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Table of Contents What You ll Find in This Packet Week 1 Getting Started 2 Assignment 1 5 Quiz 1 6 Week 2 Plagiarism 8 Copyright Violation and MLA Style Assignment2 11 Quiz 2 12 Week 3 Websites 14 Assignment 3 2O Quiz 3 22 Week 4 Periodicals 24 Assignment4 27 Quiz 4 28 Week 5 quot 39 3O Assignment5 36 Quiz 5 38 Week 6 Using Your Library 40 Assignment 6 45 Quiz 6 46 Week 7 Editing 48 Assignment 7 52 Quiz 7 53 Final Project 55 Course quot 39 56 Additional Materials 57 Informal Outline 57 Fair Use Checklist 59 Copyright Terms 61 Judging Websites 65 DeweyLC Systems 66 Works Cited 67 Week 1 Getting Started The Basics Many English classes cover the basics of writing a paper You all know the rules by now begin your paper with a thesis statement give three paragraphs of supporting evidence then wrap up with a conclusion Good advice but the process of writing a research paper actually begins several steps earlier You should have six things in hand before you start writing A research statement Three to six subtopics to explore A thesis statement A collection of supporting evidence A conclusion Citation information for all your sources This class helps you through the agonizing process of getting started in collegelevel research and writing Nearly everybody even professional researchers feel overwhelmed when given a research assignment There39s just too much to handle Topics Sources Evaluation Synthesis Citation Research becomes less intimidating if you break the process down step by step Start with a research statement A research statement is a rough idea of a topic you want to write about It39s not the same thing as a thesis statement keep reading for more detail The research statement is for you and you alone no one else ever has to see it It can be just one word quotMars quotCopperquot quotPeriodontologyquot or it can be a complete sentence quotMy paper is about the interaction between prophylids and howler monkeys in preColumbian Mesoamericaquot The point is to help organize your thinking by nailing down a topic of interest to you Next make a list of subtopics to explore These subtopics fall under the broad heading of your research statement If you chose the research statement quotMarsquot for example then your list of subtopics to explore might include quotGeology of Marsquot quotHistory of Mars Explorationquot quotIs There Life on Marsquot and quotMars in Mythologyquot Your research statement guides your research for the entire paper your subtopics guide your research for particular pages in the paper or even particular paragraphs Warning you should be able to come up with at least three subtopics Personally I like to have five If you can39t think ofthree specific areas to explore within the scope of your research statement then your statement is too narrow and you won39t be able to write a lengthy paper about it Go back and rewrite your research statement to make it broader Alternatively you may be thinking of dozens of subtopics and it39s hard to know which ones to write about In this case rewrite the research statement to make it narrower You want to have a good grip on your research before you start writing the paper Nothing is more irritating than trying to finish an assignment the night before it39s due only to realize you have nothing to say Outlining We39re going to spend most of the course talking about how to do research to support your basic argument but let me skip ahead briefly to the point just before you39re ready to start writing You know what you want to write about you39ve gathered some information and you39re ready to begin typing DON39T START WRITING YET Some people professional journalists mostly can write a coherent wellorganized paper in one draft These magical people know instinctively how to present their research in the clearest and most convincing way Normal humans need to create a plan for the paper first The MLA Handbook offers a section pages 4856 on creating a formal outline for a research paper This kind of outlining takes you one step beyond your research statement and subtopics The outline lays out the paper in great detail from the thesis statement at the beginning to the conclusion at the end The outline includes all the subtopics you will be writing about defines what order you will mention them what evidence you will cite and what conclusion you will draw at the end of the paper The thesis statement explains what your paper is trying to prove or disprove It must be a complete sentence and it appears early in your finished paper It39s different from a research statement a research statement is a helpful note for your personal use while a thesis statement is a required part of the paper and will be seen by readers The conclusion is a formal summary of the entire paper It restates the thesis statement summarizes the evidence and shows how the evidence supports the statement A thesis statement defines WHAT you intend to prove a conclusion shows HOW you proved it Personally I find formal outlines a little restrictive I prefer a looser more general outline that lets me move stuff around and reorganize the paper as I39m writing That39s also why I like to have five subtopics instead of three if one or more of the subtopics just don39t seem to fit with the flow of the paper I can leave them out It39s always easier to cut stuff out of a finished paper than to add it in I usually lay out my paper down to the page level but not the paragraph or sentence level Writers INCA Student Handbookfor Writing and Learning available in your college library has an example of this kind of outline 177178 I39ve included an example of an informal outline at the end of this packet Reference Books Reference books are a good place to start your research They give you fast facts and a broad introduction to a topic but they don39t go into great depth on any one subject and they don39t provide much in the way of analysis opinion or debate Examples include dictionaries encyclopedias almanacs bibliographies and directories books of quotations and atlases 3 A dictionary is a list of words usually arranged alphabetically accompanied by definitions for those words Standard dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary MerriamWebster39s Dictionary and Random House Dictionary give not only a word39s meaning but also its pronunciation etymology ie history and origins and sometimes an illustration Specialized dictionaries include rhyming dictionaries bilingual dictionaries which translate words from one language into another and dictionaries that concentrate on scientific medical legal or business terms There are also weird dictionaries that get very little use lists of commonly misspelled words dictionaries that arrange words by frequency of use quotthequot is the most commonly used word in the English language and reverse dictionaries which allow you to look up a definition and find the word that goes with it Reverse dictionaries are hard to use and TC library doesn39t buy them Encyclopedias include general articles on subjects of all kinds arranged alphabetically by subject Standard encyclopedias include the Encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia Americana World Book and Compton39s Encyclopedia Specialized encyclopedias are also available Note generally speaking encyclopedias are not acceptable sources for information in a collegelevel research paper You can use one to get started on a topic and it may direct you to other sources you can use in the paper but don39t rely on an encyclopedia to give you material you can include in your main text When using an encyclopedia always start with the index Your topic may be scattered across a variety of different articles and a good index will list them all Almanacs collect fast facts and lists of interesting data Want to know the 10 most expensive restaurants on Earth Who commanded the Prussians at the Battle of Waterloo How much rain falls on Los Angeles in an average year Bibliographies list sources of information on various topics They include citations for books magazines newspaper articles photographs websites and other materials Directories work a lot like bibliographies but instead of books they list people organizations and offices The phone book is a directory Books of quotations gather famous sayings lines of poetry and clips from speeches usually arranged by topic An atlas is a collection of maps usually grouped by geographic region A good atlas will include an index and statistical or factual data Standard atlases give political and geographic information and sometimes economic data as well Specialized atlases focus on transportation geology biology history or other aspects of a particular place Assignment 1 Fill in ALL the following spaces You may use any topic you wish except quotcatsquot This is a practice exercise you DO NOT need to conduct actual research or write a real paper Since you are not really writing a paper here the quotEditing Phase of the process has been left out See the quotInformal Outlinequot at the end of this packet for an example of what the assignment should look like DO YOUR OWN WORK EVERYONE SHOULD COME UP WITH SOMETHING DIFFERENT Research Phase Research statement Areas to explore in the research 1 Writing Phase Thesis statement Supporting evidence 1 Conclusion Week 1 Quiz 1 To find the height of Mt Everest you would look in A An atlas B A directory C Adictionary D A bibliography 2 To find a list of articles about stamp collecting you would look in A An almanac B A book ofquotations C A bibliography D An atlas 3 Encyclopedias are good sources for information to include in the main text of your paper E FALSE 4 How many subtopics should you have before you start your research A 13 B 24 C 36 D 1012 5 A research statement is the same thing as a thesis statement TRUE FALSE 6 The conclusion of a paper A Repeats what you said in the thesis statement B Shows how the evidence supports the thesis statement C Summarizes the evidence D All of the above 7 This class is about A Research B Writing C Citation D All of the above 8 The difference between a formal and informal outline is A Formal outlines are better B Formal outlines are more strict about the order and presentation of evidence C Formal outlines do not include a thesis statement D Formal outlines are taxdeductible 9 A reverse dictionary allows you to A look up a pronunciation and find its word B look up an etymology and find its word C look up a word and find its definition D look up a definition and find its word 10 quotMequot is the most commonly used word in the English language TRUE FALSE Week Z Plagiarism Copyright Violation and MLA Style Plagiarism and Copyright Violation Most students have heard of plagiarism and copyright violation and know that both things can get you into trouble That said the knowledge rarely seems to stop anybody Trust me on this I teach school for a living Plagiarism means copying someone39s work without giving credit to the author Copyright violation means copying someone39s work without getting permission first In both cases quotcopyingquot means a number of things taking text film or audio clips directly out of the original work imitating someone39s fundamental ideas or slightly rephrasing a quotation so that it isn39t exactly the same as the original sentence You can be guilty of either one both at the same time or if you re smart neither Which one is worse Well colleges and creative industries art movie making scientific research technology development come down hard on plagiarism because these organizations make their living off of coming up with new and original ideas Depending on the details of the case plagiarism can get you expelled from school or sink your career For examples of this happening see the famous lawsuit between novelists Nora Roberts and Janet Dailey after Dailey was caught copying pages out of Roberts39s books The historian Stephen Ambrose also landed in hot water over allegations of plagiarism though I don39t think he was ever sued In this class the penalty for plagiarism is a zero on the assignment or final project Colleges tend to worry less about copyright violation which is odd because the penalties for copyright violation are much more severe Someone who feels their copyright has been infringed can sue for lots of money federal guidelines suggest 500000 per infraction and can also demand a public apology and the recall of all published work that contains copyrighted material 50 how do you stay out of trouble Avoiding plagiarism is pretty easy just be careful to give credit to your sources using a formal citation style more on that later Avoiding copyright violation is trickier copyright law is horrifyineg complicated and gets worse with every passing day The only way to make absolutely sure you39re safe is to contact the author of the work and request written permission to use the material However even if you can39t get permission or can39t reach the author you can sometimes still use the material Fair Use