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American History I

by: Carter Ebert

American History I HIST 2010

Carter Ebert
GPA 3.98

Katherine Osburn

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Katherine Osburn
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carter Ebert on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2010 at Tennessee Tech University taught by Katherine Osburn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/225698/hist-2010-tennessee-tech-university in History at Tennessee Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Unit One The Creation of American Society 30000 BCE to 1775 l PreColumbian History Contact and Colonization 1 You should have a general idea of what cultures Europeans found in the New World how the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas shaped the experiences of contact what impact contact had on them and how they were eventually conquered Understanding how Native American cultures have survived conquest is also part ofthis objective Native Americans continue to play a pivotal role in American history long after the initial devastations of disease and warfare 2 You should understand the rivalries of European powers for control ofthe New World and how the struggle for empire affected the history ofthe colonies The role of Native Americans is also important here European background to colonization is crucial to understanding the shape the colonies took in North America 3 You should be able to outline the different models that the European powers used for colonization the Spanish the French and the British are our focus here and be able to discuss the founding ofthe North American colonies You will need to know Who founded them and why they were founded How the persons founding the colonies financed them How did the colonists react to the presence of ndianswhat was their policy regarding Indians and what did relations with the Indians look like What were the colonies major institutions the economy the form of government the dominant religion and how they reckoned land ownership By the end ofthis unit we will have studied British colonies in three distinct regions New England the Middle colonies and the South You ought to know how each colony operated and what made the three regions distinctive from one another ll Empire 1 You should be able to discuss the imperial economy what it was founded on and how it was structured and governed or not governed as in the case of salutary neglect The ideas of moral economy and mercantilism are crucial to understanding the imperial economy operated you should be able to discuss them and explain the two different views ofthe individual and society that are embodied in these ideas You should also be able to outline how stress over trade created the Dominion of New England and what role these changes played in the Salem witchcraft trials And speaking of witches you need an understanding of what witchcraft accusations tell us about gender roles over time 2 You should be able to discuss the ideas and people behind and the events surrounding the Glorious Revolution the Enlightenment and the First Great Awakening These things will shape the Revolution you need to know how Ill The Revolution 1You should be able to discuss the ideas and people behind and the events surrounding the First Second and Third Imperial Crisis s leading to the American Revolution The concepts involved here include salutary neglect and Imperial politicswhat was at stake disputes over the colonists39 rights as Englishmen especially the issues of actual representation v virtual representation internal and external taxes mixed and balanced government and trial byjury and the Rise ofthe Assembly including the creation of an indigenous political elite 2 You should have a clear understanding of which interest groups opposed the Crown and for what reasons There are a variety of motivations for revolution including class political and ideological interests You must also be able to discuss the Loyalists and their motivations and actions 3 You should have a general understanding of how the Revolution was fought this does not mean memorizing the details ofthe battles but rather understanding how the colonists managed to endure and eventually triumph You need to identify the two foreign generalsone from Prussia and one from France who contributed to the American victory ID39S FIRST UNIT EXAM NOTE If you don39t find one of these terms in your notes from the inclass lectures check the online lecture notes Looking these up on the internet is a waste of time because they are used in a specific context that may not be the same as the one on the internet Rememberyou are not just telling me what these things are but what they mean in terms of the themes of the course For help in how to prepare to write really good answers to identify and give the significance of questions see quotWhat to Do with Dr 039s Examsquot on the policy page of this syllabus I PRECOLUMBIAN HISTORY AND COLONIZATION PreCoum bian History and Contact Clovis horizon Anasazi Fajada Butte Moundbuilders Cahokia Monks Mound Conguest and Settlement of the New World New Spain and New France Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 The Columbian Exchange Seven Cities of Cibola Pueblo Revolt Guale Revolt encomienda amp repartimiento Father Los Casas amp The Black Legend New Laws of the lndies Samuel Champlain The Chesageake Jamestown Joint Stock Companythe Virginia Company The Headright system amp the House of Burgesses John Smith Powhatan amp Pocahontas William Berkeley amp oligarchy Nathaniel Bacon amp Bacon39s Rebellion The Puritans Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson Metacom39s War King Phillips War the Pequot WarFort Mystic Massacre the Restoration Colonies proprietorships quitrents William Penn amp the Pennsylvania Frame of Government the Fundamental Constitutions in the Carolinas General James Oglethorpe Cecilius Calvert Lord Baltimore Toleration Act of 1649 II THE BATTLE FOR EMPIRE IN AMERICA The Political Econom y of Em gire The moral economy Adam Smith The Wealth ofNations 1775 Mercantilism The Navigation Acts of 16511751 The Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros the Porters amp the Putnams Devil in the Shape of a Woman America at Midcentury Growth and Crisis The Enlightenment John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 and Two Treatises on Government 1690 Natural Law Tabula Rosa Deism The Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Pietism George Whitfield New LightsOld Lights Imperial Wars and Class Conflict LARGER LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR UNIT TWO EXAM Unit Two The New Republic and Jacksonian America 17831850 1 This unit begins with the creation of the Republic in the years immediately following Independence You should have a clear understanding of the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and which constituents were hurt by these failuresin other words how did a decentralized form of government hurt the groups in question These groups form the nucleus of voices clamoring for a Constitution They are known as the federalists There are a variety of motivations for wanting to create a Constitution including class political and ideological interestsyou should be able to discuss them all You must also be able to discuss the groups who opposed a Constitutionthe Antifederalistsand their motivations and actions Finally you need to know how the Constitution became ratified 2 You should have a clear understanding of the functions of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights You also need to know about the debate over religion that the Constitution sparked 3 In the first Presidential administration of the New Republic Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson laid out two competing visions for America You should be able to discuss both of theses different visions and why they disagreed with one another Finally you should be able to analyze how the forces of history pushed America towards one vision instead of the other 4 You need an understanding of the two political parties that arose from the two competing visions noted above Who were the Federalists and who were the Republicans What issues divided the two parties Warning don39t confuse the Federalist Party with the federalists who argued for the Constitution although there is some overlap 5 You need an understanding of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson What was his philosophy of governing Was he consistent in his administration What were his major accomplishments What happened with the judiciary under his administration 6 You should know why we fought the War of 1812which interest groups were for it and which were against it What happened during the war that threatened to tear the nation apart and why didn39t it What resulted from the war What issues of sectionalism emerged in the flush of nationalist excitement following the war This unit lays the groundwork for the Civil War by outlining the sectional differences that evolved following the Transportation Market and Industrial Revolutions You should understand each of these revolutionswhat brought them about and how they changed the way Americans both created and distributed goods You should also understand how the Industrial Revolution changed the way companies organized the relations of productionmeaning the relationships between management and workersand what impact that had on patterns of alcohol consumption You should be able to explain how industrialization changed gender roles paying special attention to rise of the Northern middle class You should understand urbanization immigration and nativism You should be able to account for the responses to the Industrial Revolution in communal experiments and reform movements ID39S SECOND UNIT EXAM the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution rthwest Ordinance of 1787 Little Turtle39s Rebellion Shay39s Rebellion 1786 the Sans Souci Club The Federalist Papers Federalists and Antifederalists the Virginia Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom the Early Republic Washington through Jefferson Report on the Public Credit Report on Finance Report on Manufactures The Aftermath of Slavery Initial Impact of freedom A Liberation by the Union Army 1 The Freedman39s Bureau B But freedom came gradually for most 1 The Union Army might liberate them but then they would leave and life went back to the daily routine C Leaving the Plantation 1 House servants 2 Connection to home in uncertain times 3 Movement to citiesfedera troops a did not protect them from violence b victimized by vagrancy laws the Black Codes 4 Many former slaves went west a the Exodusters Slaves that went west b Kansas Large number of exodusters settles therre Establishing Freedom Building New Lives A What does freedom mean 1 No longer property Number one reason 2 negotiate the terms of their labor Get paid Number two most important reason 3 Travel Didn t need a pass and no slave patrols B Lost family members 1 Used the Freedman39s Bureau FMB a write letters b place ads in the paper 2 Results a happy reunions b not so happy Sometimes had new families 0 court battles over children Old families and new families fight for custody of children D Legal standing this was very important 1 legalize marriages a gender role changes Black women wanted to be housewives like white women b the racism of FMB employees Didn t support the black women wanting to be housewives Thought then still belonged in the fields 2 change names legally a an expression of autonomy wanted their own name b also needed to vote and get FMB services E New forms of labor amp the question of land 1 FMB promised them 40 acres amp a mule but did not follow through a the Sea Islands off of S Carolina coast for ex People who had been living on these lands had them taken away b triumph of eXslaveowners c public land in the S 2 A of African American families worked as unskilled labor and lt4 8 owned their farms 3 Contracts and labor Many laves go back to work for former owners 4 The terms of contract laborvaried from place to place a wage scales 540 per monthVA NC TN 8 12quotSC GA 1018quotMISS AL FLA LA 1525quotARK TX b Gang labor most former slave owners wanted black people in gangs with overseers c The squad system Black people wanted to travel in families and a family member to negotiate labor d The old slave quarters most slaves wanted a new house 5 Sharecropping httpwww accd edIInacfar l quot Hist tso is inn a They could move out ofthe quarters and have their own homes b Then negotiate the terms of cropping Shares Most of the time they had to give back 50 other costs Amounted to more than they made so they could never get ahead in life Materials c The problem of peonage E ectively able to hold slaves in peonage Black people always owed their masters money Basically slavery 6 The greatest desire of the former slaves was for education for their kids a Few opportunities Most needed kids to work in fields Couldn t get ahead in life b Still made many sacrifices to educate their kids 7 White carpetbaggers attempted to help the former slaves 1 stereotype all transient exploiters who carried all their goods in carpet bags 2 Some truth 3 Union Army officers Who came before 1867 a most either stayed after mustered out b or moved back bc loved Sespecially its climate 4 