument stressing of a bond between the arguer and the average citizen This claim relies on the notion of sincerity D Status Appeal The argument emphasizes the causeeffect relationship between a adopting a position and bettering oneself because of such a stance E Scare Tactics The argument that a position must be taken in order to avoid problems This fallacy often relies on exaggeration and combines nicely with the eitheror or slippery slope logical fallacy F TestimonialAppeal to Authority The argument that a claim is superior because a well39known person usually Without expertise says so G Glittering Generality The argument involving vague generalizations that sound nice but really lack substance Logical and Emotional Fallacies Typically first and even secondyear composition students have not been prepared to consider the logic behind statements they hear from politicians teachers parents and media demagogues Thus it is important to analyze logical and emotional fallacies so you can begin to examine the premises on which these rhetoricians base their assumptions and the logic that brings them to certain conclusions F irst there are three steps for dealing with fallacious arguments Understanding logicalemotional fallacies Identifying and creating logicalemotional fallacies Avoiding logicalemotional fallacies Understanding Logical Fallacies Consider the following statements and label the appropriate fallacy that s apparent in the statement based on the de nition with which you ve been provided Each fallacy will be used only once 1 quotTraditional historians appeal to the public39s feeling of nationalism just as the Nazis did quotMFallacy 2 Affirmative action proponents accuse me of opposing equal opportunity in the work force I think my positions on military expenditures education and public health speak for 39 39 Fallacy 3 TV is very much a positive medium that simply gets a bad rap Think about the healthy programming that s available For instance Sesame Street is educational The Cosby Show promotes family values and news programs keep audiences informed Fallacy 4 quotDespite the women s movement in the 705 women still do not receive equal pay for equal worth Obviously all such attempts to change the status quo are doomed to failure Fallacy S We cwld improve the undergraduate experience with coed dorms since both men and women bene t from living with the opposite genderquot VVVVVVVVVVVVV W Fallacy 6 quotWe may support this petition for a Gender Studies major or we may turn our backs on progress reject the petition and suffer the consequencesquot y 7777777777777 M Fallacy 7 But professor I should get an A on this essay because I spent thirty hours working on it and turned it in early and I always get A s in schoolquot Fallacy 8 I should never have sold that undercover detective a semitruck trailer full of heroin since I d walked under a ladder and crossed paths with a black cat earlier in the day Fallacy Now that you ve correctly identi ed each fallacy take a few minutes to generate your own unique example for each type Card Stacking EitherOr False Analogy Red Herring Begging the Questiom Circular Argument Hasty Generalization Non Sequitur Post Hoe Fallacy Creating and Identifying Logical Fallacies Imagine you have been hired as a speechwriter by an aspiring politician Your job is to prepare a short speech two minutes addressing an issueis of your choice In order to pull out all the stops in getting people to support this candidate this politician s handler has encouraged you to use logical fallacies to accomplish your task With this in mind determine an issues you want to address and write a short convincing speech that utilizes at least three to four of the eight logical fallacies we ve covered Avoiding Logical Fallacies Consider what Nietzsche39s is suggesting in the following quote and explain in a few sentences what it means to you The most per dious manner of injuring a cause is to vindicate it intentionally with fallaciaus arguments v Friedrich Nietzsche Do you agree or disagree with what he s saying Why or why not Understanding Emotional Fallacies Consider the following statements and label the appropriate fallacy that s apparent in the statement based on the de nition with you ve been provided Each fallacy can be used only once By supporting my candidacy for Congress you will be helping move our great nation toward a better brighter future W F allacy quotMuch like we were able to defeat communism in Southeast Asia in order to avoid having to oppose it 1 the US if we don t ght the terrorists in lraq we will have to face them on our own soil Fallacy quotSince Harvard Stanford and Berkeley have all added a multicultural component to their graduations requirements Notre Dame should get with the future Fallacy quotThe pro life movement s Biblethumpers want to take away our rightsquot Fallacy quotI m not a doctor but i play one on TV Use this aspirinquot Fallacy As I ve been campaigning in this great state I can t help be notice the difficulties you face with high unemployment rates high food costs and a lack of proper health care Let39s get the Washington elites out of of ce so we can restore sanity and dignity to our political system Fallacy Success in America is guaranteed to everyone who is willing to work hard revere God and support our President Fallacy Now that you ve practiced identifying fallacies in the statements provided take a few minutes to generate your own unique example of each type of emotional fallacy Glittering Generality Bandwagon Ad Populum l lain Folk TestimonialAppeal to Authority Scare Tactics Status Appeal Argumentum Ad Hominerr Straw Man Creating Emotional Fallacies Revisit the two minute speech you wrote for your candidate Revise the speech by adding a minute or so to what you already have by developing three to four emotional fallacies to accompany the logical fallacies you formulated Be prepared to share your results with the class
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