Researchers particularly students do have some rights under copyright law For one thing copyright doesn39t last forever Under current American law an author can hold copyright for the entire length of his life plus 70 years after death This rule is fairly standard in most firstworld countries the same time period applies in the European Union Australia and Russia Many other countries including Canada Hong Kong Japan and New Zealand still follow a quotlife plus 50quot rule All materials published in the US before 1923 are automatically in the public domain Materials in the 8 public domain are not covered by copyright They may never have been copyrighted the copyright may have expired or they may be a type of material that can t be copyrighted See the paragraph below For a guide to copyright terms under American law see the additional materials at the end of this packet Some things can39t be copyrighted Facts and scientific truths belong to the world as a whole and not to any one person anyone can quote the exact height of Mt Whitney without violating copyright Formulas that express scientific truth are also public property you can39t copyright Emc2 or the universal law of gravitation You can however copyright a formula for a privately developed product The topsecret formula for Coca Cola is one example Bizarrely most recipes are also in the public domain Coca Cola notwithstanding Except for postage stamps virtually anything produced by the United States government belongs to the American people and therefore is in the public domain This even applies to money although there are special rules governing how to copy cash State and local governments follow their own rules but most regard official documents as public property Finally copyright law contains one major exception that allows students and teachers to use copyrighted material for educational purposes Here is the complete text of the exception 107 Limitations on exclusive rights Fair use Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A the fair use of a copyrighted work including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section for purposes such as criticism comment news reporting teaching including multiple copies for classroom use scholarship or research is not an infringement of copyright In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include 1 the purpose and character of the use including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes 2 the nature of the copyrighted work 3 the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole and 4 the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors United States Code Title 1 7 Chapter 1 Section 107 In other words you may use a copyrighted work so long as 1 you aren39t making money off of copying it 2 you39re copying only a small part of the document rather than the whole thing and 3 you39re not hurting the author39s sales by copying their work If you39re not sure whether your particular use of a work falls under the protection Fair Use Indiana University put together a checklist that might help you see the additional materials at the end of this packet MLA Style I keep saying that you have to give credit to all your sources when you write a paper What does quotgiving creditquot mean exactly It means that other people can find the sources you used Simply saying quotI heard this from some guy in a barquot isn39t good enough You must declare exactly what he said as well as the guy39s name the date of the conversation and the fact that you yourself spoke to him in person Citing the source this way takes the heat off of you if people who read the finished paper have a problem with what he said they can track the guy down and argue with him themselves Some college students conduct their own interviews when writing a paper but that39s unusual Most people rely on books websites articles from newspapers or magazines or database searches When citing these sources you must give specific information that helps your readers get hold of that book website article or whatever else you used What information do you have to give In this class we follow the citation rules of the Modern Language Association MLA According to the MLA you must give the following information for a book Last Name First Name Title Place Publisher Date Perino Sheila C and Joseph Perino Parenting the Gifted Developing the Promise New York RR Bowker 1981 Dorson Richard M ed Patriots of the American Revolution True Accounts by Great Americans from Ethan Allen to George Rogers Clark New York Gramercy Books 1953 Notice that the first line of the citation is up against the lefthand side of the page while every line after that is indented five spaces In MLA style all your citations should be done this way Notice also that the period after the title is not underlined that the important words in the title are capitalized and that when a book has more than one author only the first author39s name is in reverse order MLA style like all other citation styles is very very picky about details Pay attention to those periods and Commas Finally don39t be afraid to say quotI don39t knowquot When you39re writing a paper you39re trying to give an accurate picture of a subject including aspects of that subject that are still being studied If your sources are unclear or seem unreliable then say so Try to find the strongest evidence available but don39t make something up if your sources won39t support it In some fields medieval history springs to mind nobody ever really knows anything Admitting ignorance isn39t wrong if you can show that the experts are as much in the dark as you are Assignment 2 For each ofthe following scenarios decide whether or not the suggested use of a work violates copyright law Write three or four sentences to explain your reasoning in each case Some ofthese questions have more than one possible answer I will accept even a wrong answer provided you can justify your decision Hint take a look at the quotFair Use Checklistquot at the end ofthis packet 1 A school theater wishes to put on a production ofA Midsummer Night s Dream first published around 1600 The director makes 25 photocopies of a published script copying the entire script each time The performance charges admission but all proceeds go to the school drama department 2 A student newspaper on campus wants to reprint an article that appeared in a commercial magazine The editor writes to the magazine requesting permission to publish the article but doesn t hear back in time for publication The newspaper goes ahead and publishes it anyway The newspaper is part of the college s journalism club and is distributed to the public free of charge 3 Four math students create a dramatic class presentation on the quadratic equation featuring interpretive dance set to the soundtrack from The Phantom of the Opera The teacher likes it so much he puts a video of the presentation on YouTube after asking permission from the students but not from Andrew Lloyd Webber the composer of the music 4 A great scientist discovers the formula for eternal life and publishes it in a lengthy poetic paper filled with colorful descriptions of the wonderful things it can do for humanity The paper is widely copied and used in political commentary advertising and litter boxes Week 2 Quiz 1 The citation style for this class was created by A The American Psychological Association B The Modern Language Association C The National Library of Medicine D The National Transportation Safety Board 2 The Economic Report of the President is not copyrighted TRUE FALSE 3 In the professional world the penalty for plagiarism may include A Lawsuits B Loss ofemployment C Public apology D All of the above 4 In this class the penalty for plagiarism may include A Writing III will not plagiarize again 1000 times B A zero on the relevant work C The pillory D All of the above 5 Material published in the US before 1923 is not copyrighted TRUE FALSE 6 If I want to use the llfair use exception to make a copy of an article which of the following is a requirement I would have to meet A I m copying a small part of the article B I m not selling my copies C My use of the article has no impact on the author s sales D All of the above 7 An item is in the public domain if A It was never copyrighted B lts copyright has expired C It is a scientific fact D All of the above 8 Citation styles are extremely picky about details TRU E FALSE 9 You can be guilty of plagiarism while being innocent of copyright violation TRUE FALSE 10 You can be guilty of copyright violation while being innocent of plagiarism TRUE FALSE Week 3 Websites Searching the Internet This course doesn39t actually require you to have internet access which makes this week a little strange I39m going to show you examples of internet searches and welcome you to follow along if you do have a connection fyou don39t well use your imagination Think you know how to search the internet Guess again There are dozens of search engines out thereiAlltheweb Altavista Ask Clusty Dogpile Exalead Findsounds Gigablast Google Intelways Live Search Picsearch Searchmash Srchr Yahool and many others These search engines make it very easy to bury yourself under a mountain of garbage but finding good reliable accurate information on the internet requires skill Websites can be valuable sources of information and you shouldn39t hesitate to use them in a college paper but you have to be careful about the websites you choose A note about terminology quotInternetquot and quotworld wide webquot are often used interchangeably but they39re not quite the same thing The world wide web is a big part ofthe internetiit includes all websites whose addresses begin with quotwwwquot7but the internet also includes many small networks that are not part ofthe web Passwordsprotected or employeesonly networks are part ofthe internet but not the web Then there are other quotwebsitesquot that just don39t use a www prefix see httpicasualtiesorg for an example Web images Maps News Shugglng Gmall merev iGDuglE l Sign in 300316quot dun ibveak myhean Guagle Search l m Feeling Lucky meme reels Advertising ngrams 7 Business Suluuuns rAbuut Geegie mm Gnome So how do you search the internet properly Well first you need to decide what you39re looking for Let39s say we need the lyrics to the song quotDon39t Break My Heartquot Go to Google wwwgooglecom and type in don39t break my heart Now we39ve got a problem Google comes up with around 7000000 websites that contain those four words and there39s no way we39ve got time to look at them all We need to narrow it down some more Type in lyrics don39t break my heart Better Adding lyrics to the search cuts the number ofwebsites we39ve found down to about 13 million Now try something else lyrics quotdon39t break my heartquot Better still It39s down to about 122000 Unfortunately there are dozens ofsongs by that title and we39re not sure which band did the version we want Still we know we don39t want the song by UB40 Typein lyrics quotdon39t break my heart39I U B40 That cuts it down a bit moreito 102000 hits Now we39re really stuck since we don39t have much more information to go on Take a look to the right ofthe search box right next to the Search button You39ll see the words Advanced Search Click on that iyncs quotdun 1 break my neanquot euaAn Find web pageslhal have all rnese wards iyncs this exactwurding m pnrase lduntbreak rnynean une er rnure unnese wards Bul dnn39l shnw pages mal nave any unnese unwanted words uam Need mare Inals Results per page W Language W Filetype W Searcn within a site urdnmam 39 izg ynututscnm any ElDatE usage rights nurnene range and rnure Date haw reeenunenaee egt usage nng wnere yuur keywords shuw up Regan Numenc range SareSearcn Advanced Search What are we looking at here This screen shows you the engineering behind the search When you type anything into the search box on the main Google screen the words automatically go into the box at the top ofthis screen which searches for websites that contain all those words When you put quotation marks around a series of words that tells the search engine to look for exactly those words all together in that order When you put a minus sign in front of a word that tells Google to look for 15 websites that do not contain that word Look farther down the screen You39ll see Where your keywords show up In the dropsdown menu next to that choose in the title ofthe page Now our search is down to just 1980 resultsiGoogle is finding websites that contain our search terms in the title ofthe website That39s the title ofthe website not necessarily the title ofthe song We can narrow it furtherilimit the search to websites in English and require those websites to contain numbers between 1990 and 1999 Now the search has been cut down tojust 20 websites one of which is probably the song we39re looking for alllrltltlelyrlcsquotdontbreakmyhear 39rUE4D199El1999 Search W F Search thEWeb F 5 ages earch English p Web Results 1 710 pr mm 20 English pages for allimme lyrics quotdun 1 break my