Investors 5 Dogooders 6 Politics a nearly 12 were northern troops until the union army got out 7 Clearly these folks were upsetting the established order which was in disarray lV lnterracial relations very important bc former system of social controlslaveryis gone A In the years immediately following the war AfricanAmericans entered politics in large numbers 1 Political organizing Blocks wanted to be involved in politics 2 Never held political power in proportion to their actual s were only 1520 of public office holders in the S even at the height of 3 Slowly began to build a middle class 4 this was very intimidating to whites and led to a backlash were driven out of politics by violence and intimidation more on this below B In social relations issues of etiquette were huge former rules 1 Address former massa w respect 2 Never sit or keep hat on in their presence 3 Never speak unless spoken to 4 Walk behind massa 2 or 3 steps 5 Always yield on the sidewalk 6 Now C Freedmen wanted more respect socially 1 When African Americans failed to act subservient there was terrible conflict 2 Already noted Black Codes 3 Segregation on pubic conveyances Began as custom and gradually evolved into law 4 And of course the KKK KKK httpushistorywisceduhist102photoshtmll1010html httpwwwhistor eachernetAHA PimagesKKKJPG 1 Began in TN as a social club in 1865 turned ugly in 1867 2 Nathan Bedford Forrest httpwwwwhiteknightseuropadeforrest image39pg began organizing intimidation campaigns 3 quotRedeemingquot the South From blacks and carpetbaggers 4 Rules forjoining the Klan 5 terrorist campaigns 6 The Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late lnsurrectionary States 187071 a heard testimony of hundreds of people and investigated local law enforcement records b whippings burning down schoolhouses amp homes lynchings amp rape were widespread in certain areas of the S Colfax Massacre LA April 18 1873clash between AfricanAmerican led militia amp the KKKover a contested election held town under siege for 3 weeks finally Blacks surrendered amp over 12about 50 blacks amp 2 whites were then massacred South Carolina Spartanburg county the 1870 election 2500 armed whites marched on political gathering of Blacks killed their 2 candidates for political office The Crisis of the Confederation and the Constitution Why create our current government Essentially 2 reasons the Concrete problems of limited govt and the perception of a national moral crisis in America I The Institutions of Republicanism the Articles of Confederation What kind of national govternment was created during the Revolution and how did its deficiencies lead to the creation of the government we now have A After Revolution there was a debatehow should a national government under the Articles of Confederation be structured 1 Many Americans leery of centralized powerthe wartime government had scared them during the Revolution B After much wrangling leaders finally decided it should be a quotleague of friendshipquot 1 Consisted of a unicameral house in which each state had a vote called the Continental Congress until 1781 then it was called the Confederation Congress 2 The House conducted foreign relations amp maritime affairs settled disputes between states regulated Indian trade sort of 3 The government could not tax or create trade policy remember the Imperial Crisis 4 All states retained sovereignty and also all powers not granted the Articles Congress had no coercive authority to do anything C But the Articles were too weak to deal with problems of new nation this soon became clear as we faced our first struggles II The Trials Of The f 39 quot C 39 quot had problems which made it unsatisfactory to growing numbers of Americans A Lack Of Ability To Deal With Encroachment On Tribal Lands 1 Indian policy under the Articlesthe Northwest Ordinance of 1787upheld the principles of the Proclamation of 1763 a it allegedly held settlers back from western lands until treaties purchasing or trading the land was completed kept the same line as had the Proclamation waitwasn39t that one reason we just fought a ar b all persons trading with the Indians had to have a licensethis was to protect Indians from corrupt traders and liquor we feared another uprising c established strong penalties for mistreatment of Indians and vice versa d one needed a passport to travel on Indian lands this was a clear recognition of their sovereignty as separate nations with a governmenttogovernment relationship with the United States e The Ordinance ALSO prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory map htth limanes encartamsn quot quot 39riT014214Agif 2 The new government negotiated a series of treaties with various tribes trying to lay out land boundariesbut settlers still poured into Indian country 3 They were met w fierce resistance a Miamis Shawnees Delawares all refused to acknowledge American sovereignty over their tribal lands b under the leadership of Little Turtle they created a Confederacy and attacked settlers1787 Little Turtle httpwwwohiohistorycentral 39 96039pg c The Confederacy won a series of battles in 179091 the new nation looked pretty lame 4 However a new army came into the Northwest in 1794 a At the Battle of Fallen Timbers nearwhat is now Toledo Ohio General quotMad Anthonyquot Wayne finally crushed lndian resistance httpwwwsonofthesouthnetrevolutionamwargenerallanthony waynepg SUM lndian policy shows problems of lack of centralized govtcouldn39t enforce NW Ordinance 1 Was conflict continual on frontier 2 This hurt western land speculators trying to develop land on the frontier and farmers trying to build lives on the frontier B Lack of Ability To Conduct Foreign Affairs 1 There were numerous debates over provisions of the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolution in 1783 Article 4 promised that American merchants would pay their prewar debts to British merchants Article 5 allowed Loyalists to recover their confiscated property 2 State governments however wanted to sell the confiscated property to pay their war debts 3 And many citizens were very unhappy about the return of the property of quot ory Villains while filial tears are fresh upon our cheeks and our murdered brethren scarcely cold in their gravesquot 4 Therefore the Confederation couldn39t enforce Articles 4 and 5 of the treaty in retaliation the Brits kept troops in the Northwestright on our western border 5 How could the United States conduct foreign policy when it couldn39t make states obey treaties it signed with other nations C Lack Of Ability To Deal With Commerce and Tradenternal amp External 1 Articles specifically forbade the government from establishing a national policy dealing with trade a Great Britain France and Spain all restricted trade with their colonies after the war New England merchants lost important markets b Also the Spanish government closed the Mississippi River to American navigation in 1784 this really hurt western farmers and planters who used the port of New Orleans to ship their commodities c Additionally cheap European goods flooded America and put artisans out of business many not all artisans then began advocating for a strong government to provide protective tariffs D In Addition To The Actual Weakness of The ConfederationSome Feared The Power Of State Governments This was seen in two areas high taxes and debtor relief 1 State government emerged from the Revolutionary War with huge debts a speculators had bought up these state debt certificatewere very cheap in war b now they wanted high taxes so that the states could pay them back c many state government granted these speculators the high taxes they wanted this was a problem for many people 2 Debtors were hit hard as creditors demanded paymentssome debtor relief established by states a to help ease the flow of money state governments printed moneyneedless to say it was not worth much b still some political leaders in some areas forced creditors to accept this depreciated paper currency as payment for debts c this caused many creditors to become upset with attempts at debtor reliefthey viewed these laws as attacks on prope y d in other places there was no relief was in sightwhich led to social conflict such as 3 Shay39s Rebellion1 786 Lack of debtor relief led to 1st major upheaval of new nation that occurred in western Massachusetts a Massachusetts was in a severe recession since 1784 yet the state legislature had agreed to paythe state39s war debt in 3 yrs b since paper money was forbidden the state levieed huge taxes and western farmers were especially hard pressed to pay these c consequently creditors hauled debtors into court and then socked them with high court fees jail time and repossession of prope y 4 Late in 1786 Daniel Shays former Revolutionary War officer led about 2000 men against the courts to shut them down hm 39 39 hrooklvncunyeduhistorydfgamrvShaysipd 5 The rebellion was quickly put down with minimum bloodshed but it showed the weakness of the government under the Articles of Confederationthey were powerless to prevent the states from oppressing their citizens to the point of rebellion 6 Moreover there were rumors that Spain had offered to reinstitute export rights to westerners who would secede from the union the new union seemed to be splintering E Summary of Practical Reasons For A Constitution 1 By 1787 many felt the need for a strong federal government for economic reasons a urban artisans hoped for the emergence of a strong national government that could impose tariffs on imports and thus protect their profits b New England merchants wanted a trade policy to open markets for them c land speculators and western farmers wanted a government that could open west for settlement and deal effectively with Indians d moneyed interests rich speculators and creditors feared states39 power over issue of debt relief 2 But there were also ideological reasons for creating a stronger federal government a in the years following the Revolution there was a perceived crisis in American society b ie America was already in moral decline Ill The quotMoral Crisisquot Of Republicanism Revolution was supposed to create a perfect new world it did not A In the decade of 1780s however talk of a crisis in American society was widespread in newspapers sermons and personal journals B Many clergy lamented that the Revolution had not given us the virtuous society that they had hoped for 1 Virtue was they argued undermined by quot the visible declension of religion the rapid progress of licentious manners and open profanityquot 2 The American people sought out luxury and pleasure quotLUXURY LUXURY the great symbol of dissolution and distress here has taken up her dismal abodeand destroyed that simplicity of manners native manliness of soul and equality of station which is the spring amp peculiar excellence of a free governmentwe mayjustly conclude that ruin is at handquot 3 Evidence of thisthe establishment of a tea club in Boston in 1785 a the Tea Assembly or quotthe sans Souci Clubquot met every other week for dancing or cardplaying b but was an occasion to quotparadequot the gentry in an attempt to quotlull amp enervate these minds already too much softened poisoned amp contaminated by idle pleasures amp foolish gratificationsquot c these critics were less worried about the gaming and more concerned about the social pretensions of the gamers which were more destructive to Republicanism than was quotan evening spent in a back chamber of a tavern among a group of wretchesquot C Some persons concerned with moral decline thought that a strong central government was the answer 1 Then they could pass strong laws regulating morality D Others concerned with moral decline DID NOT want a strong central government 1 Instead they wanted a revival of Christianity in people39s hearts E During the 1780s there was a flurry of reform measured passed by state assemblies to make them more workable and to avoid the need for centralized government 1 Yet many thought these efforts were not enoughthe federal government needed drastic reform The issue one wrote quotrespects the whole nation of America amp is so superiorly important that all our greatness amp our greatest concerns rest upon it 2 By 178687 most ofthe nation39s reform sentiment was focused on rewriting the Articles of Confederation not on peicemeal attempts by state governments 3 The issue in many people39s minds was the ability of America to sustain Republicanismthat is a government by the elected officials ofthe people SUMMARY During the time in which the US operated under the Articles of Confederation it became clear to several important interest groups that the limited government could not meet the needs of the new nation The people who were the most affected by these issues form the nucleus of the Federalists a group of men who pushed for a new form of government that eventually gave us our current Constitution II The Constitutional Convention4787 A James Madison39s commercial convention Morphs into an effort at reform MidMay1787 55 men representing all states but RI went to Philly B Demography of delegateswho were the quotfounding Fathersquot Of the various people calling for different solutions to the quotcrisisquot which group ultimately wrote the Constitution Class Ethnicity Education Interests debtors and property protection C James Madison was probablythe most important writer of Constitution He was widely