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Selected Topics

by: Keara Weissnat

Selected Topics PSY 400

Keara Weissnat
GPA 3.54

Marc Howard

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Marc Howard
Class Notes
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keara Weissnat on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 400 at Syracuse University taught by Marc Howard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/225615/psy-400-syracuse-university in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Free Recall Dynamics PSY 400 Human Memory Spring 2004 February 4 2004 Important stuff from last time oThe Atkinson amp Shiffrin gave a formal implementation of the two store model a This model emphasized the importance of control processes in STS o This model described performance in a continuous paired associates task in remarkable detail Overview of today s material 0 The two store model and the SPC 0 Free recall is complicated o Overt rehearsal studies 0 Measures of output position 0 Associative effects in free recall Review AampS explanation of serial position effects in free recall 0 Immediate recall uses STS LTS 0 Delayed recall uses only LTS Serial Position 0 Recency effect due to STS Many variables affect one end of the SPC but not the other 0 Modality better recency for auditory o Amnesia Baddeley and Warrington 1970 0 Word frequency better recall of early items 0 Semantic similarity of list better early 0 Presentation rate better early Ways for AampS model to explain serial position effects 0 Ease of rehearsal in STS 0 Blocked transfer from STS to LTS 0 Ease of retrieval from LTS The primacy effect in free recall Probability of Recall O O O O O O O O O OI Lll ilgt39 ICDIJICDIQD L 10 20 30 40 Serial Position Murdock 1962 Advantage for recall of first several items in the list AampS model predicts primacy o No displacement from buffer until buffer full 0 Capacity typically 2 4 a First items receive more time in buffer hence better recall A note about recency and primacy o Buffer model predicts primacy a Every memory model under the sun predicts recency o Primacy has been taken as diagnostic of STSLTS distinction Free recall is complicated 0 Free recall is a complicated process oResearchers have generated many dependent measures to describe FR 0 Overt rehearsal procedure output dynamics Overt Rehearsal Technique 0 Subjects rehearse out loud a Number and order of rehearsals can be dependent measures Rehearsal Predicts Recall Rehearsal predicts primacy l us 9 rm 5 5 r m z lt m 1 7 9 E 6 E u u s 7 2 z z E 5 52 4 3 311 IVIIIIIIIIVVIIIII s n 3 SERIAL NPUT FOSWON ls rehearsal recency all you need to explain primacy 0 Overt rehearsal jmjmj 0 Last rehearsal set 0 When was the last time the item was rehearsed I l I l x I I a Igllllllllllgl Nominal and functional Serial Position 0 Nominal serial position is the one we ve been talking about thus far a Functional serial position is more complicated o The last item rehearsed is in the last functional serial position a The next to Iast item rehearsed is in the next to Iast functional serial position etc Nominal and functional serial position example 0 Present ABCD oRehearsalsAAABABACACBDA a Functional SP A4 82 C1 D3 Nominal and functional serial position are correlated Functional serial position curves and primacy ircqucnlly vocuiiml hchvcen pres Ju mmam nmu a 39 39 a 7 14 s 5 3V4 a z z a E w u r 5 3 sun I J 2 v o Jg7slvulsv7 vusvsnuvsn ququ PosinoN nmcnmmL vusvnon I Mean prapnniou orucms mculkdmmm 1mmde M m n u 2 quotM lt m i Circularity of overt rehearsal arguments o Rehearsed items are more easily recalled 0 Maybe items are rehearsed more because they re easier to recall 0 Maybe rehearsal isjust recall that happens during the list a Does it make sense to call this a separate memory store Our Serial Position data 0 o 0 gt 03 03 i i i Probability of Recall 0 J i Oiiiiiiiiii 12345678910 Serial Position What does this mean 0 Empirical issues 0 Methodological issues 0 Theoretical issues More complex measures of free recall 0 FR reflects natural organization of memory 0 Observe tendencies in order of recall 0 An impressive feature of AampS was ability to describe details 0 Can it describe details of FR Output Position SP OP Sub 1 Sub 2 1 ABSENCE 1 POLICE PUPIL 2 HOLLOW 2 HOLLOW DUTY 3 PUPIL 3 BABY PATIENCE 4 WRITER 4 PUPIL BABY 5 SQUIRREL 5 SEASON 6 