An Introduction to the Analysis of Public Policy
An Introduction to the Analysis of Public Policy PAF 101
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lawson Wisozk on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PAF 101 at Syracuse University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see /class/225660/paf-101-syracuse-university in Urban Affairs&Public Policy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Module 5 Competition Debrie ng Notes Students were asked to complete Module 5 Exercises 9194 on the following Proposed Policy Hold Syracuse University tuition increases to the rate of in ation The following is a slideshow created to highlight common errors on exercises 9194 The errors are listed in totality with helpful instructions on the final slide In this debrie ng each slide was created to show common errors on the exercise and includes a description of the errors beneath the slide for an easier time covering the material in class It is recommended that each student group is called on to critique one slide each identifying as many errors as they can Module 5 Competition 4 Policy Hold Syracuse University Tuition Increases to the Rate of Inflation Exercise 9 Briefly describe the public policy you want to implement Tuition at Syracuse University will not rise with in ation Exercise 91 Problems Bullet 1 This is the incorrect policy Correct SU tuition increases will be held to the rate of in ation Exerczse 92 lt List five players that have the most influence on your policy by lling out the chart below Brie yjustify each selection Be sure to include the title of each player Player and Justification Title 1 Students Students want low tuition 2 Parents Parents cannot afford high tuition 3 Professors Professors want to make money 4 Chancellor She wants the University to make money so she will try to stop this policy 5 Loan Companies They have an interest in keeping tuition high Exercise 92 Problems Player 1 0 Students are not a player Student Association would be a player 0 Justi cation shows that students consider this a priority but does not show they have power which is what would make them a player Player 2 0 Parents are not a player Parent association or organization would be 0 Justi cation is again for priority not for power Player 3 o Professors are not a player An organization union or association of professors would be 0 Priority justi cation not power Player 4 0 Should identify the title AND name Correct Nancy Cantor President and Chancellor 0 Priority justi cation not power Player 5 0 Loan companies do not have power over decisions about adjusting tuition They are not a player just a stakeholder 0 Priority justi cation not power Exercise 93 lt9 Estimate and provide justi cation for the issue position power and priority for each player listed in Exercise 92 Player 1 Name and Title Students Issue Position 3 Justification Students are not in a position to in uence people s decisions Power 0 Justification Students don t have any power Priority 5 Justification cost of school is the most important issue for students Exercise 93 Problems Issue Position 0 Should have a 0 Should be higher 0 Justi cation describes power not position Correct Students would fully support a policy that would prevent them from paying even more for college Power 0 Power cannot be 0 or they would not be a player which they aren t unless organized as a student group like Student Association Priority 0 Priority should be lower because a student group is not a single issue player Exercise 93 lt Estimate and provide justi cation for the issue position power and priority for each player listed in Exercise 92 Player 2 Name and Title Parents Issue Position 2 Justification Parents may want it to be cheaper at school but they are happy to pay for a good education Power 5 Justification Parents hold all the power because they decide whether or not to pay the tuition Priority 2 JustificationTuition is low on a parent s priority list Exercise 93 Problems Issue Position 0 Should have a 0 Parents should have rmer more positive issue position because of course they would want college to stay as inexpensive as possible Power Parents do not have any power unless organized into a group Even then they hold minimal power because they can t directly make the decision they can only try and persuade University o icials Priority While parents have to consider all kinds of issues it is likely that nances in general which tuition costs fall under are higher than a 2 priority Exercise 93 Estimate and provide justi cation for the issue position power and priority for each player listed in Exercise 92 Player 3 Name and Title Professors Issue Position 5 Justification Professors like high tuition because then they make more money Power 1 Justification The professors don t decide the cost of tuition the Chancellor does Priority 1 Justification Professors are more concerned with teaching than tuition Exercise 93 Problems Issue Position 0 Unlikely that Professors would be so negative towards this policy While they may be negative 5 is too high Power 0 While a single professor is a dog a group of organized professors would be a player But they would have a low power either a l or 2 so this rating is correct but the justification should mention their power is limited not that they don t make any decision Priority 0 Correct Exercise 93 a Estimate and provide justification for the issue position power and priority for each player listed in Exercise 92 Player 4 Name and Title Chancellor Issue Position 5 Justi cation Her biggest priority is making the University more money Power 5 Justi cation She can change tuition at any time Priority 5 Justi cation The Chancellor s only focus is funding so she cares a lot about tuition Exercise 93 Problems Issue Position 0 The Chancellor would not be so opposed to a policy that would bene t so many students While she does want to make money she also has to appear concerned about