studied in government and the author of several of the Federalist papershttpuf files 39 rnmVnnCJm iam r madisonipc1 Had served in the VA government and the Continental Congress Princeton educatedhad read over 200 books on the subject of politics quotVices ofthe Political System of the USquot State power versus federal Checks amp balances and powers D Convention finally hammered out the form of government we have House Senate Executive An independentjudiciary Broad powers of taxation defense regulation oftrade Compromises over slavery treat it as a political and economic not a moral issue slaves are property 35s clause Runaways The slave trade A Godless Constitution for a Godly nation Rather than creating a Christian nation the Constitution speci cally states that religion shall not be enshrined in government Article 6 These provisions were accepted by the majority of delegates wo much debate even though 11 of the 13 states had religious qualifications for office and some ha established state churches The 2 exceptions were NY amp VA both of which had abolished all religious qualifications for office In 1786 Thomas Jefferson39s quotBill for the Establishment of Religious Freedomquot drafted with Madison39s help had done away with the established church in VA It had been the Anglican Church This was an inspiration to the men at the Constitutional Convention Outcry in the press Outcry at ratifying conventions The press carried letters and articles decrying this provision Feared religious minorities Warnings Opposition amp Ratification Factions not so clearly drawn as one might think A Federalistsmore organized and aggressive these were people focused on the national debate Many of the elites of American society Creditors amp many hard people Frontiersmen Those who feared the rabble B Antifederalistsless org more focused locally Had a more diverse socioeconomic background All feared centralized power bc of memories of imperial system Those who governed lndividual liberties Debtors Spiritual renewal C The Federalist PapersJames Madison John Jay Alexander Hamilton articulated the need for a federal union in this classic work It was published in NYC newspapersmost important political treatise in nation39s history Main thrust of their argument National defense Trade Unity Separation of powers Madison and the quotChristian nationquot in the Federalist Papers For the next 75 years or so every time there was a national calamity ministers blamed the Godless constitution But religion crucial to a moral society D Ratification httpwww mlumhia ml constitutionpg 12 states fioht over ratification of the Antifeds insist on a Bill of Rights Feds promised one later if they would go along with it now Promises for the first president When it went to states the vote was very closefinaly on July 26 1788 NY became the last state to F The Bill Of R ratify it ights BOR and Disestablishment this occurs at two levels the federal level in the Constitution and the state level in state legislatures Madison drafts the BOR The First Amendment disestablishment clause The dec ratified Final rat Summary Amid The document h attempts to bala individualsin th Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances isive battle for disestablishment at the state level came after the Constitution had been but there had been an important precidant for this already in VA Recall that in 1786 Thomas Jefferson39s quotBill for the Establishment of Religious Freedomquot had done away with the established Anglican Church in VA this had influenced people at the Constitutional Convention to keep the Constitution free of an official religion Madison and Jefferson and other quotdissentingquot faiths of Virginia had pushed for this bill at the state level their efforts inspired other states to also do away with disestablish of cial state churches By the time of the ratification of the First Amendment in 1791 all of the other Anglican establishments except in Maryland at the state level were ended The Congregational establishments of New England lasted longer Not until 1818 in Connecticut and 1833 in Massachusetts were the state constitutions amended to complete the process of disestablishment at the state level ification of the Bill of Rights Dec 15 1791 much hue and cry the Constitution established the structure of a federal government as several functions It delineates rights and powers of the federal government it nce state and federal rights and powers it establishes the rights of groups and e amendments and it sets upjudicial review as an important part of the governing process What it does not do is provide for political parties We will see that the two party system became the means of implementing the Constitution Politics in the Early Republic A Hamilton v Jefferson in the Administrations of George Washington 1 Alexander Hamilton was Washington39s Secretary of the Treasury httpcdndipitycomuploadsevents2862866505bfab0d514026fb7c52f931 pg He was a businessman lawyer married wealthy trading family of Schuyler Was Washington39s personal military aide in the Revolutionary War Believed in National rights Trade and manufacturing A loose interpretation of the ConstitutionArticle I Section 8 the quotNecessary and Properquot Clause quotto make all laws that are necessary and proper for carrying into execution the Forgoing powersquot 2 Thomas Jefferson was his Secretary of State httpwwwvisitinndr asiefferson picture pg He was the famous gentleman planter from VA leading intellectual author of Declaration of Independence Believed in States rights The primacy of agricultural interests We will talk more about this later httpwwwoahorgpubsnl2005novVeneratethePlowgif A strict interpretation of Constitutionmeaning if the document does not speci cally say you can do something then you cannot do it During the first Washington Administration Hamilton and Jefferson struggled to make their ideas the ones that underlay policy B Hamilton39s Plans and Jefferson39s Responses The Washington administration faced majorfinancial problems because they had just fought a Revolution Hamilton addressed these problems with three major reports quotREPORT ON THE PUBLIC CREDIT 1790quot The debts of the Confederation amp states39 debts Federal government prestige His rich speculator friends Northern interests Jefferson amp Southern states objected Sectional concerns State39s rights To get this passedHam agreed to the creation of new nation39s capital at DCit had been in Philly then in New York quotREPORT ON FINANCE 1790quot A national bank Functions Jefferson and his friend Madison objected Constitutional grounds But also know that Jefferson just plain did not like banks quotI believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies lfthe American people ever allow private banks to control the issue oftheir currency first by inflation then by deflation the banks and corporations that will grow up around the banks will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conqueredquot Thomas Jefferson 1802 Washington however agreed with Hamilton and signed the legislationthe First National Bank was created Bank stock State banks quotREPORT ON MANUFACTURES 1791quot The state of US manufacturing Subsidies The quotSociety for Establishment of Useful Manufacturesquot His vision a quotcolonialquot south Jeff39s objections But didn39t have to fight this one Federalist versus Republicans Three of Hamilton s policy initiatives revealed how two leading statesmen could interpret the role of the new government very differently President Washington always felt the government should be above taking sides in debates He believed as did most people in the 18th century that likeminded Americans would settle their differences through consensus rule not by organizing into separate parties htto39luoload wikimedia quot 39 quot is337Lvon griswoldbrawl39pg Nonetheless two parties arose Thomas Jefferson and James Madison became convinced that Hamilton and his supporters were trying to impose an aristocratic government managed from the top down not the bottomup To emphasize their point they called themselves Republicansthis is NOTthe current Republican party the emphasis was on a government that was a Republic meaning one governed by the elected representatives of quotthe peoplequot Hamilton and his supporters on the other hand claimed Jefferson and Madison were attempting to destroy the Republic Believing the common man was truly incapable of making clear political decisions they argued for a strong central federal government hence the name Federalists Partisan bickering meant that each accused the other of being quotan illicit factionquot Meanwhile an illicit faction DID arise in the west highlighting the need for a way to work out problems and ironically reenforcing the need for political parties C The Whiskey Rebellion the issue of dissent in the first uprising ofthe new nation The excise tax on whiskey Western farmers and whiskey Western farmers and Indians July 1794 a riot broke out when fed revenue officers tried to collect the tax httporaphics8nvtimes 39 70000415opinion15whiskey480ipo 3 rioters were killed and several militia were wounded Sporadic outbursts of violence occurred along frontiermany petitioned raised liberty poles harassed tax collectors But in the end the rebellion was leaderless and unorganized Washington feared another Shay39s rebellion called 13000 militia amp marched westward sometimes leading them himself httn39lins herkelev edulihrarvhot tnhir sl mnRDec 70P 39 quotlsl yRebelliOhJDQ But he met little resistance He arrested 2 leaders amp charged them with sedition but later pardoned them The larger lesson here was that the national government would not allow violent organized resistance to its laws Those who were dissatisfied with things must go through legal methods of bringing about change no extra legal means aka mobocracy should be used unless you are Hamilton and Burr in which case you fight an illegal duel but that39s another discussion Those w similar ideas about what to do were already beginning to organize channels to participate in the political process Transition But even using these parties did not really solve the problem of dissent for one party attempted to use the government to silence opposition from the other Issues surrounding the French Revolution solidified the two party system and led to the attack on civil liberties described below A lssues surrounding French Revolution hardened the parties and highlighted the problem of legitimate dissentmeaning what is the best way to disagree with the government B The French Revolution broke out in 17891793 and when the revolutionaries began killing aristocrats England declared war on France Which side should we support 1 Britain was our primary trading partnerespecially for manufactured goods 2 But France was our allywe were proud of her for following our lead in establishing a Republic and we owed her an enormous debt for her support in our own Revolut39on 3 Federalists tended to be on the side of the British because they saw the Revolution as a horrifying display of unforgivable violence by the quotrabblequot 4 Republicans romanticized the Revolution because they saw it as quotthe peoplequot rising up against their rich corrupt government 5 So what should we do C President Washington declared that the United States would be neutral in this conflict Neutrality became increasingly difficult to maintain over time but Washington called for it anyway 1 In his Farewell Address of 1796 he laid out his ideas about how America should conduct foreign policy 2 He advocated that the US maintain commercial but not political ties to other nations make money not war and avoid entangling and permanent alliances with other nations 3 These ideas set the stage for ourforeign policy until WWI D In 1796 Washington chose not to run for a 3rd term 1 His former Vice President and Federalist John Adams won the most votes for President in the 1796 election 2 But some of the federal electors hated Adams39 running mate Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina 3 Thus they chose Jefferson who was running against Adams with Aaron Burr as his Vice President to be Adams39 Vice Presidenttheyjust dumped poor Pinckney 4 After the elections the Federalist party controlled both Houses of Congress the Supreme Court and the presidency 5 However the newlyelected Federalist Party faced increasing pressures in foreign affairs How could they stay true to Washington39s vision for neutrality E Relations with France were getting shaky 1 In order to hurt the British the French began seizing American ships loaded with British goods 2 When Adams tried to negotiate an end to this the French government actually asked our negotiators for a bribe Because the persons who had requested the bribe did not give their names but called themselves X Y and Z this was called the XYZ Affair 3 There was an antiFrench outcrywe abrogated the Treaty of Alliance formed during Revolution and Adams ordered US ships to seize French vessels 4 The U S then fought a series of battles with France in the Caribbean and graduallyafter initial heavy losses established US naval superiority F At home the Federalists saw antiFrench feeling as a way to trash the Republicans They figured that the Republicans fondness for the French would make them unpopular It was guilt by associationlike saying they were the kind of people who quotpalled around