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Date Created: 10/21/15
Echoic memory and the foundations of STS PSY 400 Human Memory Spring 2004 January 26 2004 Overview of today s material a Sperling review Our data and writing experiment reports a Echoic memory Precategorical acoustic store 0 Primarysecondary memory 1 Miller 1956 and the JamesBroadbent model 2 The Brown Peterson Task 3 The Waugh Norman task a The serial position curve in free recall Important stuff from last time o Taxonomy of memory a Sensory memory consists of iconic and echoic o Iconic memory probably involved in perception o Sperling whole vs partial report procedure a Fast decay of visual information across time scale of seconds Sperling s results Fig 22 a Whole report estimates size of memory at 45 items 0 Subjects reported seeing more than they could say a Varied delay between offset of array 0 Fig 23 PSY 400 Fall 03 s results 28 Ss Delay ms Correct 20 604 100 583 300 517 1000 506 A Graph of Last Semester s Data rm2003 1000 7 66 666664 7 E g as 33 333332 7 00 7 x x x 100 356 66666 703 3333 1050 5 ms Properties of a good experiment report 0 Should be about 2 3 pages 0 Should have three components 0 Should reflect thought Three components of an Experiment Report 0 Empirical description 0 Methodological concerns 0 Theoretical discussion Empirical Description How did these data look 0 PR 6 for shortest delay a Gradual decrease to about 5 at longest delay oThe existence of a decrease was similar to Sperling s results 0 How would we estimate Letters available from percent correct a Lower overall performance than Sperling Methodological Concerns How could our results of the experiment depend on different strategies a participant might use 0 What if we only concentrated on one row What effect would this have on the curve 0 How could we detect this oWhat if we tended to blink when we were supposed to be looking at the array Performance by Row of the Array 3 Top 0 Middle 25 7 Bottom 2 M 15 Number Correct 05 0 250 500 750 1000 ISI ms Theoretical interpretation assuming not covered in class yet How could you explain the results 0 Retinal afterimage 0 Persistent neural activity in visual areas 0 Precategorical iconic memory 0 Persistent neural activity including visual areas and other regions as well Theoretical interpretation assuming covered in class already Does the explanation from the literature make sense based on your personal experience 0 Sperling interpreted as iconic memory 0 Others have elaborated this as including other categorical information as well a I experienced a short lived stimulus persistence Iook at image and read it for a short time 0 Usually could only see one or two rows What might be different between our data and Sperling s oControlled stimulus environment no phones ringing darkened room a Careful control over size of array on retina fixed distance to screen a What else What do we mean by cognitive theory 0 Empirical phenomena Findings relating memory performance to task variables 0 Theoretical explanations Hypothesized cognitive mediators of empirical phenomena An example oln Sperling s partial report experiment the rapid decay of performance is an empirical phenomenon o Sperling s hypothesis was that visual information is stored in iconic memory oThe hypothesis is not that performance decreases that is an empirical result Echoic memory 0 Like iconic memory but in the auditory modality 0 Experimental paradigm Suffix effect a Theory Precategorical Acoustic Store PAS o Rely heavily on serial recall How serial recall works 0 Series of stimuli 0 Written or verbal recall a Scored as correct if correct item in correct position A Serial Recall Exam plle Present Reca absence 1 absence hollow 2 hollow pupil 3 river 4 pupil darling 5 campaign 6 darling helmet 7 helmet The Serial Position Curve in Serial Recall 0 Probability of recall as a function of list order a Primacy effect advantage for the first items over items in the middle 0 Recency effect advantage for the last items over items in the middle The Modality Effect fig 25 a Serial recall as a function of serial position for words read aloud and words read silently o Recency superior when words read aloud a Note The modality effect refers to a change in the size of the recency effect What could cause the modality effect Precategorical Acoustic Store PAS o Crowder and Morton 1969 proposed SR modality effect a consequence of recall from PAS o Auditory store that holds information for a short time o Recency predicted to be a function of unique information in PAS o PAS subject to interference The Suffix Effect Figure 26 0 Extra material or suffix at the end of the list a Eg when you hear the word zero recall the list ABSENCE HOLLOW PUPIL HELMET zero a Recency effect goes away if suffix resembles speech a Suffix effect also refers to a change in the recency effect Things that don t give a suffix effect 0 A blank delay a A visually presented word a A tone or a buzzer Problems with PAS o Signers and lip readers show suffix effect not so acoustic o Suffix effect with articulatory suppression see above a Suffix effect depends on how suffix interpreted Fig 27 Ayers 1979 Experiment 0 Trumpet wa suffix o If PAS is precategorical then suffix effect should only depend on the physical properties of the suffix o All subjects heard a trumpet with a plunger before recaH Ayers 1979 Experiment cont d a Two conditions differ on instructions when you hear the person say wa recall the words or when you hear the trumpet go wa recall the words a Suffix effect for person instructions but not trumpet instructions The Ian Neath as a Sheepquot experiment fig 27 0 Four conditions 1 two suffices a sheep and Ian Neath saying baa 2 two instructions that s a sheep and that s a person saying baa a When S thought it was a sheep no suffix effect even for speech Conclusions from sensory memory a Sensory memory studied extensively in visual and auditory modalities o Sperling s iconic memory vision Crowder s PAS audition o Precategorical nature of these stores questionable 0 Interaction between perception and higher order processes perception and memory Primary memory a Primary Memory The set of things we re currently aware of including the recent past a Secondary Memory The set of things we could remember if we wanted to James 1890 Primary memory The objects we feel in this directly intuited past differ from properly recollected objects