students so she would have either a neutral or positive position Power 0 While the power rating is correct a better justi cation would be that she has veto power Priority 0 The Chancellor is a player with many issues to focus on so her priority would not be any higher than a 3 Exercise 93 lt Estimate and provide justi cation for the issue position power and priority for each player listed in Exercise 92 Player 5 Name and Title Loan Companies Issue Position 5 Justi cation Loan companies can deny loans to students who need them Power 5 Justi cation Without a loan students can t afford school Priority 1 Justi cation Companies make loans for things besides tuition Exercise 93 Problems Issue Position 0 This is like a power justification but does not actually relate to companies power to effect the policy Says nothing about position Better Loan companies make their money by students being unable to pay tuition so they want tuition to be as high as possible Power 0 This establishes power but not over this policy If loan companies have any power to in uence decisions about tuition it would be very low Priority 0 This is a correct justi cation but the rating might be slightly higher because student loans are a big market 0 Exercise 9 4 A Using the policy identified in 91 and the information in Exercise 93 complete a Prince Chart in the form below Players Issue X Power X Priority Prince Position Score Students 3 X 0 X 5 1 5 Pa rents 2 X 5 X 2 10 Professors 5 X 1 X 1 5 Chancellor 5 X 5 X 5 125 Loan Companies 5 X 5 X 1 20 Exercise 94 A Problems Row 1 Score should be zero Should have signs Row 2 Score should be 20 Should have signs Row 3 Correct Row 4 Score should be 125 Row 5 Score should be 25 Exercise 94 B 3 Calculate the probability of the policy being implemented following the directions on pp 112114 in the Maxwell Manual Show your calculations here 150175 85 Interpret the probability according to Figure 92 in the Maxwell Manual here This will de nitely happen Exercise 94 B Problems Bullet 1 Does not show calculations Bullet 2 This interpretation is not based on the Maxwell Manual Correct This policy is likely to be implemented Module 2 Competition Debriefing Notes Students were asked to complete Module 2 Exercises 4 l 44 on the following topic Students Views on the undergraduate leadership of current Syracuse University Chancellor Nancy Cantor The following is a slideshow created to highlight common errors on exercises 4144 The errors are listed in totality with help ll instructions on the nal slide Each preceding slide was created to show common errors on each exercise and includes a description of the errors beneath the slide for an easier time covering the material in class It is recommended that each student group is called on to critique one slide each identifying as many errors as they can Module 2 Debrie ng Topic The Chancellor of Syracuse University Nancy Cantor asked for the design of a survey to assess what undergraduates think of her leadership on campus 15 v Exercise A Nancy Cantor Gathering Information for and Determining the Purpose of a Survey Name the Player their organization and title here Nancy Cantor Syracuse University Chancellor Provide a contact telephone number for the player here 315 4432235 Brie y describe the survey you will be designing here Asking students about the Chancellor Write a piece of factual information that could be gathered through your survey here The percentage of students who are satisfied and unsatisfied with the current undergraduate education system Write a piece of attitudinal information that could be gathered through your survey here The average number of times students have seen the Chancellor in person Describe the types of policies the player mi ht develop from the information gathered in your survey here tudents will make an effort to talk to the Chancellor every time they see her on campus Exercise 41A Problems Bullet 1 correct Bullet 2 Correct Bullet 3 Description of the survey is poor Should say The survey will try to nd out how students View Chancellor Cantors leadership in undergraduate education Bullet 4 The factual information is actually attitudinal because it is asking about satisfaction levels which is an attitude Bullet 5 The attitudinal information is factual Bullet 6 The policy is for the students when it is supposed to be for the player who is Nancy Cantor Exercise 4 B Nancy Cantor ltgt Gathering Information for and Determining the Purpose of a Survey Quote the definition of the term target population from the Maxwell Manual 0 Place definition here The target population is the entire group of individuals whom you want to gather informationquot Exercise 41B Problems Bullet 1 The de nition is incomplete missing the word about Missing internal citation Exercise 4 C Nancy Cantor gtGathering Information for and Determining the Purpose of a Survey Identify the target population you will sample for your survey Write a specific description of your target population including its geographic location and approximate size Students attending class on campus Exercise 41C Problems Bullet 1 Not a SPECIFIC description too vague Which students full or part time Grad or undergrad Which campus Main south abroad Exercise 42 A Nancy Cantor lt Choosing a Sample and Method of Contact Indicate and discuss which of the three methods of contact from the Maxwell Manual you will use to contact your sample State the method here Email and call people Justify why you have chosen to use this method here This way we can try and reach every single person either with phone or email Exercise 42 A Problems Bullet 1 Should only be one method of contact Bullet 2 Justi cation should include a rationale like this method has a high response rate according to the Maxwell Manual Or this method is easiest for contact large numbers ofpeople at once Exercise 42 B Nancy Cantor Choosing a Sample and Method of Contact Identify one variable you will use to assess the degree to