with terroristsquot 1 They passed the ALIEN amp SEDITION ACTS a The Alien Act said that the president could jail or deport enemy aliens in time of war all aliens had to register with the federal government and the time needed to be naturalized was lengthened This hurt the Republicans because newlynaturalized immigrants were a core constituency of theirs b The Sedition Act made it a crime to conspire to prevent the enforcement of federal laws and prohibited the publication of attacks on the President or Congress quotwith intent to defame or bring them into contempt or disreputequot They figured this would stifle the Republicans39 criticism ofthe Federalists c Under this act over 20 Republican newspaper editors were jailed for criticizing the government i The first editor was an Irishborn Republican Congressman from Vermont Matthew Lyon who was arrested for declaring in print that John Adams had quotdisplayed a continual grasp for power and an unbridled thirst for ridiculous pomp foolish adulation and selfish avaricequot Aside Here is a picture of Adams Does he look pompous to you httn lwww ohiladelphiareflections 39 v PJohnAdamsin ii Lyon was imprisoned and fined 100000 iii But he conducted his reelection campaign from jail getting from Republicans and winning another term G The Republicans fought back wthe Virginia amp Kentucky Resolutions 1798 NOTE PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THIS IT IS AN IMPORTANT ARGUMENT REGARDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND THE STATES IT WILL SHOW UP AGAIN IN THE SECESSION CRISIS 1 Madison and Jefferson took the fight to only the governing body not controlled by the Federaliststhe state legislatures 2 The legislatures of Virginian and Kentucky passed resolutions in 1798 declaring that the federal government existed only because it was a compact of sovereign states 3The people speaking through their state legislatures had the right to judge all federal lawsto say whether or not they were valid 4 And the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky werejudging Alien amp Sedition acts to be quotnull amp voidquot 5 No other states supported these officially39 no one had the backbone to pass anything like these a but the resolutions rallied public opinion behind the Republicans b in these documents the Republicans and their supporters placed themselves squarely in the Revolutionary position of resistance to tyranny 6 This raised the issue of states39 rights over federalcan states refuse to obey fed laws that they do not like cue ominous music foreshadowing disunion H The Election of 1800 1 Jefferson ran against the quotaristocratic amp autocraticquot Federalist Party He pointed to those in jail over the Sedition Act and raised a fuss over First Amendment rights 2 The war with France was also unpopular because Americans had to pay taxes to support it a Although Adams ended the war though negotiations he was still blamed for it and it hurt his party 3 The vote was tied between Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr and since neither candidate had a majority the election was decided in the House a Where Hamilton surprisingly threw his votes and those of his supporters to Jefferson whom he regarded as lesser of two evils Besides no one wanted a civil war 4 The Republicans now held Congress and the Presidency which is why historians call this quotthe Revolution of 1800quot one party quotoverthrewquot the other by taking control of two branches of the government 5 Religion played an enormously important role in the 1800 election a The Federalists portrayed Jefferson as an agnostic and an infidel b But New Lights respected him for his protection of religious freedom c Baptists turned out in huge numbers to elect him in hopes that he would protect their religious freedom d Minority religions then would form a core constituency ofthe Republicans NOTE Pay attention You need to know which interest groups support which political parties 6 As he was leaving office Adams appointed a slew of Federalist judges to try and maintain the Federalist Party39s hold on the judiciary including Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall these were later called the Midnight Appointments a The judiciary would be the arena for future political bickering SUM The Constitution had worked there was bitter factionalism but an orderly transfer of power The New Republic had a functioning political system Yet even as it functioned and the nation pulled SECTIONALISM AND NATIONALISM IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC JEFFERSON39S PRESIDENCY 18011809 A Religion played an enormously important role in the 1800 election 1 Feds portrayed Jeff as an agnostic amp an infidel 2 But New Lights respected him for his protection of religious freedom 3 Baptists turned out in huge numbers to elect him in hopes that he would protect their religious freedom minority religions then would form a core constituency of the Republicans B All of the things he did enraged the Federalistsas a result partisanship grew but national institutions withstood party bickering 1 quotThe govt is best that governs leastquot 2 Jeff and the Alien amp Sedition acts 3 Jeff and Federalist appointees Salmon Chase a the battle b the significance 4 The Marshall Court further asserted the independence of thejudiciary and strengthened the institution of the Supreme Courtthus reenforcing the power and prestige of the national government a Chief Justice John Marshall was a Federalist and an Adams appointee but he ruled on constitutional not partisan grounds in the landmark case of Marbury v Madison 1803 b quotthe midnight appointmentsquot again c Jefferson39s Secretary of State James Madison refused to seat one of these judges he sued and the case made it to the Supreme Court SC d Marbury v Madison 1803 i Marburya midnight appointment with a problem ii Madison wouldn t seat Marbury iii Marbury sued for quotwrit of Mandamusquot from the Supremes an order from Supreme Court commanding that a specific action be taken in this case that the court order the Jefferson administration to seat him iv a law called the Judiciary Act of 1789 had said that the Supreme Court could issue such writs v but Marshall ruled that they couldn39t vi thus the Adams appointee was not seated but the real significance went beyond the seating or non seating 5 despite Jefferson s disapproval the court provided a significant check on the power of the Jeffersonian Republicans and kept two parties in play in the federal government JEFFERSON amp THE WEST his presidency marked by significant westward expansion which raised further questions about the direction the nation was going A Land and Indians 1 Remember that Jeff is known for being the leading spokesman for the agrarian ideal in which yeomen farmers are seen as the backbone of society In his book Notes on Virginia 1785 he wrote Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God if ever he had a chosen people whose breasts he has made his peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue It is the focus in which he keeps alive that sacred fire which otherwise might escape from the face of the earth Corruption of morals in the mass of cultivators is a phenomenon of which no age nor nation has furnished an example 2 Jeff39s yeomen farmers and the Indians 3 Jeff hoped to make yeoman farmers of the Indians so they39d become quotcivilizedquot and give up their hunting lands a government trading housesthe Factory System Careful herethis is not about manufacturing b debts and land sales c Removal B The Louisiana Purchase gave Jeff lots of land for his agrarian ideal 1 Jeff doubled the size ofthe United States with the Louisiana Purchase httpti 39 39 LrietQifehiiilr lerr nntent itehiiilr lernir tiiresIniiisiana purchase treaty agreement pg a Spain had owned this land but sold it to France in 1801 b there were rumors they would close the port again so Jeff sent a delegation to Paris to buy New Orleans c Napoleonupset w slave revolts in Santo Domingo amp unhappy w colonizationoffered whole thing to Jeff for 15 million d even though it bothered him because it was unconstitutional Jeff did it justifying his violation of his principles because the new nation needed land for yeomen farmers 2 This made many New England merchants nervous a Why b But the representatives ofthe merchant areas in New England voted in favor ofthe Purchase anyway because it was so popular with Americans C Jefferson established something called the Virginia Dynasty and he set a precedent for sectional control of a branch of government 1 With only a couple of exceptions southerners or southern sympathizers controlled the presidency until the election of Lincoln in 18 2 This in part helps explain why Southern states reacted so strongly to the 1860 election 1 Jefferson 180008 2 Madison18081816 3 Monroe1816 1820 4 John Q Adamsthe one exception182428 but he won the presidency in quotcorrupt bargainquot 5 Andrew Jackson18281836 6 Martin Van Buren he was from NY but he was also Jackson39s hand picked successor1836 40 7 William Henry Harrison184044 8 James K Polk18441848 9 Zachary Taylor18481852 10 Franklin Pierce1852 1856 11 James Buchanan1856 1860 SUMMARY 1 Jeff considered the Louisiana purchase and the opening of the west to whites among his greatest accomplishments next to authoring the Virginia Bill for Religious Freedom 2 The majority of the nation was also pleased w his accomplishments he won reelection in 1804 carrying 15 of the 17 statesThis spoke of his personal popularity and of the Republicans organizing strength as a party 3 The Jeff Republicans would morph into the Jacksonian Democrats in a few decades thus forming the Second Party System Democrats versus Whigs For a detailed description of the interest groups that make up the Second Party System see the web link on the class syllabus The Second Party system ran into sectional tensions on several issues but both parties managed to keep their national base intact 4 The Second Party system will splinter into the Third Party SystemDemocrats versus Republicans The circumstances under which this happens will fashion a purely sectional party the Republicans and will shatter the national unity ofthe Democrats lll Sectionalism and Nationalism In the Early Republic Part Two The War of 1812 A Background to the war 1 By 1803 the Napoleonic wars in Europe were beginning to affect America Americans initially profited from the warshipped food to both sides and made lots of money By 1805 however the war had stalemated on the continent of Europe and France and Great Britain began blockading each other39s trade this hurt US shipping because we couldn t get our goods through 2 Impressment British deserters and American ships British boarded us ships to find british army deserters Britishborn naturalized American citizens 68000 American soldiers were removed between 180312 this was an assault on our national sovereignty 3 Our response nonimportation acts Said we wouldn t trade with Britain but never got through congress But this went nowhere 4 Then in 1807 the British ship the Leopard attacked the American ship the Chesapeake The Leopard fired on the other ship killing 3 and wounding 18 and damaging ship The Brits then took 4 men3 of whom were US citizensoff the Chesapeake and hanged one 5 Congress passed the Embargo Act 1808 stopped ALL trade temporarily Avoid any naval confrontations Smuggling blossomed New England merchants were hurt by this so they started smuggling The Federalists were furious F ederalists fought the most against this because they were more geared towards trading New England amp economic depression secession 7 Stopping all trade deepened New England s already existing depression During 1808 and 1809 New England thought about seceding B The War of 1812 Declared 1 Despite widespread unhappiness with the embargo Madisona Republicanwas elected president in 1808 39 39 39 tiles 39 Pom2009I03Iiamesmadisonipg Jeff had announced he didn39t want a 3rd term because Washington hadn39t had one Madison was an astute political thinker and statesman but he was no diplomat Tried to reopen trade with the rest of the world excepting FR amp GB but his initiatives failed to solve problems 2 Prowar forces the War Hawks convinced Madison to declare war in 1812 Party and region Mostly Je ersonian republicans from the west or the south The British and stirring up Indians Westerners believed that the british presence on the frontier were stirring up the Indians Ardent nationalists led by Henry Clay of KY the newly elected Speaker ofthe House and John C Calhoun of SCwho later becomes an ardent sectionalist Nationalists believe it is a matter of honornational pride Class interest and macho posturing Most of these nationalists don t have stakes in international trade so they can a ord to want war with Britain 3 Antiwar forces were Party and region Mostly F ederalists from New England but there was a handful of northeastern republicans Other Republicans Class interests Had deep stakes in trade so couldn t a ord to want war Thus there were important sectional divisions on this war 4 War Hawks voted for military preparations and Madison called for war on June 1 1812 He listed our rights to ship our goods as a neutral nation British impressment of sailors and British quotstirring up of Indiansquot as causes C The War revives old concerns of Indian frontier 1 Indian troubles in the old Northwest