IleanquotrUBAO19901999 035 secunds NO AUTHORlTViF leaSe Don39t Break M Heart L rice MP3 Keep Orl1997 Please Dun t Break My Hean Lyncs Please Dun t Break My Hean chums Other lyrlcs rrnm Keep On 1991 album llsr r Please Don39t Break M Heart L rice 7 b NO AUTHORlTY from album Please Dam Break My Hean Sung Lyrlcs NO AUTHORlTV KEEP ON 1997 Downlnad NO AUTHOle Plngmnes tn Ynur Phune Mare songs rrarn KEEP ON 1991 wle lyritsandsungs aamrsangraasaaz html 7 27k er ea 7 Slrllllzl Paula Come a Don t Break My Heart Lyrics Year 1995 Ttle Bum Break My Heart Print Current Get Bum Break My Hean rlrlgmrle an yuur mapllel Dun t preak m heart A llar 5n planning lmwlyricsmarllacum lpauluicunteillveilyritsi 78 dun tibreakimyilleanilyri ll3 444 himl 7 30k KYM MARSH LYRICS a Don39t Break My Heart PARTNERS l LyrlcsulDQY l LyrlcsPremlum l LyncsClal39l l LyncsMedla l Cupyrlght 199372008 Lereml cum All Pl his Reserved www lyritscale cummlmarshikymlUN him 7 25k UB 40 a Don39t Break My Heart Lyrics incubus Pascal Flaus Yellnwcard39 mbalarld NEVILTsPalnEllnk182Justln nmperlake Capyrlgmrs msunna LetsSlrlgll l dlsclalmer l prlvacy pulley When the search starts to get really detailed the search restrictions sometimes collide with one another We did tell Google not to show us any webpages with UB40 in them but I notice that UB40 has crept into the search results again The program isn39t perfect No search engine is Other search engines offer similar search options and use similar commands to make the search happen Judging Websites As I said earlier i 5 very easy to find bad information on the internet but it can be a lot harder to find sources you can trust How do you know the website isn39t lying to you Even when they39re being honest how do you know they39ve done serious research or know their topic thoroughly There are three things to watch out for when judging a website authority accuracy and currency Authority involves the author of a website Do they know what they39re talking about Do they have an incentive to lie to you On many websites you can39t even tell who the author is Here are some clues that the author might be reliable The author39s name appears on the website The author offers credentials or qualifications Le a PhD in the subject twenty years experience doing this kind of research etc The website includes the author39s contact information such as an email address or telephone number This tells you that they are willing to stand behind their words If you want to make really certain the information is reliable you can speak to them directly and ask for details The website was recommended to you by another source in other words it was listed in someone39s bibliography or mentioned elsewhere as a good source of information The author has no particular bias or if they do they admit it In other words the author tries to present all sides of an issue and doesn39t push one point of view In cases where some bias is unavoidable the author is honest about it For example quotThis drug evaluation was funded by Pfizer corporation which makes the drug in questionquot The website has a respectable toplevel domain The toplevel domain is the threeletter code that appears at the end of a web address it39s the edu in WWW taftcolegeedu This particular domain is reserved for websites that belong to a college or university and information from a edu website is generally more reliable than information from other websites Not always though Many student webpages are hosted on a university server Just because a website has a edu domain name doesn39t necessarily mean the material on it was written by a professor Other domains to watch for gov websites belonging to a state or national government usually considered trustworthy com short for quotcommercialquot usually used by businesses may or may not be trustworthy org short for quotorganizationquot usually used by nonprofit organizations may or may not be trustworthy net short for quotnetworkquot often personal websites or vanity pages most of which are junk Accuracy has to do with the content of the website Based on what you already know does the information seem reliable Are there obvious errors Are there blank spots where essential information is missing Clues for judging accuracy The website includes a bibliography The website is carefully designed spelling and grammar have been checked graphs are properly labeled and the images are relevant to the text The website contains information that can be corroborated In other words the information on the site matches information you found in other sources When your sources contradict one another you have to think carefully about which one you trust more 17 The text is detailed and specific with facts you can check Writing that seems deliberately vague is a warning sign The website has been peerreviewed Peer review is a formal process that academic journals use to evaluate articles before publishing them Every article gets examined by a panel of experts in the field of study who read and critique the article and recommend changes Few websites are peerreviewed but you can almost always trust the ones that are Currency asks how uptodate the information is How recently was the website updated If it39s been a long time have things changed in that subject area The newest information is often the best but not absolutely always Things to look for The website has a copyright date or a date of revision The website mentions recent events The website offers an RSS feed or email notification ie the website will contact you automatically when new information comes in this feature is common on news websites There is no way to be 100 certain about the reliability of any source Websites are less reliable than most sources so look for these clues every time you visit a site I39ve summarized the clues in a table at the end of this packet How to Cite a Website See Pages 216217 in the MLA Handbook At times I think the MLA must be stuck solidly in the 19th century Their advice on citing books is quite good their advice on citing articles from databases is questionable and their advice for citing websites is incomprehensible quotElectronic Publicationsquot stretches from page 207 to page 235 in the MLA Handbook Since I think this is too complicated to be useful I39ll give you two basic forms that you can use for citing a website Form 1 Last Name First Name quotSpecific Page or Section Titlequot Website Title Date of Creation Publisher Date of Access ltURLgt Van Helden Al quotGalileo Timelinequot The Galileo Pro39ect 1995 25 Sept 2007 lthttpgaileoriceeduchrongalileohtmlgt Use this form whenever possible Authors frequently leave their names off the website and often the date of creationrevision as well Notice that the real example above includes no publisher but when did you last see a website with a publisher When you simply can39t find a piece of 18 information you have to leave it out Be careful about doing this on the citations for assignments or the final project remember that I will be looking for those things and I want to be sure you didn39t just forget about them Also pay attention to the fact that the URL is not blue or underlined and there is no period after the date of access Form 2 quotSpecific Page or Section Titlequot Website Title Editor Date of Creation Publisher Date of Access ltURLgt Pluto Ed Bill Arnett 15 Sept 2006 23 Oct 2007 lthttpwwwnineplanetsorgputohtmlgt Here again I39ve had to leave out the publisher and this time I had to leave out the quotSpecific Page or Section Titlequot as well There39s a lot of confusion over the difference between a section title and the website title The website title is the title of the homepage while a section title is the title of a particular webpage that you reached off of that homepage In the example above Pluto is underlined because it39s the homepage for information on Pluto Any links off of that quotAtmosphere of Plutoquot quotGravity of Plutoquot quotPluto39s Orbitquot would be considered sections and those section titles would be placed inside quotation marks There are also issues surrounding the URL Do you have to cite the entire URL with all its meaningless letters and numbers or only the part up until the domain name Here39s what the MLA Handbook says Ideally the URL of the exact document you consulted should be given Sometimes however the URL of a document is so long and complicated that reproducing it would invite transcription errors or would at least cause inconvenience In such instances it is preferable to give instead the URL of the site39s search page if such a page existsf an internet site does not assign a specific URL to each document and if citing a search page is not appropriate give the URL of the site39s home page 212 Give as much information as is really useful You should always include the URL up as far as the toplevel domain you might include a bit more beyond that but not if it39s all gibberish ie 6788994982348BlS4350A9034 Don39t underline the URL or make it blue Microsoft Word tends to do that automatically so hit backspace if it does The Handbook offers a few more examples on pages 216217 Note that all these examples are for complete websites that is homepages and not for sections Watch out for that difference Assignment 3 u 1 atcmcwcbsne usmglhe mfurmalmn pmwdcd bcmw Amhur mm F Winthequot rv 2 What dues makeyuu lhmk Ms 5le mwghl betrustwormy 3 What dues makeyuu lhmk Ms 5le mwghl be untrustworthy Search Engine eaagrcSearch L m Feehng Lucky dun l have mlemel access a dun l have mlemel access IZ Mariana vs Puerto Rico Which is Better by Robin F Winchelll IV quoti mnemapatmedglnshowsapimneof cWa nRiooTrwchhichishthe Carinhcan SeaThePumtoRim Trenchis m eepasipomhtheEa h39s oceans Pue oRicoisdoseto Gumwhichismarkedlm mmap IbePuarto Rico Trenchisalotbelter mm Mama ench wl chmostpeaople Mkisl cdcepestumchhthewmli The mtmhhasabc unmmhal does quotMarianaquot anyway but it also has tastier sh and more snnsl ne Don t bc cvc Ihosc 1350914 in the National 0mm and Amusphmic Admh39 ttalion when may me you that Mariana is deeper Those people are PART OF THE CONSPIRACY MWESSMWntobcd epmthmMmiamwhmm AndonmmmmbCHm d e Ammmnkmnggggglslandm 2005 E 21 March 2008 About the Al lm Robin F Which IV lived in Puerto Ricofor 239 years while conducting research that eventually led to his highschool diploma He is a recognized mm in canine Myriam and maintaim the warfdquot5 largest calan afyagurt cumming He can be reached througi this nk N W Jgt U1 1 l Accuracy involves the Week 3 Quiz The most recent information is always the best TRUE FALSE The Internet and world wide web are the same thing TRUE FALSE When citing a website if you can t find the author s name you should A Leave it out of the citation B Make up a fake name C Write Anonymous D Put in your own name Websites can be used as sources in a college paper TRUE FALSE of a website A Author B Content C Uptodateness D Celebrity endorsement In a Google search what happens if you put quotation marks around a phrase A The computer searches for websites containing all the words inside quotations B The computer searches for websites containing none of the words inside quotations C The computer searches for websites containing the exact phrase inside quotations D The computer crashes In a Google search what happens if you put a minus sign H in front of a word A The computer searches for websites containing that word B The computer searches for websites that do not contain that word C The computer suggests you made a spelling error D The computer steals your credit card number and books a flight to Tahiti How many search engines are there A One B Five C Dozens D Millions 9 You can trust a website that was written by a biased author A Always B Sometimes C Never D There s no such thing as a biased author 10 In a website citation the URL A Is blue and underlined B Is blue but not underlined C Is underlined but not blue D ls neither blue nor underlined Week 4 Periodicals Periodicals and Peer Review quotPeriodicalquot is a librarian39s word We use it because it makes us sound smart A periodical is anything that is published on an ongoing basis It includes newspapers published daily or weekly as well as magazines and journals published bimonthly monthly or quarterly Anything that comes out less than twice a year is not usually considered a periodical College students tend to overlook periodicals when doing research which is unfortunate because they offer a lot of useful information Historians and political analysts use newspapers sociologists anthropologists linguists and students of popular culture read magazines and students in all fields can find helpful articles in academic journals Most libraries offer a variety of periodicals Taft College Library keeps current newspapers for 3 months and magazines for about 3 years Kern County Library keeps them much longer they hold every issue of the Bakersfield Californian or its predecessors going back to the 1860s Some publications are digitizing their old issues and making them available through a website or database