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Human Memory

by: Mrs. Gracie Heathcote

Human Memory PSY 373

Mrs. Gracie Heathcote
GPA 3.59


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This 135 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Gracie Heathcote on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 373 at Syracuse University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/225618/psy-373-syracuse-university in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Sensory Memory PSY 373 Human Memory September 8 2008 Overview of today s material a Iconic memory a Echoic memory modality effect suffix effect Housekeeping o Quizzes 0 Should have registered for coglab oComplete Partial report for Wednesday ie midnight Tuesday Important stuff from last time oEbbinghaus associations Asymmetry non adjacent associations 0 Sensory registers vis a vis the modal model 0 Partial report experiment A graphic illustration The Modal Model Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1971 smva HEGlerns manual are 5T3 mummy WORKING MEMORY tom TERM swnz as mwn gw mm pmmum MEMDKV stE mmnss DUWUY Control at Cugmtmn 7 Sensory Memory 0 Sensory memory 1 Visual sensory memory iconic 2 Acoustic sensory memory echoic precategorical acoustic store PAS Sperling 1960 0 Letters are more complex and detailed than dots or beans 0 How much information can be retained a How does this information decay Sperling s stimuli 3939Igtlt I JgtI U39UX Eltm Whole report vs Partial report 0 Briefly flash array of stimuli 0 Whole report tell me all the letters 0 Partial report tell me one row o but you don t know which row until the stimulus is gone Procedure and Coglab demo Sperling s results a Whole report estimates size of memory at 45 items 0 Subjects reported seeing more than they could say a Varied delay between offset of array Some things to think about 0 What s the independent variable 0 What s the dependent variable Sperling s results Rapid decay Another way of looking at things Partial better than whole Number of letters available Number cl letlers h display BI 11 Thur I a r r n l q mmuuuuuy I lunn has been terminaled Sperling s interpretation Partial report superior to whole report because it takes time to say the letters Rapidly decaying precategorical visual store a Precategorical Letters stored as pattern of light rather than set of letters a Decaying Lasts a short time regardless of input oVisual shouldn t depend on info from other modalities Questions about Sperling s interpretation 0 Precategorical Report letters rather than digits 0 Decaying Perhaps output interference 0 Visual Phonological errors in output Echoic memory 0 Like iconic memory but in the auditory modality 0 Experimental paradigm Suffix effect a Theory Precategorical Acoustic Store PAS o Rely heavily on serial recall How serial recall works 0 Series of stimuli 0 Written or verbal recall a Scored as correct if correct item in correct position 3 Serial Recall Example resent Reca absence 1 absence hollow 2 hollow pupil 3 river 4 pupil darling 5 campaign 6 darling helmet 7 helmet The Serial Position Curve in Serial Recall 0 Probability of recall as a function of list order a Primacy effect advantage for the first items over items in the middle 0 Recency effect advantage for the last items over items in the middle The Modality Effect fig 25 a Serial recall as a function of serial position for words read aloud and words read silently o Recency superior when words read aloud a Note The modality effect refers to a change in the size of the recency effect Precategorical Acoustic Store PAS o Crowder and Morton 1969 proposed SR modality effect a consequence of recall from PAS o Auditory store that holds information for a short time o Recency predicted to be a function of unique information in PAS o PAS subject to interference The Suffix Effect Figure 26 0 Extra material or suffix at the end of the list a Eg when you hear the word zero recall the list ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL HELMET zero a Recency effect goes away if suffix resembles speech a Suffix effect also refers to a change in the recency effect Things that don t give a suffix effect 0 A blank delay a A visually presented word a A tone or a buzzer Problems with PAS o Signers and lip readers show suffix effect a Suffix effect with articulatory suppression o Suffix effect depends on how suffix interpreted Fig 27 N845 o Ultimately needs to be understood in the light of models of serial recall Problems with PAS o Signers and lip readers show suffix effect not so acoustic o Suffix effect with articulatory suppression see above a Suffix effect depends on how suffix interpreted Fig 27 Ayers 1979 Experiment 