Continual encroachment on Indian lands By 1805 two Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa had begun to organize resistance Tenskwatawa httpwwwetsueducashistoryresourcesPrivateFacultyFac To1877ChapterDo cFilesChapterlmagesCh9tenskwatawapg Tecumseh httn39 quot 39 m files 39 cnmV qnRtecl Imseh021 ipg 2 Tenskwatawa was a Shawnee warrior who lived in his brother s villagechief Tecumseh was his brother In 1805 while lighting a pipe from his fire he fell into a coma and had a vision in which the Great Spirit told him If the Shawnee put away their quarrelling restored their old way of lifestopped trading with whites and went back to the old ways of clothing and feeding themselvesand if they would revitalize their old religion their traditional Indian spirituality Then the Master of Life would restore the old order and the earth would be fruitful and they would prosper again as they had before the white man had come But it was also important not to cede any more land or the Great Spirit would not bless them 3 Message spread rapidly the prophet established a town at now Greenville Ohio where he would convert messengers and send them out to convert their villages to the prophets message The message had lots of appeal Indian nations were under great distress 4 By 1810 the battle lines were drawn Tecumseh39s rise Tecumseh was a military leader Wanted to join with the british to uprise His tour He went up and down the eastern seaboard trying to get other Indians to join his cause 5 Tenskwatawa was still very influential but Tecumseh was now the main leader He allied the united tribes with the British and led an uprising during the War of 1812 His leadership was shortkilled in 1813 at Battle ofthe Thames The uprising ended as usual His poor brother survived the war and was exiled to Canada He eventually returned to United States and was exiled to the west where he died an inglorious death in Kansas in 1836 6 The Creeks in the South also joined with the British The Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814 Decisive battle that decides the war in the south Andrew Jackson was in command Ironically Jackson s Indian allies the Cherokees played a decisive role in the battles Results Indians were forced to sign over huge tracts of land in the south Now there is more land open in the south for slavery D The Hartford Convention during the warnear its endgroup of Federalists met in Hartford Connecticut to discuss their grievances 1 New Englandersesp Mass No Jeffersonian republicans 2 Talk of secession Jefferson s attacks on Judiciary were cited Didn t like Je erson s attacks on Salmon Chase His purchase of LA Were afraid that all this land is going to give more power to the yeoman farmers Finally the embargo wasjust too much Accuse Je erson of plotting to destroy them 3 The moderates Talk the delegation out of trying to secede 4 The delegates wound up just passing resolutions of their grievances amp their demands Wanted to end the 35s clause of Constitution Because it gave too much power to the southern states Called for a requirement of 23s vote of Congress to declare warwould39ve prevented 1812 war Or to admit new states to union Feared the states carved out of the LA purchase would give more power to Republicans Called to limit president to 1 term Wanted to amend the constitution And to prohibit the election of 2 successive presidents from one state Aimed at Virginia Dynasty 5 But timing of this was disastrous As they drafted these resolutions news of Treaty Of Ghent which ended the war and Andy Jackson s victory over the British forces at New Orleans came out and they looked like traitors With the embargo and war gone the movement lost much of its steam E Many historians have concluded that the war was a foolish movecarried out poorly and the peace treaty was inconclusive the peace treaty preserved the status quo and there was no mention of any of the grievances that had led to war 1 But it was important for national pridewe had won our first war and with the world39s most powerful naval nation Mostly because Britain couldn39t fight the US amp Napoleon at same time but we don t admit that 2 The war sealed fate of Federalistsfinished in national politics bc the Republicans were very popular after war and the Federalists were not In the election of 1816 Madison s handpicked successorMonroewon overwhelmingly Monroe also won reelection in 1820 w all but 1 electoral vote 3 War is also very important for nationalismproduced many US symbols The White House The Star Spangled Banner The Battle of New Orleans raised Andrew Jackson to hero status amp produced myths about superior US military prowess Although in retrospect it seems Jackson only won because the Brits advanced to within rifle ran e And thenunaccountany they paused amp became sitting ducks for American troops F Aftermath of War National pride then became basis for Reps embracing new ideas about economics The American System 1 War resulted in many changes for America it set us on the path to becoming an industrial power 2 Fighting the war revealed a Need for greater infrastructure Congress voted the money b Need for betterequipped army Congress voted the money O Most importantlythe war stimulated manufacturing The trade embargo meant no importing manufactured goods But the war effort needed them so US manufacturing grew Even Jefferson realized this was needed although he still longed for an agrarian nation d Congress voted for protective tariffs Sold this as a way to raise 1 for internal improvements industry amp the military e War was also an impetus for the creation of a national bank The 1st one had expired 1811 So in 1816Congress chartered the 2nd National Bank f Thought all this would bind nation togetherso called The American System Henry Clay of Kentucky was its chief author F Nationalism also showed up in the Supreme Court SC under Chief Justice John Marshall 1 McCuloch v Maryand 1819 Supreme Court struck down a Maryland law taxing the 2quotd National Bank This asserted supremacy of federal authority over state because the Constitution is the supreme law of the land amp federal government controls the Constitution The court argued that the Bank39s charter was constitutional because Congress can make all laws necessary and proper to carry out the powers of government This implies they can do what they think necessary to nation even if its not in the Constitution directly This linked business amp commercial interests with the federal government 2 Gibbons v Ogden 1824 A New York law gave Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston a monopoly on New York New Jersey steamboat trade Aaron Ogden was their successor to this monopoly Gibbons got his license from Congress to operate a steamboat along the same route The Supreme Court ruled that New York couldn39t give Ogden a monopoly because Congressional authority to license new enterprises took precedent over state authority VVhy It is interstate commerce and congress has the right to regulate interstate commerce G Nationalistic Foreign policy also flourished 1 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams negotiated the AdamsOnis Treaty 1819 with Spain httpltl 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 onis treatv m ENE Defined the southwestern boundary of LA purchase gave us Florida There had been a dispute about where to put the boundary and we wonthus our nation was defined according to terms we wanted not the way Spain wanted 2 The Monroe Doctrine Between 1808 and 1822 many Latin American countries were breaking away from Spain The United States wanted to recognize them but also wanted to avoid conflict with Spain After the AdamsOnis treaty we recognized their Independence because we had won a favorable treaty We also feared Russians moving down the west coast Then Great Britain suggested a joint declaration disavowing European territorial ambitions in the west But the United States moved alone Pres Monroe declared for noncolonization non intervention amp noninterference by Europe in the western hemisphere Doctrine was popular at home but ignored in Europe if European nations did keep out it was blc Britain also wanted them out amp had a strong navy Yes we had just defeated the British navy but that did not mean the rest ofthe world was all that impressed wl us The Monroe Doctrine established ourforeign policy for the entire 19th and 20th centuries H Yet even as forces of nationalism were strong so were forces of sectionalism the Missouri Compromise should the territory of MO be admitted as a slave state It came up as one 1 The Tallmadge Amendment to the statehood bill in 1819 When Missouri becomes a state No more slaves can go to Missouri and all slaves in Missouri are to be emancipated after they turn 25 2 House passed itSenate didn39t but votes were clearly on sectional lines 3 Earlier issues had also divided the nation along sectional lines Since the 1790s Jefferson and other Southerners feared Federal economic policies were promoting Northern industrial issues at the expense of Southern agricultural Afterthe Louisiana purchase Federalists were concerned that Republicans would sacrifice commercial interests to those of the South and West 4 The Missouri issue thrust slavery into center ofthese conflicts 1819 11 slave and 11 free states The Virginia Dynasty a slave state conspiracy N ortherners are concerned Growth of abolitionist societies in North Southerners are concerned 5 Thus all the issues that were later to lead to Civil War were present in 1819 Emotions ran high in the debate In the House debate Representative Thomas W Cobb of Georgia shouted quotif you persist the union will be dissolved seas of blood can only extinguish the firequot the Tallmadgeamendment was starting Tallmadge replied quotLet it comequot But compromise ruled MO admitted as a slave stateMaine as a free state Slavery in Louisiana territory restricted to lands that were south ofthe 3630 line MAP hffh39lWWW teachinoamericanhistorvuon ici llll A w A victory for the South But Southern interests conceded a huge tract of land to freedom Missouri Compromise reenforced the principle of Northwest Ordinance of 1787 that Congress could limit slavery in territories Thus southerners accept the argument that slaves were not like other forms of property that could be moved at will The MO Comp was very emotionalit was so highly charged not just because of the issue of the balance of power in Congress but because slavery was a moral issue Settlers of Missouri were from Kentucky and Tennessee and they had grown up with slavery accepted it But in the North slavery was dieing out and some were beginning to view slavery as evil Summary Thomas Jefferson saw the proverbial handwriting on the wall He said quotThis momentous question like a fire bell in the night awakened me and filled me with terrorquot Overview Industrialization meant a major paradigm look it up shift impacting all areas of culture social economic political and ideational Be careful early industrialization is not like postCivil War industrialization with huge factories Rather it is on a smaller scale and it is focused on processing agricultural materials into consumer goods clothing amp hats boots amp shoes leather furniture barrels soap amp candles paper books amp newspapers clocks bricks guns amp ammunition other industries that were important included brewing and sugar production Also postCivil War industrialization is more concentrated on producing quotcapital goodsquotie goods that themselves added to the productive capacity of the economy such as railroad equipment factory machinery and construction materials The transportation revolution meant industry was needed to produce some steam engines power steamboats and locomotives but the Bessemer converter for steel manufacture was not invented until 1855 thus capital goods production is minimal at this point in time BACKGROUND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IR The Industrial Revolution begins W the Transportation Revolution A Transportation and the development of regional markets 1 In colonial times trade primarily ran north to south Flatboats floated the Mississippi River to New Orleans Steamboatsabout 1815took commerce back up the River 2 About 1820 the pattern shifts and eastwest travel became more prevalent In 1833 we completed the National Road httu nenealonv rootsweh ancestrycomgentutorNationalgif In 1825 the Erie Canal OPBHBd httpWWW 09ml hofstra edl Inentransengch2enconc er 39 39 ial1829ip 3 This began a boom in canal building By 1840 the nation had 3300 miles of canals 4 Railroad RR lines then sprang up solidifying these routes The Baltimore amp Ohio RR The very rst railroads in the country Had 13 miles of track By 1860 the United States had roughly 31000 miles of railrods But RR39s did not completely replace water transportation in the period before the Civil War Steamships still carried bulk goods far more cheaply 5 Improvements in shipping time was key to the nature ofthese changes In 1800 it took 4 days to travel by coach from NY to Baltimore In 1830 it took 1 12 days B Better transportation meant more goods and commodities could be shipped 1 This stimulated manufacturing Expansion of Marketsa result in part of the Transportation Revolutionhas a great impact on nation39s farm families A The northeast manufacturing and trade centers were now better linked with farms in New England and the northwest 1 