Periodicals fall into two broad categories those that are peerreviewed and those that aren39t I mentioned peer review in last week39s lesson but to go over it again peer review is a way for academic journals to guarantee the accuracy of an article before they publish it When you submit an article for publication the journal will send it to five or six reviewers who are experts in the topic you39re writing about These reviewers will check the article for factual errors or bad math and then send it back to the journal which publishes it How can you tell if a journal is peerreviewed Most journals print the quotrules for submissionsquot at the beginning or end of the journal These rules specify what you have to do to get an article published and they will tell you if the article will be reviewed Peerreviewed journals nearly always require their authors to include a bibliography Formal journals like Science Nature The Journal of the American MedicalAssociation and The Journal of Cultural Geography are all peerreviewed Informal journals and magazines like Scienti c American National Geographic Newsweek and People are not I39ve never heard of a peerreviewed newspaper though I suppose it39s possible Formal journals often include an abstract at the beginning of each article An abstract is a short summary of the article covering all the major points that the author makes Newswires Ever wondered how newspapers get their news so fast Take the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean for example Within minutes American newspapers were full of reports from tiny villages in remote locations all over the East Indies places that no one in North America has ever heard of Did the LosAngees Times really have a reporter sitting around in Banda Aceh waiting for something to happen No Newspapers don39t do that But newswires do A newswire is an association of reporters and news outlets that all share the same information Reporters working for a tiny local paper can sell their stories to the newswire which then resells the stories to thousands of news outlets around the world That39s why you can sometimes pick up two different newspapers and see the same story in each both newspapers bought the story from the same newswire In this particular case all the news outlets in North America got their first tsunami reports from newswire members in Indonesia and Malaysia There are three major newswires in business today Reuters which specializes in financial reporting the Associated Press AP and Agence FrancePresse AFP A variety of smaller newswires cover regional news in different parts of the world Newswires are excellent sources for short uptothesecond reports They are also good sources for historical research since their reports are often the first records of an event Reuters provided the first news that Mt Everest had been climbed 1953 and that the border between East and West Berlin was closed 1961 AFP was the first to report the death ofJoseph Stalin 1953 and the murder of Israeli hostages at the Munich Olympics 1972 The AP scored the first coverage of the San Francisco earthquake 1906 and the verdicts in the Nuremberg trials 1946 An AP reporter copied Lincoln39s notes for the Gettysburg Address 1863 and another took the famous photograph of marines raising the flag on lwoJima 1945 How to Cite an Article From a Print Source See Pages 180183 in the MLA Handbook Form 1 Last Name First Name quotArticle Titlequot Periodical Title Volume Numberssue Number Year Page Numbers Radjaeipou r Gitta quotImproving Decisionmaking in Restorations Evaluation of Impressions and Working Castsquot Journal of the California Dental Association 359 2007 637640 In the example above the volume number is 35 and the issue number is 9 The article is found in pages 637640 in the journal Notice that there is no period after the title of the periodical Some magazines and newspapers don39t use volume or issue numbers in this case you can just give the date of the issue Page numbers can also be written a little differently Form 2 Last Name First Name quotArticle Titlequot Periodical Title Date of Issue 1st page of article number of pages 25 in article Goldman Stuart J quotAliens in Our Midstquot Sky amp Telescope Nov 2007 40 1 In this example the article begins on page 40 of the magazine and the article is only 1 page long A warning about dates if I was using Form 1 I would include the year of publication but not the month or day In Form 2 I would include the year month and exact date if available The date would be written European style 16 Aug 1998 See pages 180183 in the MLA Handbook for more examples Assignment 4 Pick any major event in the news a speech a bombing an accident a Congressional debate etc and find 3 articles about that event from 3 different PRINT periodicals No online sources please The articles can come from newspapers magazines orjournals Be sure that they are NEWS articles not opinion columns or editorials You can use old news if you like Be careful If you find two articles that say EXACTLY THE SAME THING in the same words that means that both publications bought the article from the same reporter and news service In this case find a different article for your collection 1 Cite your three articles in correct MLA style see pages 180183 in the MLA Handbook You can use these citations on the Final Project 2 Compare your articles Do all three cover the story the same way Do they quote different sources offer different statistics or come to different conclusions Is there information in one article that is not found in the other two Which article do you like best 3 Do any of the publications seem to have a political or cultural slant Are they trying to persuade you to take one particular point of view 4 Summarize the story yourself What happened N W U l Week 4 Quiz How can you tell if a journal is peerreviewed A If the periodical is really boring it must be peerreviewed B Look for the reviewer s name after the author s C Check the rules for submissions D Any periodical with the word Journal in its title must be peerreviewed When citing an article from a print source always put a period after the periodical title TRUE FALSE Which of the following is NOT a periodical A Ajournal B A novel C A magazine D A newspaper Which news agency was the first to report the great San Francisco earthquake A Agence FrancePresse B Xinhua C Reuters D the Associated Press Taft College Library keeps magazines for A 3 months B 3 years C 3 decades D forever Asummary ofan article is called A A citation B Full text C An abstract D A bibliography If you find the same story in two different newspapers it means A One newspaper is plagiarizing the other B The same reporter works for both papers C It s a coincidence D Both newspapers bought the story from the same newswire 8 Who uses periodicals A Cultural commentators B Historians C Scientists D All of the above 9 National Geographic is a peerreviewed journal TRUE FALSE 10 In the citation below 44 6 means Conniff Richard quotThat Great Beast ofa Townquot Natural History Mar 2008 44 6 A The article came from volume 44 issue 6 of the periodical B The article was published in the year 44 give or take 6 years C The article begins on page 44 and it s 6 pages long D Multiply 44 by 6 to uncover the secret code Week 5 Databases Databases in General What is a database According to Random HouseWebster39s Unabridged Dictionary A comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access generally in a computer Although the word usually applies to information that39s stored in a computer any collection of information can be a database as long as you can find what you need when you need it A library a filing cabinet even a family photo album can be a database A loose heap of papers consisting of stuff that quotmaybe I39ll look at laterquot does not meet the definition The internet is usually not considered a database although you can argue about that The internet certainly contains a lot of information and search engines make it at least partially retrievable Personally I would compare it to that loose heap of papers in the last paragraph it39s just too disorganized to really qualify Many databases are created commercially A company such as EBSCO Proquest or Thomson Gale collects articles or statistics from various sources organizes the data with a search screen and then charges you a subscription fee to look at it Taft College currently subscribes to 37 commercial databases all of which are available in the library and through the research room on the library website httpZwebtaftcollegeedulibraryshtml Access to the databases is free for students and you can go directly into any of them from any computer on campus If you39re trying to get into them from home you will need the userhame taftcollege and the password tcstudeht Kern County Library also offers access to a number of databases if you have a library card General Sacra SciencesCurrent Events 0 Banks in PrintWim Reviews 0 Britannica Enciclopedia universal Spanish 0 AccuNetAP Multimedia 0 Britannica unline r we 0 Merriam Webster39s 3m New international 0 American National Dictionary Biography 0 Oxford English Dictionary 0 Annals qumerican Hvsmw PennducalslAmcles Cm wm o Bltpanded Academic ASAP lnfuTrac 1 Cmgmssmr al o lnfurmeUnfDTracspamsn Warm Newman 5 o EMMY News atzh o NewsEank Nuticias Spanish ENEUSW Spanish 0 PruuuesLNewspapers Facumm Facts 0 FilE Wurld News Digest An o LexisNexysA demi o GruveArtUnUne OWDSWV39EWPDWS o RAND Califurnia CriminaJustioe Professional 0 Criminallusuce Peri dical nan Engbsh a o spamsn other languages H39gl Literature 0 Educator39s Reference Desk 0 Literary Databases Contemporary Authurs Em Database Cuntempnrary Literary Criticism Seieac Getaway m Emmet mammary Df Literary Eiugraphy Mam GEM Sciences 0 mnww o Encycmpema er Life Sciences EBDW o McGraerillAccess Science o neLLibrarv So what kind ofinformation can you find in a database Well look at some ofthe ones we have Britannica Online is the computerized form ofthe famous Encyclopedia Britannica complete with pictures Grove Art Online contains articles about artworks artists and the history of art Criminal Justice Periodical Index gathers law enforcement related articles from newspapers and magazines It emphasizes practical aspects of law enforcement pay scales for police equipment ratings etc rather than the details ofthe law Encyclopedia of Life Sciences and McGrawHill Access Science collect highly technical articles about all the sciences particularly biology These are excellent resources for in depth study of science topics but they require you to know something about the subject Opposing Viewpoints handles controversial sometimes explosive social issues The database presents essays from several different viewpoints arguingifor exampleithat abortion should or should not be legal and that torturing terrorists is or is notjustifiable fyou have internet access you might spend some time playing around in the research room just to see what else is available Newsbank Newsbank collects articles exclusively from newspapers and newswires Remember newswires Go back and look at last week39s lesson ifyou don39t All the articles are available in full text that is you can read the entire thing Unfortunately they leave out any photos or images For some reason probably having to do with money the company split the database in half Newsbank Retrospective includes articles from 1970 to 1991 Newsbank Newsfile contains articles from 1992 to the present Taft College subscribes to both but doing searches over a broad time span involves a lot of tedious switching back and forth You can find a lot oftiny newspapers from small towns as well as internationally known publications The Bakersfield Californian is in there as is The New York Times and The Washington Post As ofthis moment USA Today is not When you first enter the database it shows you the Basic Search screen which allows you to search through articles by subject fyou click on more search options right beside the big Search button you39ll see the Advanced Search screen In Advanced Search you can limit yourself to articles from a given time period as well as searching for words that appear in the headline first paragraph or body ofthe article You can also restrict the search to articles from particular newspaper Warning in Advanced Search the articles always appear in 39 order not in 39 quot In the Basic Search you can change the display to relevance click on the dropdown menu beside Return and set it to Bestmatchesfirst find this infuriating beyond all bounds of reason but that39s the way it IS mNewsBank NewsFile Collection e l a F Mn Search all categories v Search Hims var re Rhadelsland nightclub mnresearch n lions onnnectiemsmhANo am NOT or other Search operators Return Eestmalches rst v rmm alldocumems v gl L r 1 Put phrases in quotation marks Reading Level all By Lexlle 2g W mm Liminu F Newspapers rNewswires Rememberthe giant fire in a Rhode Island nightclub back in 2003 There was an episode of C5 about it