which our sam le accurately reflects your target opu ation I entify the variable here Liking the C ancellor vs Not liking the Chancellor Explain why the variable you chose matters and why it is important the distribution of your particular variable should be similar to the target population It is im ortant that they match because the variable shou d be the same Exercise 42B Problems Bullet 1 Not an appropriate variable Should choose age race or other traceable characteristics that are already available for the target population Also variables should not have the categories listed like white vs Hispanic but should be identifying the entire group like race Bullet 2 This is redundant Correct the variable class year is important because the amount of time students have spent at SU may effect their feelings about Nancy Cantor The distribution of the variable for the sample should match the distribution in the target population so that the difference in opinions over class years is taken into account Exercise 43 A Nancy Cantor 3 Determining Sample Size Clearly and concisely describe the exact procedures you will use to select the sample and contact the respondents Be detailed and list each step needed to select the sample Be realistic List the steps you will follow here Call students in a random order Ask them the questions Record the answers Exercise 43A Attack Groups Problems Bullet 1 Steps are incomplete 0 Where do they get the names Need a list 0 Need to describe what random means 0 Need to say how many students they will call until complete Exercise 43 B Nancy Cantor Determining Sample Size Complete the following steps to determine your sample size and confidence interval 0 Restate your target population and its size here SU undergrads 12000 students 0 Indicate the size of the sample you plan to analyze here 2000 0 Indicate the approximate percentage this represents of the target population here 30 0 Indicate the 95 confidence interval of responses from a sample of this size here 5 Exercise 43B Problems Bullet l Target population is not specific enough Are they just full time students What about those abroad Must clarify Bullet2 Correct Bullet 3 Percent is incorrect Should be 17 Bullet 4 Con dence interval is incorrect and missing or 7 Exercise 43 C Nancy Cantor lt Determining Sample Size Complete the following steps to determine your response rate and required number of contacts 0 Estimate the exact response rate you expect for your survey here 1750 people 0 Justify the rate you chose here Calling people will get almost all of them to respond 0 Write down how many people you will have to contact here 2000 0 Using the formula from the text show the calculations that you used to nd how many people you will have to contact here Desired sample of contacts 2000 1750 Expected response rate 115 Exercise 43C Attack Groups Problems Bullet 1 Response rate should be a percent not a raw number Bullet 2 Justi cation should be based out of the Maxwell Manual Should reference the speci c response rate expected for phone surveys Correct 50 or some speci c percent between 40 and 75 Bullet 3 Number of people to contact is unverifiable because the response rate was wrong Bullet 4 Incorrect understanding of response rate also messed up the calculations so that the whole section is incorrect Students need to understand response rate and how to do the calculations Exercise 4 4 Nancy Cantor lt Creating the Questions Provide examples of two closedchoice questions for your survey 0 Write the question that will gather factual information here Do you think Nancy Cantor s scholarship in action policy is effective 0 Write the question that will gather attitudinal information here Do you believe Nancy Cantor is an approachable person outside of academics Exercise 44 Problems Bullet l Factual question asks for an opinion so it is attitudinal Both Bullets Neither question is closedchoice Should say Yes No or Not SureDon t Know Module 3 Competition Debriefing Notes Students were asked to complete Module 3 Exercises 5 15 3 and 62 on the following topic Syracuse University students are graduating with too much debt The following is a slideshow created to highlight common errors on exercises 5153 and 62 The errors are listed in totality with helpful instructions on the final slide Each preceding slide was created to show common errors on each exercise and includes a description of the errors beneath the slide for an easier time covering the material in class It is recommended that each student group is called on to critique one slide each identifying as many errors as they can Module 3 Debrie ng Topic Syracuse University undergraduates have too much debt when they graduate Exercise 5 A e Briefly state your societal problem and which local area of the country it applies to Le town city county school district For this module your geographic level must be local State your societal problem here debt State the specific geographic area you will be focusing on here Syracuse Exercise 51 A Problems Bullet 1 This problem is too vague Correct Syracuse University students are graduating with too much debt Bullet 2 Geographic location is not speci c enough Should be Syracuse University Exercise 5 I B Clearly describe two of the most significant negative effects of the societal problem Describe the first negative effect here Students are graduating with too much debt Describe the second negative effect here Tuition costs are getting higher Exercise 51 B Problems Bullet 1 This is just restating the problem with less description Correct Syracuse University will attract fewer high school students Bullet 2 This is a cause of the problem not an effect Correct Students are forced to move home after graduating instead of being independent Exercise 5 2 graph 3 Write up to 4 sentences providing evidence of your societal problem and support this evidence by including a trend line graph 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 l 1995 