Settlement in the lands now known as quotthe Old Northwest Territoryquot MAP New states carved out ofthis migration included Michigan 1837 Iowa 1846 and Wisconsin 1848 2 Commercial farming springs up linking the Northeast and Northwest These farms produce food and raw materials forthe newly emerging markets and industries 3 These new markets and industries following in the wake ofthe transportation revolution profoundly change America B To understand the change must begin with a premarket economy A subsistence economy You produce what you need If you need things you barter Local markets Most marketing was done locally C The Transportation Revolution however created new regional national and even international markets for goods Monocrop agriculture Farmers grew one cash crop Impact on family farms Families no longer selflsuf cient More farmers went into debt Debt no longer shameful Standard of living rises At the same time American manufacturing was changing New methods of production create new cheap consumer goods Over time household manufacturing dies out for farm families in parts of New England is gone from some areas as early as 1820 and by 1860 is gone just about everywhere else in New England Results for consumers are mixed Consumer goods are cheaper but you have a better chance of going into debt Iquot Expansion of Industrialization and Commercelinked to Transportation Revolutionbegins in New England A The textiles industry was the first to mechanize Remember that the embargo on British imports 1807 1815 stimulated cloth and clothing manufacturing 1 Cloth production in a preindustrial economy women39s household production Women produced cloth from scratch Very hard early machine production the first American textile mill was Samuel Slater39s mill in Pawtucket Rhode Island in 1790httpwwwoueduclassarch4443185820and20Al20ThatOld20slater20millpg 2 The labor force ofthe early textiles factoriesthe piecerate or quotputting outquot system Home production Women now buy premade thread from Sam Slater s mill in Pawtucket 3 Piecerates Women got paid by the piece instead of by the hour Journeymen tailors Skilled tailoring on clothes was done by journeyman tailors Assembly of garments Women sewed the tailored pieces together by hand to make clothes everything was sewed mostly by hand1846 sewing machine invented ln 1832Boston manufacturers paid journeymen 2 per day women amp boys 50 per day B The Waltham system also called the Lowell system or the Boston system was the most famous of the new factory systems 1 Begins in 1813 when the Boston Manufacturing system set up the 1st power loom and then a factory They employed a resident manger this separated management and labor and created a managerial class that answers directly to the ownersnot the workers This was a drastic change in labor relations 2 In a preindustrial economy the journeyman tailors took in apprentices and trained them in their craft they lived together in homes attached to the artisan39s shop where he sold the finished product NOTE the creation of factories changes how laborers and bosses related to one another bc they no longer lived together In 1790 almost all New York City artisans had workshops attached to their homes By 1840 23s ofthem lived and worked in separate places This pattern was repeated all over New England and the MidAtlantic states It will have major impact on social relations which we will discuss when we analyze the Second Great Awakening 3 Industrialization means changes in labor autonomy The means of production whatever tools their craft required Laborers used to own their own tools but you work in a factory you don t necessarily own you own tools A shift to wage labor Factories gradually stop paying people on the piecerate system and start paying by the hour Piece rate versus hourly rate Hourly rate o ers less autonomy The Producerite philosophy Producers take pride in their work and have honor in their profession It revolves heavily around their autonomy as a producer 4 Factories recruited young single New England farm daughters Read about them in your chapter this week 5 Textiles were the most important industry before the Civil War By 1869 textile industries employed 115 000 workers More than half the labor force were immigrants or women CAVEAT machine made cloth was cheap and it became increasingly popular but not until the turn of century did women stop homeproduction of cloth 6 Textiles industry then stimulated other industries which means more businesses move production from homes to factories 7 Finally factories are mostly run by water power so located on fall line of rivers in New Englandthis changes the landscape of New England Towns But soon more production will move to new cities springing up along new transportation routes This spurs a boom in immigration which brings about major changes in the social landscape of citiesal of which we will cover in upcoming lectures THE 19TH CENTURY CITY CLASS ETHNICITY AND CONFLICT IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC Background the seaport city and trade at the turn of the century A In 1800 a wealthy and powerful northern elite lived and conducted business at the nation39s physical and social periphery the cities and smaller port towns ofthe coast 1 only a fraction of the nation39s population lived in towns 2 in 1800 fewer than 1 in 12 Americans lived in an urban areadefined as an area with a population of 25000 or more B Unlike Planters rich traders generally did not concern themselves directly with the production of goods or raw materials 1 wealth came from trade in commodities and finished goods 2 the richest trade was the transAtlantic and coastal trade a carrying European manufactured goods to Central and South America b and US amp Caribbean plantation produce to Europe 3 there was also even some trade with China at this time C Trade also created substantial wealth for some artisans connected with the shipbuilding industry and with trade 1 sail makers rope makers carpenters etc 2 barrel makers grew rich making containers for rum and molasses D But wealth was not equally shared Life was especially hard for the seamen who worked on the ships They were the largest group of workers outside of farmers in the Early Republic 1 they labored long hours under dangerous conditions for very modest wages 2 their wives struggled to raise families amp make ends meet while their husbands were away on long voyages 3 wives worked to supplement their husband39s earnings by weaving cloth tanning leather making cider or ale tending livestock or taking in boarders amp laundry 4 and many of these women were widowed when husband39s ship returned some of these women became prostitutes E Moreover markets were very uncertain in these early boombust days of capitalism 1 epidemic diseases disrupted trade in cities 2 wars in Europe embargos amp tariffs also disrupted trade 3 following the Napoleonic wars when trade was restored competition w European trade houses was so fierce that it drove many American traders out of business F About this time the transportation and industrial revolution changed the American landscape 1 new centers of manufacturing arose along the new transportation routes a Rochester NY Pittsburgh Chicago all grew into important shipping centers 2 and old cities like New York and Philadelphia grew into manufacturing amp trade centers as well a NY had pop of over 1 mill people by 1860 b Philly had over 12 million by 1860 3 result was a growing number of people making their livings outside of agriculture a yet do not overstate thismost ofthe labor force was still employed in agricultureabsoute size of farming pop grew steadily through 1910 G A new middle class of clerks bookkeepers insurance salesmen railroad dispatchers etc was formed as they were needed to run the new factories amp transportation systems 1 this new middle class purchased factorymade household necessities that women had previously made cloth candles soap etc 2 and this meant that these women now had the leisure to pursue other thingswe will see that they get involved in benevolent work during the Second Great Awakening 3 and they hire maids to do their quotdirty work young Irish women flooding the nation took most of these jobs H But most of the growth came as immigrants swelled these cities seeking a better life The 19th C citymajor changes occur in America A Industrialization fuelled major demographic changes 1 between 18151860 5 million immigrants came to US 2 42 million came between 18401860 B Most came to pursue agriculturerish fled the potato famine 184549 1 million died and 13 million fled 1 but most lacked the capital needed to purchase a farm so they often wound up in urban areas a by 1860 immigrants were over 60 of population of NY Chicago Cincinnati Milwaukee Detroit amp San Francisco b were well over 13 population of New Orleans Baltimore amp Boston 2 34s of these immigrants were either German or lrish C lrish were mostly female and youngerthis was because eldest sons inherited the farm in Ireland and eldest daughters stayed near home to care for parents 1 new Irish immigrants were different than earlier ScotchIrish immigrants who were Protestantshad harder adjustments to make 2 they usually arrived penniless and worked in construction on roads and canals and as domestics 3 life was hard work was erratic wages were low D Germans were a different story more skilled workers came and brought more money with them 1 while some settled in NY PN amp NJ many others went further inland to purchase farms 2 settled in the Midwest and Great Lakes region where they excelled in piano and furniture making brewing printing cigar making baking amp butchering 3 many owned their shops but most worked for someone else E Immigrants created numerous institutions to help them cope w their new lives 1 they established churches amp benevolent societies to help each other when in need 2 and extended families tried to live close together to provide support 3 immigrants39 growing numbers eventually translated into political clout in some places as they lived here long enough to become citizens and began voting in large numbers a by 1820 the Irish had taken over Tammany Hallthe city hall of New York b and Germans dominated government machines of Milwaukee and St Louis c this scared the bejabbers out of nativeborn Americans They feared these quotinferiorquot people having political power F Leisure activities in the early 19m C city were more often than not violent and reflected ethnic and class tensions of the growing city 1 it was impossible to escape in the first years of the 19m C bc most neighborhoods in early 19th C cities were mixtures of classes and ethnicities stratification comes gradually over the 1st few decades of 19th C 2 saloons and gambling houses were often the center ofthe neighborhood a fighting between bar patrons was a popular form of entertainment in the saloons 3 team and other sports were also organized around neighborhoods a some sports were violent bareknuckle boxing where the end only came when one ofthe fighters could no longer stand b cockfighting dog fights and rat baiting also popularthis was done in pits behind bars that could hold up to 250 people patrons gambled on these matches 4 with improved transportation theaters and actors39 touring groups sprang up in cities and manufacturing centers these initially brought together different ethnic amp class groups although they were segregated in theater seating a upper classes UC sat in elevated boxes b working classes WC sat on benches up front where they ate drank and were often rowdy sometimes got so loud that violence broke out especially w pretentious actors Example the 1st theater riot occurred in 1817 in NYC when the English actor refused to stop his performance amp sing quotBlack Eyed Susanquot as the drunken patrons on the front row demanded these assaults grew more common over 1820s amp eventually drove welltodo patrons out of the theaters WC amp UC entertainment grew more and more segregated over the course of the 19th century 0 most popular form of shows for WC were minstre shows w blackface actors were very crude w racist amp sexist remarks greeted w loud guffaws but these also sometimes had serious political satire that poked fun upper classes and reinforced working class solidarity 5 baseball was offered as an antidote to violent recreationbut didn39t always work as planned NOTE Is not baseball a uniquely American and wholesome sport a the myth is that in 1839 Abner Doubleday invents baseballbut it had been around in other forms for much longer than that b still organized baseball gets going in 1840samatuer teams organized in cities and neighborhoods baseball teams were viewed as wholesome outlets for manly men to get exercise A Shopkeeper39s Millennium The Second Great Awakening GA Introduction and overview 1 Around 1800 another great wave of revivals swept over America It occurred in several regions In the South it occurred mostly in the frontier regions of SC KY TN amp OH in camp meetings using itinerant preachers But the Second Great Awakening that began in Rochester NY and spread along the newly constructed Erie Canal routes had the most significant impact on American society as a who e 2 The main doctrinal contribution ofthese revivals was Perfectionist Theology the idea that humans were not inherently sinful but they could become perfect here on earth by making right