for those of you who get your education from TV Try going first to the Basic Search screen Type fire Rhode Island nightclub in the box next to the Search button Set the Return to Best matches rst from all documents By default the setting in this box is past twelve months but we want articles from farther back than that Then click the Search button am a m Search allcategunes v SearchHInts mi me Wetland mgmvb m rm emcnmwmmn n NIan Either Search upmamrs Return Eestmalches rsl v 1mm allducumems v r 1 Putphvasesin quotatinnmarks Readmg Level all By Lexlle 9 Hunguncunmquot m r Nawspapys rwewswrms Resulls1r1001222 1 g 3 4 g lm Tnpitsrelaledlo m Made 7 7 7 7 Islandmighlclub aemm Subjects 3249 Rum Island whichAb InIemn Km 39 WES Febnuz 1217 3 Assndated Press News ServiceTle FORESTAND BRUSH FlRES 0 thmm mm 75 3300 R1 LAWMAKERS MOVE CADTIDUSLY To TIGETEN FIRE SAFETY c0 March 217 2005 anmn Glnbe The MA 0 Rmdmg Lexel Leak may 3777 i73m STRDFEEIC cosTS Fabnuzry 28 2003 anlnn Glnbe The MA giggig smms 01mm Lexal mlz 13M W 3767 A DAY OF TEARS AND BURT W ANGER R Sammy 30 2006 anmn GlnbeThe LA I amngsz 119m The article at the top of my list is quotRhode Island Nightclub Inferno Kills 39 Clicking on the title shows me the actual article The story gives me a number of other factors I can use to make my search more detailed7it mentions the date ofthe fire town where it occurred and the fact that the band Great White was performing When I type these facts on the Advanced Search screen I come up with a number of other articles about the event Newsbank is a good source for research in history political science and international affairs For research on other topics look at the next database below Expanded Academic ASAP Expanded Academic ASAP is similar to Newsbank but it includes magazine and journal articles as well as clips from newspapers and newswires It39s useful for all topics from history to physics Some important things to know this database includes not only full text articles but also abstracts and even just citations Full text means that the complete article is available for reading possibly including pictures fyou want to do a search for articles you can actually read you must specify that the search is forfull text only Let39s say I39m looking for articles about jet engines I typed jet engines into the search box and put a check mark in the box beside limit to documents with full text If I chose I could also limit the search to peer7reviewed materials orto articles that include pictures There are several other possible limitations You can search by date of publication or by publication title for instance Here are the articles that this search turned up 33 GALE cmmummg 1 Academic ASAP he mmdmn w Enigma origin l WWW i Ehangabatabases i mm Ennkmark opm l Basic Search mm mquot ar nl wan m ar n pawmuuymmma l smame Search Sub echume Resulls Results rm Suhiec Guide Search rsu l39Jei Engines mums l mm tEX M l Academic 7 w w x 7 Mmmsemsms Jnumaisun llmlHo I39JMHeX rDeeHeviewed l wnhimages Sum l Mimaw oam mm a Search m I LlarkAll 1g my I 1Jemermnmelerlechnalu lucu5NSTRLIMENTATIONAND Mme MW CONTROL Brielanicle Jamey Winters Mechanical snumeenng cmzmz rmznua mm 337 wards us m an I 2 Bealing me heal ceramics simw promise in REDlnrnew 39ellurhines MW where hear is are main cau5e DHailure MATERIALS SCIENCEINANOTECHNOLOG Paul Liwngstun n 4 a 5m remix n322 nus warns mum Notice the row of tabs at the top ofthe list All the articles we39re looking at here come from academic journals If I wanted to see articles from magazines or newspapers I could click on those tabs Notice something elseimany ofthe titles on this list include a note inside parentheses like PROCESS TECHNOLOGY These notes aren39t actually part ofthe title The database managers stuck them in thinking they would be helpful but you should leave them out of your citation for the article You can read the actual articles by clicking on the titles At the very end of each article at the bottom ofthe screen the computer automatically generates an MLA citation for the article Treat these citations with cautionithey39re usually close to perfect but the computer sometimes doesn39t know what it39s doing It always includes those parenthesized notes in the title and it puts in the complete URL with all its meaningless gibberish You39ll lose points on assignments ifyou include those things How to Cite an Article From a Database See Pages 229230 in the MLA Handbook At first glance database citations look terrifyineg complicated Be of good cheer You already know how to do about half of it the first part ofthe citation is exactly the same as citing an article from a print source You just have to tack on a bunch of extra information about the database you got the article from Form 1 Last Name First Name quotArticle Title I Periodical Title Volume Numberssue Number Year Page Numbers Database Name Company that owns database Place ofAccess Date ofAccess 34 ltU RLgt Radjaeipour Gitta quotImproving Decisionmaking in Restorations Evaluation of Impressions and Working Castsquot Journal of the California Dental Association 359 2007 637640 Proguest Proquest inc New York Public Library 2 Oct 2007 lthttpwwwproquestcomgt Some databases have a habit of leaving out page numbers on the grounds that the pages don39t matter in an electronic source When this happens you have no choice but to put a period after the year and leave out the page numbers altogether In the example above Proquest is the name of the database while Proquest inc is the company that maintains and sells that database New York Public Library is the place l was sitting when I looked at the article and 2 Oct 2007 is the date that I looked at it The URL that ends the citation is the main search page for the database it isn39t really in this case l just made up that URL but that39s the idea Notice that there is no period after the date of access Form 2 This is the same as Form 1 except that this magazine doesn39t use volume and issue numbers and I39ve written the page numbers in a different way It39s the difference between Forms 1 and 2 for citing articles from print sources as explained last week Last Name First Name quotArticle Titlequot Periodical Title Date of Issue 1st page of article number of pages in article Database Name Company that owns database Place of Access Date of Access ltURLgt Goldman Stuart J quotAliens in Our Midstquot Sky amp Telescope Nov 2007 40 1 Expanded Academic ASAP Gale Taft College 2 Oct 2007 lthttpfindgaegroupcomgt For details and more examples see pages 229230 in the MLA Handbook Assignment 5 A database can contain any type of information The databases I mentioned before contain articles but databases can also be designed to hold social security numbers criminal records photographs passenger ticket information and many other types of data The fake database below contains information about old sailing ships organized in a variety of ways A DaLzbase of Sailing Vessels Keyword Vessel Nam Captain Name Company N cane Size standard tans ADDITIONAL LIMITS Years of Operan39ou Country of Registry L Military l Cargo Vessel T m 39 Passenger Other Subm Design your own database on paper You don39t actually have to program anything into a computer It can be about anything you like animals music a favorite sport your family your finances etc and decide what kind of information you would put in it Answer each of the questions below BEFORE you start drawing your search screen 1 What topic is your database about 2 What is the target audience for the database Academic researchers Middleschool students Private friends 3 Is any of the information in your database under copyright In other words do you need to get permission before putting this information into the database 4 Does this information need to be protected by passwords or other security measures 5 Design the search screen for your database You can use the form beiow or create your own search screen from scratch What kind ofsearches wouid you do and what kind of searches might other peopie doA good database can present information in severai different ways by date by quantity by name and so on Think baciltto the ciass on 39 lUi eu ite did you iearn any eaicu eLiiique were that you can buiid into your database A Homegrown Database Submit Week 5 Quiz 1 Where can you find Taft College Library s databases A Under the librarian s desk B In the Research Room off the library s website C Only in the library itself D Nowhere Taft College Library has no databases 2 Newsbank contains A Articles from newspapers and newswires B Articles from magazines and journals C Articles from banks D All of the above 3 Expanded Academic ASAP contains A Articles from newspapers and newswires B Articles from magazines and journals C Abstracts D All of the above 4 Is the internet a database A Yes B No C Open to debate but most people say yes D Open to debate but most people say no 5 In the Advanced Search in Newsbank articles are always listed in A Reverse chronological order B Relevance order C Random order D Alphabetical order 6 When citing an article from a database always include the notes inside parentheses as part of the title TRUE FALSE 7 Full text means A The complete article is available for reading B The article is full of mistakes C The article fills the entire page D None of the above 8 Opposing Viewpoints would be a good database to look at if you were doing research on A Honeybee diseases B The physics behind Star Trek C Gun control D Medieval poetry 9 Criminal Justice Periodicals Index would be a good database to look at if you were doing research on A Female guards in male prisons B The geology of Romania C The Snyder v Louisiana murder trial D Negotiations for funding the International Space Station 10 Encyclopedia of Life Sciences would be a good database to look at if you were doing research on A The life of Rembrandt the painter B The life of the European Green Crab C The life of the average Russian citizen D Life the universe and everything Week 6 Using Your Library Catalogs What39s the first thing you look for after entering a library Besides the restroom If you39re doing research you might start by going to the databases or the internet or you might head for the bookshelves But how do you find the right books on those shelves Look in the catalog A catalog is an organized list of all the materials in the library It will include all the books CDs videos records microfilm reels maps works of art and everything else in the library39s possession Most catalogs list the materials in at least four different ways by title author subject and ISBN number Most libraries keep their catalogs online so they39re accessible through a website or any computer inside the building Searching the catalog is a lot like using a search engine to hunt through websites In some ways it39s exactly the same Google or any other search engine actually IS a catalog Google has created a list of websites organized by subject When you type your search into the Google search engine it checks the list and shows you all the websites included under the subject you typed in Google does NOT actually search the entire internet every time you type in a searchithat would take weeks Not only will the catalog help you find what you39re looking for it will also tell you ifthose books are checked out provide links to the publisher or author39s website and maybe show you the cover of the book or suggest related materials NATIONAL LIBRARY ofAUSTRALIA Find alluflhese v in Keywmds AND DR NOT Find anyurmese j inAumm 1 9 AND N 0R P NUT Find Ianyuflhese j inTme LI 5 AND F OR r NUT Find Ianyuflhese Ll in39lSubjeCl j Findinnlnmal u u g T h 6 Here39s the catalog for the National Library ofAustralia They spell it quotcataloguequot7those crazy Australians The catalog offers you a search box where you type in what you39re searching for Beside 40 that is another box where you tell the computer what kind of search you39re doing Most researchers choose to search by subject looking for books or articles on a particular topic If you39re looking for a specific book you can search the catalog by author or title If you need a really specific book you can hunt by ISBN number ISBN stands for quotInternational Standard Book Numberquot and it39s sort of like a serial number for the book Every time a publisher brings out a new book they put a new ISBN on it Different editions of the same book will have different ISBNs as will hardcover and paperback versions of the book Every significant change in the book requires that the book be given a new ISBN That means that you can search for EXACTLY the version you need if you39re looking for the sixth edition of the MLA Handbook with the shiny silver cover you can type in the ISBN for that book and the computer will not show you the fifth edition seventh edition or the sixtheditionwithboringcover Somebody once asked me why you can39t just write down ISBNs in your bibliography and leave out all this stuff about authors titles publishers etc Given that the ISBN is very specific anybody