Global Community MAX 132
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eulah Yundt on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAX 132 at Syracuse University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/225570/max-132-syracuse-university in School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
CRITICAL READING Critical reading is a rigorous process It is sometimes slow and always demanding Reading actively thoughtfully and critically can be one of the most challenging human activities for it tests the limits of our energy patience and intellect Although mastering critical reading strategies will not make the reading process an easy one it can make reading much more satisfying and productive and thus help you handle difficult material with confidence Critical reading includes nding facts understanding the signi cance that the authors give to facts determining how you might use what you have read Critical reading activities CHECKLIST previewing annotating underlining and taking notes condensing outlining evaluating Previewing Who is the author What are the author39s qualifications When and why was this written What type of writing is this What kind of publication was it in What is the significance of the title What do the headings or other graphics call attention to Annotati ng Underline or highlight passages that capture the author39s point serve your purpose in reading and writing require further study Write notes that state the significance of the underlining or highlighting show the logic of the passage give your reactions explain difficult points suggest how you might use the information Condensing Condense the essay into a brief summary the thesis statement into a short title significant passages into a few key words Outlining Outline the work by listing the thesis statement subheads of major divisions secondary thesis statements topic sentences important supporting details Evaluating Evaluate the meaning by asking what is the overall point How is this point conveyed What are the secondary or supporting points Evaluate the organization by asking why is this passage included Why is it in this particular place What does it add to the whole Evaluate the authority by asking is the author a recognized authority Is the evidence from authoritative sources Is the evidence convincing Is the logic valid Is the author39s use of evidence reasonable Evaluate the argument by asking do I agree If not can I refute Are there particularly good examples Is there a striking turn of phrase What have I learned from this How is this connected to other topics A CHECKLIST FOR PREVIEWING Before you tackle a reading and to orient yourself in order to get the most from your reading try taking the following steps Consider what you know about the author and how much you should trust him or her Reflect on what the title suggests about the reading Classify the text as to genre and then speculate about what the piece will be like Determine what the historical and cultural context indicates about the teXt Skim the reading noting your first impressions A CHECKLIST FOR ANNOTATING To focus and sustain a critical reading annotate as you read and reread In the margin write any q uestions definitions comments or reactions main ideas for an outline On the reading itself underline circle or box any specia uses of language such as images or oppositions featu res of style words to be defined or people and events to be identified A CHECKLIST FOR SUMMARIZING To summarize a text in your own words in order to master difficult material or ideas try the following steps Read and reread the material annotating as you go At this stage you are trying to become thoroughly familiar with the material Identify the main ideas either by making a scratch outline or by underlining the main ideas Write a summary that includes only the main ideas not illustrations or examples or quotations and make sure it is coherent and reads smoothly Although your summary will rely on key terms and concepts in the material it must be stated entirely in your own words A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT To identity the claim ask What opinion idea or point of View is the writer trying to get me to accept To identify the reasons ask What statements does the writer offer that tell me why I should accept the claim To identify the backing ask What information or explanation does the writer give to justify acceptance of the claim on the basis of this reason To identity the refutation ask What opposing arguments does the writer anticipate and how are they dealt with A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT To identify the claim ask what opinion idea or point of view is the writer trying to get me to accept To identify the reasons ask what statements does the writer offer that tell me why I should accept the claim To identify the backing ask what information or explanation does the writer give to justify acceptance of the claim on the basis of this reason To identity the refutation ask what opposing arguments does the writer anticipate and how are they dealt with To evaluate the logical appeal of the argument remember the ABCs of sound reasoning Appropriateness Is the support relevant and does support justify accepting the claim Believability Are the facts accurate complete and trustworthy Are the statistics based on comparability Are they accurate trustworthy Are the authorities credible Consistency Are the supporting statements contradictory Do they provide sufficient support for the claim To evaluate the emotional appeal ask do I feel manipulated by slanted or highly charged language To evaluate the ethical appeal ask how would I characterize the tone of this argument What kind of person does the writer seem to be