moral choices Historians call this free moral agency 3 Revivalists believed that they could bring the millennium right here and now ifthey worked to improve society by pushing people to make these right moral choices 4 This belief sparked a great outpouring of reform movements in America in the 1820s amp 30s These attempts to stamp out sin ultimately created tremendous upheaval in the political realm 5 Conflict over reform led to the rise and fall of the Whig partywhich transforms into the Republican Party as it disintegrates The Republican39s victory in the Presidential election of 1860 sparks the secession of the Southern states largely because of the legacy of these reform movements 6 But we must also understand the Second Great Awakening as a response to industrialization In the newly industrializing northwest the revival was linked to the upheavals of industrialization a case study of the area in which the revivals began explains the connection The Second Great Awakening 2nd GA in the South and New England A 2nd GA begins in the South turn of Century l 800 1 The 1 wave the frontier regions of South Carolina Kentucky Tennessee and Ohio in emotional camp meetings using itinerant preachers copied the tactics of Whitefield in the 15 GA Organizers Church structures Functions Changes in religious affiliations B In New England Congregationalist churches reacted against this emotionalism by placing greater emphasis on reason 1 In this movement these theologians rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and worshipped a united God He was one person in this theology Thus this movement was called Unitarianism 2 But they embraced one idea ofthe 2quotd GA Unitarians also believed that humans could be made perfect although they thought the method to reach perfection would be their own reason We will see their actions in the lecture on social movements 3 Other revivals in the North however were linked to emerging capitalism To the attempts of the new industrialists to transform the labor force to work in the factories Farm boys and preindustrial artisans needed a major adjustment to the monotony and discipline of modern factory work Battles against drunkenness spontaneous holidays amp inattention to work were work place issues But industrialists fought these battles with religious societies which then became political in an attempt to control the new labor force quotI A Shopkeeper39s Millennium an economic interpretation of revival A In the north the 2nd GA arose in the west in upstate NY about 1800 and continued into the 1840s 1 The 182131 revivals of Charles Finney in New York among the middle classes were the main thrust of the awakening 2 These revivals began in Rochester New York understanding the problems of this town with industrialization helps us understand why the revival broke out there and what it meant for certain segments of reform B The economy of Rochester It was the 1st of the inland boom cities created by commercialization of agriculture and the opening of new transportation routes after I 4 lo nrflnx PomArt rnrhnlttr 1210 In inn 1 Strategic location 2 Genesee River 3 Flour production 4 Was also a manufacturing amp marketing center one of the first places to employ the new factory system of manufacturing 5 Experienced population boom with the opening of the Erie Canal 1820 1000 people 1834 more than 12000 C The city of Rochester experienced extreme problems with industrialization 1 Skilled master artisans journeymen Home production Workhome linked Paternalism The daily dram 2 As industry expanded this changes New work place In Rochester by 1837 less than 1 journeyman in 4 lived w his employer in one trade shoes it was 1 in 20 Familycentered work relations amp wage labor were now separated social controls broke down 3 By 1835 the middle class and the working class inhabited distinct social worlds Neighborhood sociability Boom in public in saloonsin 1827 alone over 100 liquor licenses granted Violence and anomie Needs of Factory work place Class conflict over drinking How to stop this D Rochester politics Temperance 1 The village council 2 The Rochester Society for the Promotion of Temperance 1828 Type of social controls Respectability The dram Results E Another problem that occurred with industrialization Sabbath breaking amp Sabbatarianism 1 Blue laws 2 Commerce and the Erie Canal on the Sabbath 3 Boycotts and rejection of boycotts 4 A divided elite and incivility What could help the city of Rochester cope w stresses of industrialization F Pentecost September 1830 Revival 1st stepcal in Charles Finney popular preacher 39vaho site 39 39 39 quot 39 harles Finnev180112816 std ES 1 Finney was spellbinding but was educated had trained to be a lawyer but then gotten saved Used courtroom tactics not cheap theatrics Used folksy speech amp colloquial examples People got emotional at his meetings 39tho not as much as in meetings in the South But he had enough class to attract Rochester39s elites 2 Revivals organized by businessmen and their wives who were involved in new factories and commerce Who converted 3 For 6 months Finney preached nearly every night and three times on Sunday all day he held prayer meetings Simultaneous meetings occurred all over town in homes amp Churches httpwww l QQQI imntinn rarli ii leirsmr FlvmprhiQVRnFaetham 39 luipq 4 Social healing resulted from this effort A common cause 5 Perfectability and middleclass gender roles Industrialization and home production Elevation of the home The private family Se pa rate spheres Mothers and free moral agency Women revivals and drinking one man wrote Finney unhappy with this here is how he described a meeting his wife went to The preacher stuffed my wife w tracts amp alarmed her w fears and nothing short of meetings night amp day could atone for the manyfold sins my poor simple spouse had committed And she made the miraculous discovery that she had been 39unevenly yoked39 From this unhappy period peace quiet amp happiness have fled my dwelling never I fear to returnquot G A shopkeeper39s Millennium 1 The BurnedOver district 2 The millennium in 3 months 3 Perfectionist theology was communal in its orientation This was an attack on working class leisure activities amp it also served the interests of factory owners needing a sober and reliable workforce Yet it was not against the working class per se or done for purely selfish reasons it was done to bring millennium H Working Class response 1 Working class rebuttal to the middle class critique of their lives 2 Still many of these campaigns were successful42 ofthose joining revival churches were working class in 1831 VVhy Genuine conversion Coercion l A new political party born ofthis in 1834the Whigs 1 Former bitter political factions were now pulled into 1 party by revivals 2 A party of evangelical elites 3 The Democratic Rebuttal 4 But the Whigs won elections in Rochester by a small margin in 1834 and passed laws to shut down grog houses working class saloons now had to shut down or operate outside the law Summary Revivals occurred mostly in towns where the Industrial Revolution was the most prominent It was mostly led by men and women who were the leader ofthe new manufacturing systems These people were faced with disorders in the new industrializing world The revival gave solutions to social disorder and moral confusion that surrounded creation of a freelabor economy The Whigs carried the solution into politics Thus nascent capitalism became wedded to visions of a perfect moral order SOCIAL MOVEMENTS OF THE MID19TH CENTURY Industrialization also sparked radically new ideas of how to view reality and how to live Transcendental39er was one ofthe major intellectual movements that sprang up in response to industrialization A An intellectual movement of spiritually inclined young men often Unitarian ministers who were welloff financially B Drew on tradition of Romanticism 1 Rejected ordered rationalistic Enlightenment thought 2 ln favor of seeking insights into spiritual mysteries 3 Their main idea behind the concrete material world was an ideal world of deeper reality that one could approach by transcending the way one normally grasped the world Used mysticism and intuition instead of reason to understand the world C The most prominent spokespersons of Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson Not Thoreau httphunoaria c 1in 1 Was a Unitarian minister who wrote lectures partly on left him by his first wife amp traveled the Lyceum circuit 2 Advocated the radically free individual a People are trapped by customs and inherited institutions like say Calvinism or other religions b We should remake ourselves by discovering one39s own original relation with nature which is saturated with Godwhich leads to a mystical union with the currents of the Universal Being c He was sharply critical of the new industrial order 3 Emerson was the most popular speaker on the Lyceum circuit a In 1826 American Lyceums formed to promote general diffusion of knowledge by original lectures from poets preachers scientists and reformers b this was a creation ofthe Northern middle classreached thousands of people D Another popular transcendentalist was Henry David Thoreau who wrote the book Walden httpwww 39 Lquot 39 PomThoreau inn 1 He turned away from society and embraced selfreliance by living at a commune in Walden Massachusettswhich he wrote about in the abovementioned book 2 He urged all to quothear their own drummerquot and look for meaning beyond this artificial world E Margaret Fuller author of Women in the 19th Century published in 1845 1 Was educated at Miss Prescott39s Young Ladies39 Seminary in Groton Massachusetts 2 Her book influenced the women39s rights movement which had its formal beginning at Seneca Falls New York three years later She was also editor ofthe transcendentalistjournal the Dial httpWWW 39 39 39 39 quot 39 39 n Ofuller inn 2 In all of her writing she explored same themes of enlightenment and transcendence for women that Emerson and Thoreau did for men a Both men and women had a transcendent relationship with God that gave them equal meaning and dignity b Thus like men women should be able to reach social and psychological independence to grow and live freely F Some transcendentalist writers and followers raised money and founded a commune at Brook Farm httpWWWQG uua ornuuhsdi u 39 39 39 39 inn 1 This utopian community founded by Unitarian minister George Ripley hoped to realize spiritual potential free from the demands of urban life 2 Emerson Thoreau and Fuller all believed that people can only be uplifted and enlightened as individualscommunal experiments would not work They gave moral support to Brook Farm but declined to join 3 The commune lived a subsistence lifesold milk veggies hay for funds But otherwise remained relatively free of the market 4 They had a great intellectual lifethe great American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote the classic book the Blithesdae Romance about this commune 5 But they faltered in economic realmhad few productive skills Did allow people to pick whatever work appealed to them and compensated everyone equally The person who mucked out the stalls got the same pay as the teachers 6 After a devastating fire burned down a lot of the buildings they sold the commune ll Communaism others were inspired by Brook Farm to opt out of the system and form communities that hoped to reform by example A The Shakers the 1st successful communal movement their ecstatic dances in the spirit led to the title shakers 1 It actually dated back to the era ofthe Revolutionin 1787 had founded 20 communities New England New York and Ohio But the Shakers enjoyed a flurry of new popularity in the years around the Industrial Revolution 2 Founded by Ann Lee Stanley mother Ann had vision that she was 2nd incarnation of Christ her messagewithdraw from evils of the world into communes held communal property and pledged to abstain from alcohol 39backy politics amp war amp sex amp marriage 3 She believed that God was both male and female and mother Ann was the female side of God therefore she allowed men and women to share in governance of her organization 4 Unlike Brooke Farm the Shakers made quality crafts esp furniture so had an economic base Chair httpwwwnpsgovhistorynrtravelshakerBuildingsnor2pg Wardrobehttpwwwsrwwcomblog wp contentuploads200905shakerhighboypg 5 Their economic success and sexual equality made them popular for women they had around 3000 converts in the 1830s 6 But needed converts to continue bc had no marriage and by the 1840s fewer converts meant a decline all that was left was their beautiful furniture amp it was duplicated by mass production as the century wore on B The Fourierist Phalanxes The rise of Fourierists was one cause of decline of Shakers 1 Charles Fourier a French utopian reformer who had 8 stage model of social evolution which predicted the end of individualism amp capitalism 2 Arthur Brisbane was his American disciple who brought the movement here and began forming phalanxes which were coop living amp working arrangements in a commune 3 Educated farmers amp craftsmen who yearned for social stability joined in wake of the Panic of 1837 Big economic mess sent 30 of population into unemployment Caused people to join the commune 4 There were nearly 100 communes in 1840s but as w Brooke Farm most were unable to support themselves amp the communes collapsed C The Oneida