An object which is recollected in the proper sense of the term is one which has been absent from consciousness altogether and now revives anew But an object of primary memory is not thus brought back it never was lost its date was never cut off in consciousness from that of the immediately present moment In fact it comes to us as belonging to the rearward portion of the present space of time and not to the genuine past Relationship of primary memory to sensory memory 0 Whereas sensory memory stores are supposed to be tied to a specific modality primary memory is more general a Multimodal perceptions as well as modality independent thought a Not automatic subject to controlled processing Miller 1956 The magical number 7 i 2 o Noted memory span was approx 7 i 2 items a Noted that limits of absolute identification were about the same 0 Did these two things have something in common with each other Absolute Identification 0 Name a unidimensional stimulus 0 When the number of stimuli is about 7i 2 this becomes impossible to do perfectly 0 Doesn t depend on the range of the stimuli The central thesis of Miller 1956 Do memory span and absolute identification have anything to do with each other Most authors would say no eg Nosofsky 1993 Others are not so sure Brown Neath and Chater in preparation Other contributions of Miller 1956 o Introduced notion of chunk o Popularized information theory for the study of memory Broadbent s 1958 model a S system like iconic and echoic memory 0 P system conscious awareness a secondary memory long term storage a SP are primary or immediate memory limited capacity a Rehearsal necessary to maintain information in immediate memory The BrownPeterson Task 0 Brown 1958 0 Peterson and Peterson 1959 0 Recall trigrams after a delay BrownPeterson task Methods 0 No shocking 0 Present consonant trigram 0 Count backwards by threes or distinguish even odd 0 Variable delay to recall What is the purpose of the secondary task What is the purpose of the secondary task 0 Prevent rehearsal o If Broadbent s theory is correct then we should be looking at decay from primary memory Brown Peterson Emprical Description Brown Peterson Emprical Description 0 Fig 33 o Decay in performance with increasing delay 0 Perhaps an asymptote at long delays BrownPeterson Theoretical interpretation 0 Recall from decaying primary memory a Is this consistent with your experience Definition Proactive Interference oProactive interference is a decrement in performance attributable to prior learning a Often shown as a decrement in performance with practice a How can you distinguish from fatigue Definition Retroactive Interference oRetroactive interference is a decrement in performance attributable to subsequent learning a Often shown as a decrease in memory as a function of recency o How can you distinguish from recency BrownPeterson and PI from longterm memory a No forgetting with delay for one trial a Release from PI 0 Graphics from Delosh and Merritt httpamarcoostateedu bcleggPY453STMpdf Keppel and Underwood 1962 Perfect performance on first trial even with long delay Proportion Correct 085 O 75 O 7 O 65 O 6 055 05 El ltgt 3 Seconds 9 Seconds l 18 S econds T al Release from Pl paradigm 0 Word trigrams from a category 0 Eg CAR BIKE SHIP 0 Some 55 get a category shift after a few trials 0 Eg shift from methods of transportation to vegetables Release from Pl results 1 09 I 08 07 06 05 04 O 3 u C onttol Proportion C orrect 02 01 39 Exper39nental 0 I l 2 3 4 Trial Waugh and Norman 1965 Interference vs decay in primary memory 0 Probe digit task Q74 89215 A 8 a Different rate of presentation oAllows to distinguish decay from retroactive interference Waugh and Norman 1965 Results P roporcion C onect l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 12 Num beroffntervenjng Jhem s The recency effect in immediate and delayed free recall Howard and Kahana 1999 The state of primary memory research in 1968 oTheoretical distinction between primary and secondary memory olmportance of rehearsal in maintaining information understood 0 Role of interference The Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Model 0 STS is a m Externii mew SENSORY REGISTER r capacity buffer 0 Control processes 39 E E i H L SHORTTERM STORE j l i operate on STS r4 m L o Forgetting in LTS by i l I I i A L r n I II V I p LONG TERM STORE j v I decay interference r n I I I 39 nc quot L p J Fla 1 Structure of the memory system Automatic vs controlled processing 0 Automatic processing happens independently of volition on the part of the S a Controlled processing is a result of strategic decisions on the part of the S Controlled Processing in STS 0 Control processes F maintain information in ll STS SHORTTERM STORE o Rehearsal is main one o The longer in STS the more transfer to LTS l nzmv LDSS or Fla 2 The mhanrsal buffer and its relation to the memory ayahem A t 39 d 39 t t t 5 H E E a H E M I m us 1m 5 a in 1 Fla 3 A sample sequence 11 um fur Exparimenb 1 A Mathematical modeling of STS o Number letter paired associates tests a New item would either enter the buffer or not a If stimulus already in buffer certain to enter a If stimulus not in buffer some probability of it displacing a random item Mathematical modeling of LTS 0 Amount in LTS related to time in STS o Exponential trace decay over time Describes Performance 0 Level of performance at long delay depends on time in buffer 0 Chances of entering buffer greater if fewer stimuli 0 Better performance if fewer stimuli used PROBABILITY of A CORRECT RESPONSE in considerable detail All same All different moawmn or A connzcr RESPONSE h And predicts effect of overt covert rehearsal o In the overt condition subjects repeat each pair a Atkinson and Shiffrin argued this led to automatic entry into buffer a Model predicts certain patterns of results Forgetting with overt covert rehearsal m o mman V or A comm nEsmNsE m and details with overtcovert rehearsal PnoeAavurv or A CORRECT RESPONSE Summary 0 Definition of Primary memory a Primary memory subject of much interest through 505 and 60s a Brown Peterson task taken as evidence for much of this 0 Lots of LTS effects Brown Peterson o Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 model culmination of a great deal of thought Assignment 0 Next experiment will be Serial Position 0 Read Chapter 4 for Monday 0 Optional reading Miller 1956
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