who reads your bibliography should be able to search for the ISBN in a catalog and find exactly the source you used There are two reasons you can39t get away with this First the ISBN system was invented in 1966 so anything older than that has no ISBN Secondly ISBNs only apply to books Articles websites dissertations interviews and many other sources have no ISBN There is a system for magazines called the International Standard Serial Number ISSN but it only identifies the magazine not a particular issue or article Many catalogs will also let you do other searches The National Library of Australia lets you search through their materials by keyword if you can only remember part of the title or the author39s first name this search function might help and they also let you search the list of maps according to the place shown on the map Other libraries let you search by date of publication publisher39s name or even the color of the cover Finally if you get truly stuck you can always ask a librarian for help Some catalogs such as Taft College Library39s unfortunately have more complicated issues that make them tricky to use We are always happy to answer questions The Dewey Decimal System Let39s say you39ve found a book in the catalog You know the library owns that book because it shows up on the computer screen But where is the book located in the library Up until 1876 there was no good answer to that question Some libraries organized their books by author some by title and some just in order of purchase every time they bought a new book they stuck it on the end of the shelf Only someone who worked there could find anything In that year a very strange man named Melvil Dewey or as he preferred to call himself Melvil Dui invented the Dewey Decimal Classification DDC system 41 DDC organizes nonfiction books by subject It does not include fiction The system identifies all possible subjects by threedigit numbers ranging from 000 to 999 These numbers are broken down into sets of 100 for broad topics then each hundred is broken down into tens more specific subjects then each ten is broken down into ones more specific still Really specific subjects require decimals after the main number So if you were looking for a book about housecats your search might go like this 600 Technology and practical skills 630 Agriculture and related technologies 636 Animal care 6368 Care of cats Introduction to DDC 5 Public libraries like DDC because it39s fairly simple On the downside it39s a bit out of date there were no computer books when the system was designed for example Now those books are usually shelved in 001006 where they don39t really belong but no one knows where else to put them The system also reflects the biases of the late 19th century Books about religion are shelved in the 200s but Christianity takes up all the space from 220289 while every other religion on Earth is crammed into 290299 Also DDC can only sort nonfiction books fiction has to be shelved separately The Library of Congress System Colleges and universities including Taft College usually prefer to use the Library of Congress LC system Like DDC LC organizes materials by subject However LC includes both fiction and nonfiction and it can describe the subjects in great detail without having to create horribly long numbers Unfortunately it39s significantly more complicated than DDC LC uses letters to identify its broad categories For example all books on political science are shelved in the J section books on law are in K books on education are in L and so on Each broad category also has subcategories which are identified with additional letters section Q is science in general QA is mathematics QB is astronomy etc The numbers that come after that are more complicated but they serve the same purpose as numbers in DDC they break the broader topics down into specific subjects Okay so both DDC and LC create a number or letterandnumber code in the case of LC to tell you what the subject of a book is How do these subject codes they39re called call numbers incidentally help you find things in a library For DDC it39s simple The books are placed on the shelves in straightforward numeric order like this 334 3385 42 33901 3390299 LC first sorts the books letterbyletter then by the numbers that comes after them then by any letters and numbers after that then by year of publication The rule is that quotnothing comes before somethingquot so K comes before KF and KP comes before KFC Note however that HZ comes before K because letterbyletter H comes before K These call numbers are in order HF 9000 HZ 202 K 60 K 1002 K 4124 K 4124 R 22 K 4124 X 190 2002 KA 2005 KA 205 KA 299 G 56 KA 1300 KD 101 F 75 1987 KM 22 1990 LA 2210 Nowadays LC includes the year as part of the call number You39ll see three of the call numbers above include a year 1987 1990 and 2002 They didn39t always do that however What should you do if you have two books with exactly the same call number Go first by the call number then the author39s name then the title then the year of publication So if you have several books with the same call number put them in order by author 4437 Butler 4437 Lewis 4437 Thomas 43 If you have books with the same call number and the same author put them in order by title 9731 Anderson America the Beautiful 9731 Anderson Our Great Nation Finally if you have books with the same call number author and title you39re probably looking at original and revised editions of the same book Organize them by year of publication 2056 Robinson Encyclopedia of Religion 1995 2056 Robinson Encyclopedia ofReligion 2001 When you have an LC call number that includes a year treat the year as part of the call number In other words it takes precedence over the author and title Confused This might help Within Range httplwwwlibrarycmueduLibraries etclindexhtml is a game developed by Carnegie Mellon University that tests your ability to put books on a shelf in order Click on the arcade machine to play It takes a little getting used to but once you get the hang of it you can practice all you want before you have to do it for real on this week39s assignment Best of luck If you have questions don39t hesitate to ask 44 Assignment 6 1 Go to a library Find 5 books on a topic of your choice and give me their complete bibliographic citations in proper MLA style Note that these are BIBLIOGRAPHIC citations not footnotes THE CITATIONS MUST BE TYPED Save the citations for your Final Project 2 Look at the call numbers for your five books Fill in the chart below putting your books in CALL NUMBER ORDER You can tack this onto the end of your typed citations if you prefer I have filled in one line as an example In this particular case quot2001 is both part ofthe call number and the year of publication but not all libraries include the year in the call number Organize the books first by the call number lftwo books have the same call number go by the author If they have the same call number and the same author go by the title and it absolutely everything else is the same go by year CALL NUMBER AUTHOR TITLE YEAR OF PUBLICATION AG 105K57 2001 Kipfer Barbara Ann The Order of Things 2001 45 N W P U l Week 6 Quiz What is a call number A The library s main phone line B A series of numbers andor letters that identify the subject of a book C The number on the piece of paper you have to take while waiting in line at a butcher shop D None of the above The Google search engine is a catalog TRUE FALSE DDC stands for A Detroit Dowsing Commission B Department of Dental Cooperation C Dewey Decimal Classification D Deoxydextrose Chlorofluorocarbon ISBN stands for A International Society for Bibliographic Notation B Intelligent Systems for Ballistic Numismatics C International Standard Book Number D Integrated Serpentine Blast Nozzle In the Library of Congress system PQ comes before S TRUE FALSE If you have two books with the same call number how should you organize them A By author B By title C By year of publication D By color What is the organizing principle behind both LC and DDC A Subject B Author C Title D Date Why can t you just write ISBNs in your bibliography A Only books have ISBNs 46 B Old books have no ISBN C Both A and B D Neither A nor B 9 A library catalog will tell you whether a certain item is checked out or not TRUE FALSE 10Which of these is a problem with DDC A The system makes no sense B The system is biased against nonEuropean cultures C The system can t handle nonfiction D The system s designer couldn t spell his own name 47 Week 7 Editing What Do You Mean Edit Ever heard the expression quotdon39t judge a book by its coverquot The truth is everybodyjudges books by their covers Psychological experiments show that the way something is presented has an enormous impact on the way it39s received You can do the experiments yourself Walk up to some random person and hold out a pencil Odds are good that the person will take the pencil even if they have no use for it People will accept the pencil even when their hands are full you can sometimes give the same pencil to someone several times over before they reject it On the other hand people hesitate to take the pencil if you just leave it on the desk in front of them and walk away The basic decision to take the pencil or not is the same in either case but the way you present the decision is different This plays a major role in research writing Readers find it much easier to believe sentences that are clear and beautifully written Lawyers use this fact all the time the closing statement in a court case should be elegant poetic and profoundly moving even if it has nothing to do with the actual evidence Knowing how to write this way helps you convince people and it protects you against being swayed by other people with excellent salesmanship but lousy logic So how do you recognize quotgoodquot writing Good writing makes its point clearly and simply with no wasted words Every paragraph supports the thesis statement Every piece of evidence is relevant to the main topic and is presented at the right time so that it fits into the overall flow of the paper It also sounds good one way to judge the quality of the text is to read it aloud and listen to the words If it sounds natural excellent If it sounds clunky and artificial with lots of awkward pauses it needs to be rewritten Don39t feel bad if you make a mess of a paper on the first draft So long as you have time to edit and know how to edit properly you can turn shaky prose into a masterpiece Weak Verbs Writing well means using as few words as possible to convey an idea On November 19 1863 a crowd of 15000 gathered at the town of Gettysburg Pennsylvania to commemorate the battle that had been fought there a few months earlier The featured speaker was Edward Everett who rambled on for much of the afternoon When he was done Abraham Lincoln stood up and delivered a threeparagraph speech The next day Everett wrote a letter to the president saying quotI should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours as you did in two minutesquot Torricelli 122 For his part Lincoln remarked quotHe can compress the most words into the smallest idea of any man I knowquot Quotedbcom 48 One of the best ways to improve your writing is to cut out unnecessary words especially unnecessary verbs Consider the two sentences below She was going She went They both mean the same thing right Both sentences use the same main verb to go but the first one sneaks in an extra verb to be quotWasquot is the past tense form of to be That extra verb cutters up the sentence and slows down your writing Extra verbs are called weak verbs or sometimes auxiliary verbs Eliminate weak verbs whenever you can unless they profoundly change the meaning of the sentence Certain verbs are considered weak no matter where they appear to be to do to have might may shall can could should would These verbs are weak even as the only verb in the sentence Note resist the temptation to tack extra words onto the sentences in the example above Every time I use this example people point out that quotShe was going to the party but something came upquot doesn39t mean the same thing as quotShe went to the party but something came upquot That39s true but those sentences aren t the same as the ones in the example In the example the weak verb is unnecessary irrelevant and pointless In the counterexample the weak verb serves a useful purpose it tells you that quotsomething came upquot before she arrived at the party rather than at the party itself Weak verbs aren t always bad When they actually tell you something you should leave them in the text Take a look at the paragraphs below We put weak verbs in italics other parts that could be tightened up are underlined It was 87 years ago when our fathers were creating in North America a country that had not existed before The idea was that the country would be free and the government would believe that everybody was made the same way Now we are fighting a great civil war which is testing whether that country or any other