Laboratory in Cognitive Psychology
Laboratory in Cognitive Psychology PSY 332
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This 92 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keara Weissnat on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 332 at Syracuse University taught by Jennifer Provyn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/225616/psy-332-syracuse-university in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
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psychological mechanisms entail info processing devices tailored to solve adaptive problems most adaptive problems humans confronted arewere intrinsically social cognitive psych must deal with ways we process information about people 40m Weellt131 evolution ary cognitive psychaiogy brief overview iil i iiiiiicdnejll anchored by 2 core assumptions THAT EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY CHALLENGES Cosmides amp Tooby 1994 1 cognitive architecture is general purpose 84 content free 2 functional agnosticism evolutionary psych a suggests the mind is likely to consist of a large number of specialized mechanisms each specialized mechanism is tailored to solve different adaptive problems will lr vlL lWll i v f lm 72 shared information processing devices cognitive architecture same devices used for food mate 84 habitat selection general purpose abilities include reasoning learning imitating calculating meansend relationships computing similarity forming concepts memory cog psych gt experiments select stimuli based on ease of presentation ease of manipulability often intentionally use artificial stimuli to eliminate content effects Qgti llt 3 experiments employ ecologically invalid stimuli categorization studies with triangles circles squares rather than natural categories such as kin mates enemies or edible objects eg memory nonsense syllable studies content free stimuli make sense if the mind is a general purpose processor what if cognitive mechanisms are specialized to process info re particular tasks quot133mm nmecdhanig 40m Week131 evolution ary cognitive baychaioa brief uverview 1 what constitutes a successful adaptive solution differs from domain to domain food selection qualities differ from mate selection qualities 2 number of possible behaviors generated by unconstrained gen mechanisms approaches infinity problem of combinatorial explosion eg organism has no way of determining successful adaptive solutions from the blizzard of unsuccessful ones Jru1p hi gtn E Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychologl brief overview functional agnostic5m info processing mechanisms can be studied disregarding adaptive problems they were designed to solve can we understand the human liver without knowing what it39s designed to do eg filter toxins how can we study higher cognitive fxs without understanding the fxs of the cognitive mechanisms on which the activities are based my note this is a weak argument from analogy mm permit integration with life science 1 human mind consists of a set of evolved infoprocessing mechanisms embedded in CN 2 mechanisms are adaptations produced by natural selection over evolutionary time in ancestral environments many mechanisms are functionally specialized to produce behavior that solves adaptive problems eg cooperation language adaptation mate selection many mechanisms must be richly structured in contentspecific ways w e 40m Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychaiogl brief overview ihruiimaim error many cognitive functions involve problem solvingjudgment under uncertain conditions humans are prone to error in these conditions eg Nisbett amp Ross 1980 Tversky amp Kahneman 1974 1 baserate fallacy 2 conjunction fallacy 40m Weellt131 evolution ary cognitive baychaioa brief uverview fallacy example room of people full of people 70 lawyers 30 engineers what is George George dislikes novels likes to do carpentry on weekends wears a pocket protector in his shirt pocket to carry his pens has dull mechanical writing has a great need for order and neatness base rate overall proportion of something in a samplepopulation the fallacy a people ignore actual mathematical proportions lawyers in the example do not appropriate combine baserate amp individuating information result most people guess George is an engineer conjunction fallacy example s Linda a bank teller or a feminist bank teller Linda wears tiedyed shirts wears buttons that assert men are slime tries to organize the women in her workplace my note this a an awful characterization of feminism 40m Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychaiogl brief overview glorious Venn Diagram example in words the conjunction of feminist amp bank teller must be lower in likelihood than bank teller alone CONJUNCTIVE EVENTS CAN NEVER EXCEED THE LIKELIHOOD OF THEIR INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS example a most people pick Linda is a feminist teller ignoring the logic 40m Weellt131 evolution ary cognitive psychaiogy brief overview c2 lluimmiary humans routinely solve complex natural tasks object recognition grammar induction speech perception science has tools of logic and statistics but humans outperform Al PARADOX IF HUMANS ARE RIDDLED WITH COGNITIVE MECHANISMS THAT ROUTINELY CAUSE ERRORS 86 BIASES HOW DO WE OUTPERFORM AI 40m Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychaiow brief overview Ki Greek to non Greek example a too parochial ecological structure over evolutionary time human environment had certain statistical regularities eg ecological structure rain often followed thunder violence sometimes followed angry shouts sex sometimes followed prolonged eye contact dangerous bites often followed getting to close to snakes ecological rationality a evolved mechanisms that utilize ecological structure for adaptive problem solving shapeform of cognitive mechanisms coordinate with the recurring statistical regularities of the ancestral environments in which humans evolved we fear snakes not electrical outlets recurrent statistical regularity between snakes and bad consequences electrical outlets are too recent to have recurrently produced bad outcomes ii nnmntanit point problem solving strategies are designed for solving a specific set of problems those that recurred over evolutionary time problem solving strategies are poor at solving artificial or novel problems mismatch between problem presented and problems the mechanism was designed to solve errors 40m Week131 evolution ary cognitive baychaioa brief overview mixing 7 depends on 3 ingredients 1 specific goal sought 