POLICE 6 WRITER 7 DUTY 8 PATIENCE 9 BABY 10 SEASON A more concrete example Subject Trial List Recalls 43 1 QCYSWPHNLG QSTWH NY 43 2 JONHBWGPUA JONWAHB 43 3 BNSKFDXOQY BNSKFYDWZU 43 4 LXQFDRIOCU IOCUXBDFQG 5 43 ZGAPJIWMTO MTOXJBDFKH Output order more constrained than SPC 0 Multiple output orders lead to the same SPC o For instance 73910128 yields the same SPC as 12378910 o A theory could describe SPC but fail to describe output order What items are recalled first Mean Output Position 9 NOIJJSOA innian Nvaw 111 ANuuam SERIAL PosmoN Mean Output Position MOP in our data 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Serial Position Probability of first recall and conditional response probability a PFR measures where 55 start recall a CRP measures probability of transitions oThe CRP can be taken as a measure of association Probability of First Recall PFR and CRP Study ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL 2 3 Test 3 5 a L o J 0 Lag I 6 10 Lamp Serial Position The PFR 05 Immediate O Delayed O 04 02 0 a a geoo 02iiiiiiiiiiii Serial Position Probability of First Recall The PFR in our data 07 06 05 04 0 l l l 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 Serial Position 10 Probability of Recall 0 to Serial recall strategy 99000 COlgt103l 0 L Serial Position General findings of the CRP o Contiguity CRP peaked around zero a Asymmetry Forward stronger than backward 0 Changes with output position in immediate but not delayed recall Contiguity and Asymmetry in the CRP CRP 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 Lag 4 3 2 1 O Conditional Response Probability 0 0 0 0 J igt CD 03 L Our CRP This is like Ebbinghaus forward remote backyngd ABCDE How much did we learn that is new over Ebbinghaus contribution The CRP changes with output position in IFR SERIAL I U l I IUN 10 7 I Forward Adjacent I Forward Remote 0 Backyard Adjacent a Backward Remote 33 CONDIITICINAL RESPONSE PROBABILITY I l nlrllrll if l 1 23456739531 0 PAIR OUTPUT POSITION The CRP changes with output position in IFR Immediate 02 i 0 x x x x x x x Delayed m 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lag The CRP changes with output position Our data 1 Firstoutput O lateoutput 0 0 03 03 i i Conditional Response Probability O 394 i O O N i I Pk I I The Raaijmakkers and Shiffrin 1980 free recall model 0 Much like A845 model 0 Big difference is an elaborated search through LTS 0 Items in STS associated to each other a Associations built up by being together in STS Associations in LTS in RampS model 0 LTM is a collection of nodes associated to each other 0 Contents of STS are activated subset of LTM o Concurrent activation strengthens associations between nodes 0 STS more of a process than a container With some tweaking RampS model fits output order data ssz yusu nun 39a 9 E ForwamAdjaum ForwamRzmole 5 a a EackwemAdjaeem u Bachward emuie g l 4g 5 5 2 gas 8 E T 5 1 5 S g V 1 a i r u z a E 9 o gt I a 2 2 O y y 1 x 1 quota gt irHHH 1 5 ID 15 20 15 30 123 55753 0 12355578910 SERIAL PosmoN PAIR OUTPUT POSITION RampS explanations a Multiple items recalled from STS 0 Items in STS are from end of list so high CRP in IFR oAssociations build up between items in STS leading to CRP RampS recency STS ABCDEFGH RampS CRP at Study STS 0 Items nearby together inms ABCDE Y7 0 Connections in LTS STS strengthened for items in STS 30 RampS CRP at Test a In searching LTS just C A recalled Item used as a cue 0 Connections between nearby items stronger F o Leads to CRP from LTS E A Problem for twostore models a The long term recency effect a Recency is observed over long time scales 0 So is the CRP An alternate view of association All memory therefore implies a time elapsed consequently only those animals which perceive time remember and the organ whereby they perceive time is also that whereby they remember Perhaps associations are mediated by a representation of time Summary 0 Free recall is complicated o Overt rehearsal studies show rehearsal describes recaH o but is this meaningful 0 Lots of measures of output order PFR CRP MOP o Associations in memory are formed between items presented at nearby times are asymmetric Assignment 0 Serial Position Experiment Report due Monday a First exam will be Monday February 16 o We ll have a review session February 11 0 Give the Howard and Kahana 1999 paper a try


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