country that was created in the same way and that had a government which believed the same thing can make it for very long We are standing around on a big battlefield of the war l was just talking about We have come here to mark a part of that battlefield as a graveyard for the people who were killed here so that the nation would not die It is totally a good thing for us to do that Awful The second sentence alone contains five weak verbs Some sentences drag on for so long they barely make sense Let39s try knocking out some weak verbs and condense the language a little we might make it more poetic at the same time 49 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure We are met on a great battlefield of that war We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final restingplace for those who here gave their lives that this nation might live It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this Much better The number of weak verbs drops from 20 to 9 and the text uses fewer words overall True it could be condensed even morefina restingplace takes up more space than graveyard and four score and seven takes up more than 87 But to change those phrases would reduce the beauty of the language In case you were wondering this quotation is the first half of Lincoln39s quotGettysburg Addressquot There are five versions of the speech some of which use even fewer weak verbs than the text above This version is carved on the wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC Killing the Weasel You already know to watch out for spelling mistakes and weak verbs both are signs of sloppy writing which is often accompanied by sloppy research But how can you tell if someone has done thorough reliable trustworthy research and then decided to lie about it This happens all the time Politicians notoriously twist the truth a fact is a fact but what that fact means is open to interpretation Arguing about the definition of the word quotisquot doesn39t change the facts it just changes the way people look at the facts Using language to affect the interpretation of truth is called quotweaselingquot and words used in this way are called quotweasel wordsquot Consider this sentence I was going the speed limit This sentence makes a definite point It is either absolutely true or it39s a lie There39s no middle ground Now consider this sentence I was going approximately the speed limit give or take a bit in a general sort of way if you know what I mean Approximately the speed limit Give or take how much If that39s a general sort of way can you be more specific And no I don39t know what you mean This sentence can39t really be proven as a lie because it39s so mushy that it doesn39t really mean anything at all Weasel words are most often used to cover up weak evidence Examples of common weasel words many most few oftenfrequently basically and approximately Common weasel phrases in 50 general more or less by and large sort ofand kind of When you see these words or phrases watch out The author may be hiding something When writing your own papers be as specific as you can given the evidence you have Sometimes the evidence compels you to be vague We estimate there are 200 billion planets in the galaxy It is possible that Stanley Morgan actually said that but given the available testimony it seems doubtful Words and phrases like estimate it is possible seems and doubtful might be weasel words in another setting but here they are used to show weaknesses in the evidence Weasel words only count as weasels when they are trying to cover up the truth Evidence Finally always remember to check your evidence Ideally you should be doing this as you go along with your research but check it after you finish writing as well Are your sources reliable Do they say what you think they say Does the evidence make sense Are they backed up by other sources Corroboration After looking at the sources look at the way you present those sources in your paper Are your sources presented in a logical order Does your paper flow naturally with later paragraphs building upon earlier ones s your bibliography accurate Look for mistakes not only in your own writing but in other people39s as well Be skeptical of all writing even that which comes from a respected source Except me Assignment 7 A madeup student submitted this research paper to me and I gave them a madeup F because the writing is terrible Rewrite the text ofthe paper to make it better Get rid of as many weak verbs and weasel words as possible Assume that the evidence behind this paper is strong so you can always eliminate a weasel word and transform a sentence into a definite statement As long as you convey the same information to the reader you can rewrite the paper any way you like Break up sentences Rearrange paragraphs Summarize I Use as few words as possible I Don t repeat yourself I Be specific Consult an encyclopedia for factual details you could work into the text I Stick to the point avoid irrelevant comments I Try to sound professional Hint read your writing aloud when you finish typing it Does it sound like something you might actually say in a formal presentation The Fourth Crusade was not really a good idea because the people who were supposed to be fighting for the Pope were usually more interested in maybe making some money by possibly attacking some Christians along the way to Jerusalem and everybody more or less had had enough of the Pope anyway When the Crusade was beginning around 1199 approximately zero people were interested What would the Pope have done if no one was feeling good enough about his idea to want to get involved That is an interesting question which I might think about later if I get around to it So anyway the Crusaders were a nasty bunch of people and they were often fighting with one another even before the time when they got to Venice which is where they were supposed to be sailing from except for some of the others who didn t When they got to Venice they couldn t pay all the money they had said they would pay to the Venetians so the Venetians said they would have to attack Zara because the Venetians had owned Zara for a while and they wanted it back The Crusaders did it because like I said they were a nasty bunch of people After they had conquered Zara they sailed around to Constantinople and conquered that city too but first they sort of burned it down a bunch of times They didn t burn down all of it at once They had accidentally burned down one part of it so they decided they would burn down another part and then they burned down another part after that You know what I mean After they were done burning they raped and looted and pretty much destroyed everything Basically life kind of sucked The Fourth Crusade was bad because it was a bad idea and it was badly done If the Crusaders had conquered Jerusalem the Crusade would have been a success and then it wouldn t have been bad But war is always bad at least it s bad most of the time so the Fourth Crusade was bad because it was a war I think Week 7 Quiz 1 Weasel words A Dig burrows in sandbanks B Cover up the truth C Should be added to a paper whenever possible D None of the above 2 We cover editing in this class because A Knowing how to edit can help you identify bad sources B Editing improves the strength of your argument C Editing helps you sort out your evidence so it makes sense D All of the above 3 Which of the following is NOT a weak verb A Could B Might C Be D Make 4 When was the llGettysburg Address delivered AJuly4 1776 B November 191863 C December 8 1941 D September 112001 5 Good writing A Tastes good B Smells good C Sounds good D None of the above 6 In the following sentence which word is a weasel quotThis quotation probably comes from the first book of the seriesquot A First B Quotation C Series D Probably 7 Weak verbs are sometimes called A Auxiliary verbs B Fractious verbs C Verbose verbs D Soporific verbs 8 What s the last thing you should check when editing your paper A Weak verbs B Weasel words C Evidence D Your coat 9 You should ALWAYS eliminate a weak verb no how you have to twist the sentence to do it FALSE 10 Do you feel that this class has helped you with researching and writing A Yes I m ready to work for the Congressional Research Service B No you re crazy none of this stuff makes any sense C Some of it was useful but I need more practice D What was the class about again E Final Project The final project is a 12item bibliography on a topic of your choice ALL YOUR SOURCES SHOULD COVER THE SAME TOPIC Note that you do NOT have to write an actual paper just give me properly done formal list of sources in MLA style I want you to show a variety of different kinds of sources not just a list of 12 websites Your citations may come from any ofthe following types of sources but NO MORE THAN 4 from each category Books Articles from print newspapers Articles from print magazines or journals Articles from databases Websites You may reuse citations from assignments earlier in the course The citations must be in PERFECT MLA style See page 321 in the MLA Handbook for an example of a complete bibliography You can also flip to the end of this packet where l have put the Works Cited list for this course Because the bibliography was designed for an online course most of the items listed are websites However there is one video a couple of articles and several books Your final project MUST BE TYPED Remember to watch your indentation punctuation and capitalization of titles Be sure to list your sources in alphabetical order Be careful about not underlining periods and don39t forget dates or issue numbers Course Evaluation We revise INCO 1548 every year as academic requirements change and new research tools become available We d like to ask your help in making this course the best possible Please take a moment to answer a few questions 1 How difficult was the course for you Too Easy Easy Manageable Hard Too Hard 2 Check off any topics you think we should spend more time on Nothing the course is perfect the way it is Outlining PlagiarismCopyright Law Using websites Using periodicals Using databases Using libraries Editing Citation rulesMLA style Other llllllllllllllllllll 3 Do you think we should spend LESS time on any of these things 4 Do you think the course was useful 4 Please offer any suggestions for improvements or changes Informal Outline for a Research Paper Research Phase Research statement Cats Subtopics to explore in the research 1 Biology ofcats 2 Social behavior ofcats 3 Impact ofcats on people compare pet owners with non pet owners Writing Phase Thesis statement Cats are evil Supporting evidence 1 Cats eat all day and never payfor theirfood Personal observation 2 Recent research suggests cats are notfully domesticated Driscoll et al 3 at57 eelmeeut Pa49reperse eebservaHe 5 REJECTED DUE TO PERSONAL BIAS Conclusion 1 Eatingfood without payingfor it is stealing 2 Stealing is evil 3 Therefore cats are evil a nd 4 Ifcats are not domesticated then they are wild 5 Wild animals are not to be trusted 6 Untrustworthiness is evil 7 Therefore cats are evil Thefact that cats are evil is conclusively demonstrated by theirfailure to payfor thefood they consume as well as their untrustworthy nature Editing Phase Check the evidence 1 Are the sources reliable 2 Do you have enough evidence Check the logic 1 Does the evidence support your conclusion 2 Are there other ways of looking at it 3 Can you demonstrate that your interpretation of the evidence is more valid than others Check the writing 1 Does your paper stick to the point 2 Are you making your arguments cleary 3 Is your spellinggrammarcitation style correct Fair Use Checklist PURPOSE F avaring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use 39 Teaching 1nclud1ng mult1ple cop1es for 39 Commercial activity classroom use 39 Research 39 Pro ting from the use I Scholarshlp 39 Entertalnment 39 Nonpro t Educational Institution I Badfaith behavior Cnt1c1sm 39 Deny1ng cred1t to ong1nal author 39 Comment I News reporting 39 Transformative or Productive use changes the work for new utility l Restricted access to students or other appropriate group 39 Parody NATU RE F avaring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use Published work 39 Unpublished work 39 Highly creative work art music novels lms Factual or non ction based plays Important to favored educational objectives 39 Fiction AMOUNT F avaring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use Small quantity 39 Large portion or whole work used 39 Portion used is not central Portion used is central to work or signi cant to entire work or quotheart of the workquot Amount is appropriate for favored educational purpose EFFECT F avaring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use User owns lawfully acquired or purchased 39 COUId replace 5319 Of copyrighted work copy of original work Signi cantly impairs market or potential market One Of fCW copies made for copyrighted work or derivative No signi cant effect on the market or Reasonably available licensing