1998 2005 The average amount of student debt has doubled from 1995 to 2005 We can expect the drop out rate to reach an alltime high Exercise 52 Graph Problems No title No axis labels Years between data points are not even N0 source N0 indication of What years are estimated or real The rst sentence of the explanation is good but the second sentence is not relevant and is unveri able Exercise 52 fr Write up to four sentences providing evidence based on a quote from a player stakeholder or expert that you interviewed here include the direct quote that supports the evidence Students use their credit card a lot at schoolquot Lots of students do not have a job to pay their credit cards and then their debt gets too high Exercise 52 Quote Problems Bullet l o No internal citation 0 Quote is a cause not evidence Correct Students have high credit card debt 0 Second sentence is another cause not evidence Correct This credit card debt adds to student loans to create a rising level of debt among Syracuse University students Exercise 53 a Describe and provide sources for the four most significant causes that contribute to the existence of the societal problem The causes should not overlap or be redundant Write and briefly describe first cause here Students have to take jobs that are not satisfying just so they can make money Write and briefly describe second cause here Tuition is too high Write and briefly describe third cause here The cost of college is more than many students can handle Write and briefly describe the founth cause here Students take too long to graduate Exercise 53 Problems Bullet 1 This is an effect not a cause Correct Students are limited to loans with high interest rates Bullet 2 correct Bullet 3 This is redundant and encompasses Bullet 2 Bullet 4 Not enough description Correct Students take too long to graduate which causes them to incur more education costs than they anticipated 4 v fr 3 Exercise 62 A Describe a public policy alternative to the existing policy to deal with the societal problem identified in 51 The policy must be for SU Rate the feasibility and effectiveness using the terms high medium or lowquot Description of Policy Alternative 1 here and who is responsible for implementation The federal government will pay tuition for all students with a family income of under 100000 Congress will implement this policy Policy Alternative 1 Effectiveness here Justification High effectiveness because lots of students would not have any debt Policy Alternative 2 Feasibility here Justification Low feasibility because the government won39t want to pay money Exercis e62A Problems Bullet 1 This policy is not for SU Bullet 2 Did not rate effectiveness in correct spot Bullet 3 Did not rate feasibility in correct spot Not descriptive enough Should say government will not implement policy because it will require Congress to raise taxes which will make constituents unhappy and less likely to reelect them Exercise 62 B Describe a public policy alternative to the existing policy to deal with the societal problem identified in 51 The policy must be for SU lt Rate the feasibility and effectiveness using the terms high medium or low Description of Policy Alternative 2 and who is responsible for implementation Lower tuition Policy Alternative 2 Effectiveness here Justi cation very effective Policy Alternative 2 Feasibility here Justi cation Not very feasible Syracuse likes having money Doesn t have a good reason to Exercise 62 B Problems Bullet 1 Does not say who is responsible Poor Description Correct SU Board of Trustees will implement a policy to lower SU tuition by 10000 Bullet 2 Rating in wrong place No justi cation Correct Lowering tuition will be very effective because the amount of money students borrow will be less and therefore so will their debt Bullet 3 Rating in wrong place Incomplete justi cation Correct The Board of Trustees likes to make money so they will not support a policy that will give them less money Exercise 62 C 3 Describe another public policy alternative to the existing policy that deals with the societal problem identified in Exercise 51 The policy must be for SU Description of Policy Alternative 3 and who is responsible for implementation here The Chancellor will waive tuition for all students with above a 35 GPA after freshman year Rate Policy Alternative 3 Effectiveness here somewhat effective 0 Justi cation This will not help enough students Rate Policy Alternative 3 Feasibility here High 0 Justi cation This will not involve too many students so the cost will not be enough to stop the Chancellor from doing it Exercise 62 C Problems Bullet 1 Correct Bullet 2 Rating should be high medium or low Bullet 3 This does not have high feasibility The cost will be far too high Ifa policy truly had a high feasibility it would likely already be under consideration or even be implemented Exercise 62 D e In no more than 5 sentences state your preferred policy and explain why it is superior to the other two alternatives by comparing the feasibility and effectiveness of each here Policy one is preferred because it has better feasibility and effectiveness than the other two It is as effective as policy one but the feasibility IS e er Background info Policy 1 rating Highly effective low feasibility Policy 2 rating very effective no feasibility Policy 3 rating somewhat effective high feasibility Exercise 62 D Problems Should say what policy is not just what number Without restating the policy the explanation is unclear Correct Policy three waiving tuition for students with above a 35 GPA is the preferred policy Policy three is actually the better policy There is no comparison between policy three and any other policy Better Policy three is the only policy alternative discussed that has better than low feasibility So while Policy three is slightly less effective than One and Two it s high feasibility still makes it more preferable
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