0 Trumpet wa suffix o If PAS is precategorical then suffix effect should only depend on the physical properties of the suffix o All subjects heard a trumpet with a plunger before recaH Ayers 1979 Experiment cont d a Two conditions differ on instructions when you hear the person say wa recall the words or when you hear the trumpet go wa recall the words a Suffix effect for person instructions but not trumpet instructions The Ian Neath as a Sheepquot experiment fig 27 0 Four conditions 1 two suffices a sheep and Ian Neath saying baa 2 two instructions that s a sheep and that s a person saying baa a When S thought it was a sheep no suffix effect even for speech Conclusions from sensory memory a Sensory memory studied extensively in visual and auditory modalities o Sperling s iconic memory vision Crowder s PAS audition o Precategorical nature of these stores questionable 0 Interaction between perception and higher order processes perception and memory Assignment 0 Complete Partial Report by Wed 0 Read Ch 2 amp 3 you should have read Ch 1 already Repetitions in Memory ll PSY 373 Human Memory November 8 2006 Housekeeping 0 Anyone need Crowder handout 0 Next experiment will be phonological similarity Do exp by 13th hand in by 20th 0 No class Nov 15 Last exam Dec 6 Did i grade the exam yet Shooting for monday Great job on the Sternberg questions Important stuff from last time o All or none learning a Rock s drop out experiment a Estes RTT experiment a Melton lag effect Rock s Dropout experiment 0 Procedure 0 Logic 0 Results 0 Implications Estes RTT experiment 0 Procedure 0 Logic 0 Results 0 Implications Melton lag effect 0 Procedure 0 Predictions o Spacing effect a Lag effect what s lag here A potential confound If we have a list of a finite length and we present an item at a big lag is it more or less likely to appear in the primacyrecency portion than if we presented it at a small lag Usually put in primacy and recency buffers that aren t counted in the analyses What could explain the Melton lag effect 0 Strength theory a The recency effect Why does strength theory fail Classes of explanation for the lag effect 0 Deficient processing a Encoding variability Deficient processing The second repetition is not effectively processed due to it being a repetition o consolidation 0 rehearsal Less total storage of massed repetitions A rehearsal explanation of the spacing effect Let s say you can only have one copy of an item in STS Do you get more transfer to LTS with massed or spaced presentation A test of the rehearsal explanation A corrolary of the rehearsal explanation is that it should only hold in mixed lists STS is presumably fu throughout and there s the same amount of transfer across items This view was supported by some experiments that failed to show a spacing effect in pure lists Pure vs mixed spacing lists A mixed list ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL PUPIL ABSENCE RIVER RIVER HOLLOW A pure massed list ABSENCE ABSENCE HOLLOW HOLLOW PUPIL PUPIL RIVER RIVER A pure spaced list ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL HOLLOW RIVER PUPIL ABSENCE RIVER Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists supplemental reading So let s test pure lists in which everything is massed spaced short 1 8 or spaced long 5 20 Condition PR Massed 0319 i 006 Spaced short 0343 i 005 Spaced long 0367 i 005 Small but reliable spacing and lag effects Serial position effects in pure lists Probability of Recall 1O 20 30 4O 50 60 7O 80 90 Serial Position How do you measure serial position of an item that s presented three times A functional explanation of the lag effect 0 Recall the lag CRP o If an item is presented at a long lag then there are more items likely to precede it o More chances to recall an item Probability of First Recall The lagCRP in free recall Study ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL 1 2 3 Test 0 6 10 3 5 L a L o J 0 Lag Serial Position The lagCRP in free recall Mk u 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 4 2 o 2 4 Apparently CRPs operate even with repetitions Massed Spaced O3 03 g g Short 3 S Long N N 0 Q 9 9 0 O2 0 02 D D I I C C O O Q Q I I D D n n g 01 M g 01 2 9 C C O O o o 0 i i i i i i i i i i i 0 i i i i i i i i i i 54321012345 54321012345 Massed Lag Minimum Lag Wide spacing means you travel over the list more efficiently Necessary conditions Logic requires several conditions to be met a massed items are rehearsed less in mixed list b same total amount of rehearsal in pure lists c total amount of rehearsal olt total recall Other data with bearing on deficient processing a In a self paced study 55 spend less time on second presentation of massed repetitions 0 Increase in lag