mechanism for potential market for copyrighted work 39 use of the copyr1ghted work No similar product marketed by the copyright holder Affordable perrnrssron available for usrng work I I l l l Lack of licensing mechanism Numerous copies made You made it accessible on Web or in other public forum ll1ll Repeated or long term use quotCopyright Management Center ndiana University 2006 22 Oct 2007 lthttpwwwcopyrightiupuieducheckisthtmgt 60 Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States 1 January 2007 UNPUBLISHED WORKS Type of Work Copyright Te rm What was in the public domain in the US as of 1 January 20072 Unpublished works Life of the author 70 years Works from authors who died before 1937 Unpublished anonymous and pseudonymous works and works made for hire corporate authorship 120 years from date of creation Works created before 1887 Unpublished works created before 1978 that were published after 1977 but before 2003 2047 whichever is greater Life of the author 70 years or 31 December Nothing The soonest the works can enter the public domain is 1 January 2048 Unpublished works created before 1978 that were published after 31 December 2002 Life of the author 70 years Works of authors who died before 1937 Unpublished works when the death date of the author is not 3 known 120 years from date of creation Works created before 18873 WORKS PUBLISHED IN THE US Date of Publication Conditions Copyright Te rmZ Before 1923 None In the public domain 1923 through 1977 Published without a copyright notice In the public domain 1978 to 1 March 1989 Published without notice and without subsequent registration In the public domain 1978 to 1 March 1989 Published without notice but with subsequent registration 70 yea rs after the death of author or if work of corporate authorship the shorter of 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation 1923 through 1963 Published with notice but copyright was not 7 renewed In the public domain 1923 through 1963 Published with notice and the copyright was 7 renewed 95 years after publication date2 1964 through 1977 Published with notice 95 years after publication date2 1978 to 1 March 1989 Published with notice 70 yea rs after death of author or if work of corporate authorship the shorter of 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation2 After 1 March 1989 None 70 yea rs after death of author or if work of corporate authorship the shorter of 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation2 WORKS PUBLISHED OUTSIDE THE US2 Date of Publication Conditions Copyright Term in the United States Before 1 July 1909 None In the public domain Works Published Abroad Before 1978 in Compliance with US Formaities 1 July 1909 through 1922 Published in compliance with US formalities In the public domain 1923 through 1977 Published with notice and still in copyright in its home country as of 1 January 1996 95 years after publication date2 Works Published Abroad Before 1978 Without Compliance with US Formalities 1 July 1909 through 1922 Published in a language other than English and without subsequent republication with a copyright notice In the 9th Judicial Circuit the same as for an unpublished work in the rest of the US likely to be in the public domaing 1923 through 1977 In the public domain in its home country as of 1 January 1996 In the public domain 1923 through 1977 Published in a language other than English without subsequent republication with a copyright notice and not in the public domain in its home country as of 1 January 1996 In the 9th Judicial Circuit the same as for an unpublished work in the rest of the US likely to be 95 years after publication date 1923 through 1977 Published in English without subsequent republication with a copyright notice and not in the public domain in its home country as of 1 January 1996 95 years after publication date2 Works PublishedAbroadAfter 1 January 1978 After 1 January 1978 Copyright in the work in its home country has not expired by 1 January 1996 70 yea rs after death of author or if work of corporate authorship the shorter of 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation Special Cases After 1 July 1909 Created by a resident of Afghanistan Bhutan Ethiopia Iran Iraq Nepal San Marino and possibly Yemen and published in one of Not protected by US copyright law because they are not party to 63 12 these countries international copyright agreements After 1 July 1909 Works whose copyright was once owned or administered by the Alien Property Custodian and whose copyright if restored would as ofJanuary l 1996 be owned by a 13 government Not protected by US copyright law Hirtle Peter B quotCopyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States Cornell Copyright Information Center 2 Jan 2007 22 Oct 2007 lthttpwwwcopyrightcorneedutrainingHirtePu blicDomainhtmgt Judging Websites Things to Look For AUTHORITY ACCU RACY CURRENCY Author s name Details does the information on the website include specific facts and statements which can be verified or is it vague on important issues Date of copyrightrevision Author s qualifications or credentials Corroboration does the information on the website match up with information from other sources Mention of recent events Contact information Bibliography does the website list its sources RSS feedemail notification of updates does the website offer to contact you whenever new information comes in Toplevel domain gov or edu websites are generally more reliable than org or com these in turn are more reliable than net Presentation does the website look well done and properly organized Does the text sound professional Recommendation Did another source recommend this website to you Do bookswebsitesmagazineswhatever include this website in their bibliographies Peer Review Lack of bias does the author of the website have an incentive to lie to you If so do they admit the incentive and try to overcome it For more details see pages 4145 in the MLA Handbook Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Systems Dewey Decimal System Library of Congress System 000 Computer science information and general works 1 O 0 Philosophy and psychology 200 Religion 300 Social sciences 400 Language 500 Science 1 O O Technology 700 Arts and recreation 800 Literature 900 History and geography A General works B Philosophy psychology religion C Auxiliary sciences of history D World history EF History of the Americas 3 Geography anthropology recreation H Social sciences J Political science K Law L Education M Music N Fine arts P Language and literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military science V Naval science Z Bibliography library science information science Works Cited llAdvanced Search nternational Children s Digital Library 2008 University of Maryland 15 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwicdlbooksorggt llAdvanced Search Made Easy Google HelQ Center 2007 Google 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwgooglecomhelprefinesearchhtmlgt Agence FrancePresse History AFPcom Agence FrancePresse a Global News Agency 2008 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwafpcomgt AlltheWeb Find it All 2007 Yahoo Inc 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwallthewebcomgt Altavista 2007 Overture Services 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwaltavistacomgt Askcom Search Engine 2007 lAC Search amp Media 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwaskcomgt Associated Press AP HistoryZCorQorate Archives 2008 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwaporgpagesabouthistoryhistoryhtmlgt Catalogue 2008 National Library of Australia 15 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwnlagovaugt Central Intelligence Agency CIA World Factbook 200720 Dec 2007 lthttpswwwciagovgt Clusty the Clustering Search Engine 2008 Vivisimo 8 Jan 2008 lthttpclustycomgt Copyright Law of the United States and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code Oct 2007 United States Copyright Office 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwcopyrightgovtitle17gt quotDatabasequot Random HouseWebster s Unabridged Dictionary Ed Wendalyn R Nichols 2nd ed New York Random House 2001 DogQiIe Web Search Home Page 2008 Infospace Inc 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwdogpiecomgt Exalead The Other Search Engine 2008 Exalead 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwexaeadcomgt Faden Eric dir A Fair 1 Use Tale 2007 Youtube 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwyoutubecomgt Findsounds Search the Web for Sounds 2008 Comparisonics Corp 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwfindsoundscomgt quotFourth Crusade WikiQedia 22 Jan 2008 Wikimedia Foundation 23 Jan 2008 lthttpenwikipediaorgwikiFourthCrusadegt Gibaldi Joseph MLA Handbook For Writers of Research Papers 6 h ed New York Modern Language Association of America 2003 Gigablast 2007 Gigablast inc 8Jan 2008 lthttpwwwgigabastcomgt quotGoogle Web Search Features Google HeIQ Center 2007 Google 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwgoogecomhepfeatureshtmgt Egg 2008 Google 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwgoogecomgt Hirtle Peter B quotCopyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States CLneH Cogyright Information Center 2 Jan 2007 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwcopyrightcornelledupubicdomaingt llHow the Ambrose Story Developed History News Network June 2002 George Mason University 20 Dec 2007 lthttphnnusarticles504htmlgt lntelways 2008 lntelways 8Jan 2008 lthttpwwwintewayscomgt llInternational Standard Book Number Wikipedia 13 Jan 2008 Wikimedia Foundation 15 Jan 2008 lthttpenwikipediaorgwikiISBNgt Introduction to Dewey Decimal Classification Dublin Ohio Online Computer Library Center 2003 llJanet Dailey Wikipedia 18 Dec 2007 Wikimedia Foundation 20 Dec 2007 lthttpenwikipediaorgwikiJanetDailey gt Library of Congress Folklife Sourcebook A Directory of Folklife Resources in the United States 27 Apr 2005 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwlocgovfolklifesourcegt Library of Congress Library of Congress Classification Outline 15 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwlocgovcatdircpsolccogt Lincoln Abraham llGettysburg Address The Gettysburg Address Drafts 29 Sept 2005 Library of Congress 18 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwlocgovexhibitsgaddimagesGettysburg2jpggt llList of Countries Copyright Length Wikipedia 27 Nov 2007 Wikimedia Foundation 20 69 Dec 2007 lthttpenwikipediaorggt Live Search 2007 Microsoft 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwlivecomgt llMelvil Dewey Wikipedia 14 Jan 2008 Wikimedia Foundation 15 Jan 2008 lthttpenwikipediaorgwikiMelvilDewey gt llMost Common Words in English Wikipedia 2 Mar 2008 Wikimedia Foundation 5 Mar 2008 lthttpenwikipediaorgwikiCommonwordsgt Noah Timothy llBill Clinton and the Meaning of ls Slate 13 Sept 1998 22 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwslatecomid1000162gt Online Computer Library Center Summaries DDC Dewey Decimal Classification Dublin Ohio Online Computer Library Center 2003 I I I lthttpwwwnclcx u w csour icgtpdfgt Picsearch 2008 Picsearch 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwpicsearchcomgt Quotedbcom 2005 18 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwquotedbcomgt llReproduction of Currency Money Facts 2007 United States Treasury Bureau of Engraving and Printing 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwmoneyfactorygovgt llResearch Room Library and Learning Resource Center Taft College 16Jan 2008 lthttpwwwtaftcollegeeduTCLibraryresearchaspgt llResearch Sites Battle of lwo Jima 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwmsteuiuceducoursesci431fa01bnicklemanbattleofiwoiimahtmlgt Reuters llReuters Personalities and Scoops History of Reuters 2007 8 Jan 2008 lthttpaboutreuterscomhomeaboutushistoryreute rspersonalitiesandscoopsaspxgt Searchmash 2007 SearchMash 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwsearchmashcomgt Sebranek Patrick Dave Kemper and Verne Meyer eds Writers INC A Student Handbook For Writing and Learning Wilmington MA Houghton Mifflin 2006 Srchr 2007 Srchr 8 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwsrchrcomgt Torricelli Robert 3 ed Quotations for Public Speakers A Historical Literary and Political Anthology New Brunswick NJ Rutgers University Press 2001 122 WikiQedia 2007 Wikimedia Foundation 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwwikipediaorggt White Michael lrag Coalition Casualty Count 8Jan 2008 iCasualtiesorg 8 Jan 2008 lthttpicasuatiesorggt Wilson Jeff llRomance Novelist Janet Dailey Apologizes for Plagiarizing Shawnee NewsStar 30 July 1997 20 Dec 2007 lthttpwwwnewsstarcomstories073097life1htmlgt llWithin Range Library Arcade 15 Jan 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Libraries 15 Jan 2008 lthttpwwwibrarycmued uLibrariesetcindexhtmlgt Yahoo Search 2008 Yahoo 8 Jan 2008 lthttpsearchyahoocomgt
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