2 materials at hand 3 context in which the problem is embedded selection contends a truth validity logical constancy DO NOT MATTER what matters is what works in the currency of replicative success 40m Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychaiow brief overview from an evolutionary perspective must ask which adaptive problems human cognitive mechanisms evolved to solve what would compose sound reasoningjudgment eg trouble locating your car at night in a parking lot illuminated with sodium vapor lamps we conclude your visual system is fine why your eyes were designed to perceive color of objects under natural light Shepard 1992 Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychalogl brief overview A a We is alrerqu extend the sodium lamp example to cognitive testing experiments require 5s to make probabilityjudgments based on a single event Gigerenzer 1991 1998 reliable numerical statements re probability of 1 event were rare in Pleistocene littleto no number terms in modern band level societies Tooby amp Cosmides eg a woman cannot have 35 chance of pregnancy so probabilities do not make sense when applied to a single case Weellt131 evolution ary cognitive psychaiogy brief overview lyiifrzi rg ii I went to the valley 8 times how many times did I find berries last 3 times I put my arm around my potential mate how many times was I rebuffed experiments that require 55 to calculate probabilities from single events are artificial medical diagnosis problem probability information frequency information pictorialvisual information people DO NOT ignore baserate information IF base rate info is presented in a manner that maps more closely onto ancestral times sorts of input important point not all cognitive mechanisms are designed to process information about frequencies of events rather some forms of decision making in condition of uncertainty require processing of frequency information points to drive home evo psych suggests 39 consider the format of the info humans were designed to solve conduct experiments that more closely mimic the formats of info humans were designed to solve rather than a single intelligence humans possess multiple intelligences rather than general reasoning ability humans have many specialized abilities to reason human mind is filled with complex amp problem specific cognitive mechanisms each designed to solve a different adaptive problem instead of general abilities to learn imitate remember etc ital psych most important adaptive problems human ancestors faced were social study of human cognition cannot be divorced from human social interaction Mechanisms describable at the cognitive level underlie amp organize all of human thought amp behavior notjust knowledge acquisition amp so cognitive psychology needs to broaden its scope to include them Cosmides amp Tooby1994 p 105 40m Weellt131 evolutionary cognitive psychalogl brief overview 3 hollmiv lluiitimary social 1mm 4 a important adaptive problems are inherently social negotiating social hierarchies forming longterm social exchange relationships using language to communicate 84 influence others forming short and longterm mateships managing social reputations amidst shifting allies 84 rivals dealing with kin of varying 8439 uncertain degrees of genetic relatedness human mind should be heavily populated with mechanisms dedicated to social situations ii iiteire giti ini pl Weellt131 eVDlMLanal y i cogsiiwe correspondence bias tendency to explain a person s psyc Gog brief behaVIor by Invoking enduring dispositions even when overview Situational causes are responsible Gilber amp Malone 1995 Ross 1981 social Ioafing effect individual contributions decrease as a function of increasing group size Latane 1981 self handicapping present a publicly purported weakness about oneself to buffer against failure Leary amp Shepperd 1986 self serving bias make attributions that make oneself look better than others in the group Nisbett amp Ross 1980 confirmation bias selectively seek out info that affirms an already held hypothesis Hansen 1980 itinerariesquot ire a quotelliiaimrg inclusive fitness theory Hamilton 1964 altruistic acts should be heavily directed toward other organisms that 1 likely have copies of the helper39s genes 2 have the ability to convert such help into increased survival or reproduction has profound consequences for the social psychology of family altruism helping coalitions amp even aggression Week131 evolution ary cognitive psychaiogy brief uverview v w phenomenon sexual selection Darwin 1871 evolution can occur through mating advantage accrued through besting intrasexual competitors being preferentially chosen as a mate by members of the oppOSIte sex social phenomenon of import samesex competition homicideviolence risk taking mate choice between sex conflict sex differences in status striving sex differences in the risk of dying cordial igoahtenommsrmon parental investment theory Trivers 1972 sex that invests more in offspring is predicted to be more choosy in mate selection sex investing less in offspring predicted to be less choosy in mate selection amp more competitive with its own sexual access to high investing sex capitalizing on evo theories re social phenomenon reciprocal altruism Axelrod amp Hamilton 1981 Trivers 1971 Williams 1966 offers evolutionary explanation for important social phenomenon friendship cooperation helping altruism social exchange caudally E7 cordial pahmomenon conflict within families is often viewed as a symptom of malfunctioning parent offspring conflict Trivers 1974 conflicts will be common supply explanation for sibling rivalry accounts for higher frequency of child abuse in step families predicts conflict between mother amp child over time of weaning thquot I l lhx giuin t c value re ltqu p 40m Week131 evolutionary cognitive bWChGlOE brier overview mating is an obvious domain linking the two sects also of import status prestige amp reputation humans are a group living species with well articulated social hierarchies these occur universally across cultures amp subcultures prestige status amp reputation determine alot of evo important events such as survival amp access to mates overview Evolutionary psychology in short provides a powerful meta theory Buss 1995 for why humans are so profoundly fascinated by the plays of Shakespeare amp stories on soap operas amp in tabloid newspapers mating divorce pregnancy revelations about paternity deceit manipulation power sibling rivalries paternal manipulations amp extramarital affairs Buss 1999 p 387
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