accompanied by better memory for second repetition suggesting second item is short changed at short lags Encoding variability explanation Fig 96 More routes to retrieval in contrast to more total storage in deficient processing accounts What do we mean by encoding context Maybe 0 Different semantic interpretations 0 Attention to different features of a word 0 Different background mental states Effects of semantic context on the spacing effect Fig 97 The Peterson Paradox 0 Free recall studies usually at long delays 0 What about at short delays 0 Peterson as in Brown Peterson used a continuous paired associates test figure 98 0 See Table 91 Why is this paradoxical The paradox o The lag effect is an anti recency effect a A recency effect co exists with an anti recency effect Can the CRP describe spacing and lag effects in cued studies How about an STSbased account How about a generalized consolidation accountquot figure 95 The general case of the Peterson Paradox Figure 911 Estes stimulussampling model a The stimulus elements caused by a nominal stimulus are not the same on each trial a Subset of stimulus elements active on any trial 0 Active elements can be conditioned to a response PR depends on number of elements conditioned to that response Estes 1950 Quantitative description of simple acquisition from first principles 8 36 A m s S m SC S m0eqT l L Shm dm S Why stimulus sampling theory explains learning 0 Imagine a simple association light food o What happens when we present the pairing 0 What happens when we repeat the pairing Estes 1955 Instead of assuming that the samples at each moment are independent assumes that they change gradually over time o Enables modeling of forgetting o Spontaneous recovery 0 Peterson paradox 000 O 00 39 O O 39 0000 o o 39 o 0000 populations O 0000 Gradually changing stimulus The Estes model and the Peterson paradox Fig 99 A verbal interpretation of stimulussampling theory Fig 910 o What does it mean to sample an item 0 Rather than sampling sub items sample one of several discrete versions of an item meanings senses etc a You could also suppose that you don t step into the same river twice Are encoding variability and deficient processing really so different Spacing and lag effects summary a Melton lag effect 0 Peterson Paradox fig 911 o Deficient processing a Encoding variability fig 97 o Stimulus sampling theory Repetitions and judgements of occurrence Judgement of recency 0 Give a series of stimuli a At test give a pair of old items in forced choice version o S must pick which was more recent Judgement of recency Let s give it a try DANGER CORNER ERROR CAMPAIGN COURAGE BASIN CHAPTER METHOD DISTRICT MISTRESS PARTNER TRIBUTE MEETING SYSTEM THUNDER RECORD SENATE SHOWER MISTAKE KEEPER INTEREST CONCERT OCEAN BUBBLE MONARCH CHAMBER GENIUS WITNESS MUSCLE CONTENTS EXCESS PILLOW PILOT RELIEF FARMER JACKET SUPPER BULLET COUNTY SAILOR BASIN PILOT which was more recent OCEAN FARMER which was more recent KEEPER INTEREST which was more recent GENIUS MISTAKE which was more recent MEETING SENATE which was more recent DISTRICT CHAPTER which was more recent How might we perform this task Strength theory and judgements of recency Fig 917 top Multipletrace theory most closely associated with Hintzman 0 Items are attached to contextual tags 0 Multiple presentations of an item each get their own tag oWe can pull out information about each tag separately Repetitions on JoRs Fig 917 middle and bottom Should performance be easier in before or after condition according to strength theory How about multiple trace theory Repetitions and JOR o In fact performance in the before condition is worse than the after condition 0 So is strength theory right Where do errors come from in a multipletrace theory of JOR Flexser and Bower 1974 We must have some chance of misremembering BA as AB If we study BBA we have two traces that we can confuse Repetitions and judgements of frequency Table 93 Logic of strength theory Results Repetitions and judgements of frequency Hintzman and Block 1971 Figure 918 Logic of strength theory Results Conclusions Strength theory is certainly incorrect insofar as we can remember specific properties of individual presentations All or none learning spacing and lag effects and judgments of frequencyrecency inform our knowledge about what happens when an item is repeated Repetitions create a complex puzzle for theories of memory Summary oStimulus sampling theory and the Peterson Paradox o Multiple trace theory a Repetitions and Judgements of RecencyJudgements of Frequency Assignment 0 If you haven t already read the Crowder chapter handout 0 Supplemental reading might be useful


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