Community was also formed at this time httplibrarysyr edl quot quot 39 39 neidaCommIInityPhotosOOQ ion httpwwwur 39 39 Inity orgimageslargeehome02pg 1 John Humphrey Noyes was a radical Congregationalist minister who thought the phalanxes had failed for lack of a religious visionhttpwww uwec edl Inennranl 39 39 1 RRI Itnnianoneida1gif 2 He was involved w the 2quotd Great Awakening he embraced the doctrine of perfectionism 3 But he argued that 2nd coming had already occurred and people could be perfect and attain freedom from sin right now BUT a Marriage was holding them back This was because it did not exist in heaven and exclusiveness and jealousy were part of it b So came up with quotcomplex marriagequot everyone would be married to everyone else in his commune this was to free women from being hub39s property c To free women from endless child births and child care the community practiced birth controby urging men to have sex without ejaculationand placed kids in communal nurseries 4 They found an economic base in silver and by mid 1850s more than 200 living in community httpwwwhatch23comwp contentuploads200904oneidapg 5 But Noyes had to flee to Canada to avoid persecution for adultery amp the community collapsed Ill The Mormon Experience The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints LDS otherwise known as Mormonism also came out ofthe turmoil of industrialization A Joseph Smith was a man who published the Book of Mormon in 1830 httpwwwldsorgStatic20Imageslindsleyportraitkirtland MD39pg 1 He claimed it had been shown to him on golden plates by the angel Moroni B He saw himself as prophet to an excessively sinful individualist society 1 He organized a church that had control over many aspects of life that seemed out of control in this time of upheaval a emphasized the primacy of father in family for those uncomfortable w shifts in patriarchal famil b encouraged adoption of aspects of life that made one successful in the new capitalist order hard work saving amp risk taking c but also est a communal framework that would protect Mormons from outside threats 1 and most controversially he also advocated plural marriage 2 He wound up establishing a Mormon community in Nauvoo III by early 1840s was a thriving town largest utopian community w 30000 inhabitants a their secrecy hostility to outsiders prosperity and presence as a voting block made neighbors resentful b folks also unhappy that the new religion advocated polygamy and some men practiced it c then neighbors turned against him 1844 had him arrested for conspiring to create a Mormon colony in Mexico d a mob broke into the jail and lynched him 3 now Brigham Young stepped in to lead the church into the west in 1846more than 10000 people went poygamists went nonpolygamists did not a They set up a community in Utah which was Mexican territory amp using irrigation made the desert bloom b when the US got the land 1848 they petitioned to create a new state of Deseret which would stretch from Utah to California c But instead the govt established the Utah Territory 4 Mormons succeeded where other social experiments and utopian communities had failed bc they endorsed private property amp encouraged individualistic enterprises thus affirming entrepreneurial new order But at the same time they also affirmed old patriarchal 19th c values aka social conservatism IV Women39s Rights A Remember that the Industrial Revolution changed many middleclass women39s roles by shifting production out of the home B Middleclass women now became more concerned within their homes with providing personal services for the family 1 they believed that the home was the location of all that was good and pure while the world of work was brutal and cutthroat 2 and that the home was women39s sphere even as the rough public world of work was men39s sphere 3 of course there was a lot of overlap between the 2 spheres in the actual ways in which men and women lived C Woman39s primary role in her quotspherequot was moral leadership it was considered a powerful role 1 this ideology has roots in Republican motherhood of earlier generations 2 mother39sjob is to inculcate kids with moral responsibilityusing love and reason not fear and to develop their conscience so they make good moral choices a the individual39s ability to choose good is called quotfree moral agencyquot b women believed they could help their children choose the good and reject the bad this was a very importantjob 3 promoting religion also very important to her spheretaught Sunday School and formed missionary societies to quotupliftquot the poor and quotunsavedquot D The new emphasis on women39s sphere led ironically to a basis for more independence and power win the home 1 The patriarchal family was gradually replaced at least among the middle and upper classes of the northeastern states by one in which the mother was the central figure 2 The home was now bound up in the quotCult of Domesticityquot which promoted the 4 cardinal virtues of women as outlined in Catherine Beecher39s book Treatise on Domestic Economy 1841 a domesticity women created beautiful surroundings for their families and provided good food and exposure to the arts b piety there was a gradual shift to the idea that women were more religious and moral than were men bc of their gentle nurturing nature c purity women39s sexuality was downplayedthey were not suppossed to be sexually aggressive or have a strong sex drive some historians argue that this ideology allowed women to refuse sex as a means of birth control a drop in the birth rate for urban middleclass white women suggests this might have been true 1750 women had average of 89 kids by 1810 had average of 34 d submissiveness a good woman was submissive to her husband E for some the next logical step was out of the home into the community where they could extend their superior morality to all of society 1 These women created moral reform societies to change institutionshospitals prisons asylumsand to stop vice prostitution drinking etc 21830 prostitution in NYC was becoming more blatant amp men wanted to fight it by going after prostitutes and arresting them 3 But women saw prostitutes as the victims of men39s lust and took another approachgoing after the men by publishing the names of quotjohnsquot in the newspaper to shame them into stopping this behavior 4 Woman also founded the Female Moral Reform Society in NYC which expanded into American Female Moral Reform Societyby 1840 had 555 affiliates a their agenda was to make the seduction of women a crime but they had a hard time getting laws passed 5 Women also played great role in Abolitionism Quaker sisters Angelina amp Sarah Grimke were important white leaders while Sojourner Truth led black women abolitionists a pushed equality of women as a logical extension of fight against slavery bc domestic slavery was just as bad b most people were horrified at this messagethese women were ridiculed widely c but the abolitionist leaderWilliam Lloyd Garrison was not horrifiedhe embraced them amp their cause 6 In 1840 the International Convention of the Antislavery society in London refused to seat women delegates and relegated them to the backs of the balconies a this caused some women to decide to meet and discuss women39s rights b they did so at Seneca Falls NY in 1848 F Seneca Falls Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott both abolitionists organized the meeting httpwwwnpsoovworihistor N H 39 39quotLstaoe Stampin 1 They drafted a document The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions see ht39tn39 www ninn net 39 39 L 39 393 html 2 The Declaration used language ofthe Declaration of Independence and called for legal and political reforms to give women full citizenship a this included the vote the right to own property after marriage the right to sue amp make wills and calls for equal opportunity in jobs amp education b they also called for an end to double standard in sexual conduct G though out the 1850s women39s rights groups met in annual conventions amp promoted a diverse reform agenda 1 Their only largescale legislative success before the Civil War was in married women39s property rights 15 states passed laws protecting married women39s property from their husbands 2 Conservative men wanted to protect their estates from ner39do39well sonsinlaw if daughters inherited them by some fluke 3 These limited gains satisfied most women and took steam out ofthe movement H Women39s rights won the most support from abolitionist groups yet those groups saw slavery not sexism as the great evil of the preCivil War period 1 The destruction of slave family amp degradation of slave women were the primary focus points of women abolitionists 2 But association w abolitionism hurt the causewhy V Abolitionier A Slaves worked for their own freedom in the south 1 They used direct flight such as the underground RR which was run by free blacks not whites 2 Or rebellions which we will discuss later B Yet before 1830 only a few people thought of slavery as a compelling moral issuemost saw it as an economic one 1 The rare exceptions were New Lights and Quakers 2 Also Northern states gradually emancipated slaves after the Revolution C But beginning in about 1830 a movement to abolish slavery swept Americait began as a small but enormously significant movement why this sudden outpouring of concern over slavery 1 Began as a mostlyalthough not entirelymiddleclass movement among revivalists in the North 2 Finney himself however didn t approve of it he thought only getting saved would stop slavery and he feared abolitionist agitation would turn folks off amp they d avoid the revivals amp not get saved 3 Abolitionists were always in the minorityand were a hated one at that D How to solve this enormously complex problem 1 Gradual emancipation amp return of slaves to Africa w compensation for their former owners was popular w some a American Colonization Society 1817 led by wealthy men of upper South who wanted to promote economic development ofthe South and men in New England who wanted to get rid of free blacks for racist reasons b founded the colony of Liberia in W Africa in 1847 it becomes an independent republic 2 The more radical types called for immediate emancipation wo compensationused direct appeals to the conscience of the nation a spoke on the lecture circuit to build a mass movement b circulated petitions to mail to Congress and brought slavery up repeatedly in Congressional debates c mailed thousands of pamphlets to slaveholders in the south lecturing them about the evils oftheir behavior yeah that always works d this looked like conspiracy to Southerners bc they mailed so many pamphlets e So in 1836 Congress passed a gag rule to stop debate on slavery in Congress amp mailing of abolitionist literature this was really scary to folks in N talk about a conspiracy of slave powerll 3The more wellknown societies included Theodore Weld39s American AntiSlavery Society founded in 1833 httpwwwhistorvcenfral quotquot itLonnfellow ion a he distributed literature amp held meetings to stir the conscience of the nation to pressure legislatures to outlaw slave b w the Grimke sisters he wrote American Slavery As it isthe Testimony of 1000 Witnesses w vivid descriptions of slavery and its brutalities c he had married Angelina Grimke in 1838 and she told him horror stories about life on her SC plantation c the book sold over 100000 copies the first yeara HUGE deal for the day 4 More radical still was William Lloyd Garrison who founded the New England Antislavery Society in 1831 httn39 images 39 39 mm 1934qarrison portrait inn They began publishing The Liberator httpzorakmonmoutheduafamliberatorjpg a calling for immediate abolition wo compensation b in 1833 he joins w Weld to form the American Antislavery Society but the two had a falling out later c Garrison got more and more radical burned a copy of the Constitution calling it a quotpact w the devilquot and trashed preachers who did not stand up against slavery 5 A number of black abolitionists also called for immediate emancipation and even more radical behavior a David Walker a free black man from Boston wrote Walker39s Appeal to Colored Citizens 1829 ht tn39lwww hiacknast quot39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Walkeripo it was very militantcalled for slave uprisings b the most wellknown African American abolitionist was Frederick Douglas httpwww solcomhouse 39 39 Inlns im a runaway slave who lectured and published the North Star an antislavery paper he was more moderateworked with Garrison at least he did when he first started speaking out Douglas was a spellbinding preacher and very popular on the lecture circuit he was also a prime target of mob violence His autobiography is a classic work E AntiAbolitionists were found not only in the South but also in every major Northern city they marched against the abs almost daily often ending their marches in violence 1833 mobs stormed a church LARGER LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR UNIT TWO EXAM Unit Two The New Republic and Jacksonian America 17831850 x N 00 U 01 This unit begins with the creation of the Republic in the years immediately following Independence You should have a clear understanding of the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and which constituents were hurt by these failuresin other words how speci cally did a decentralized form of government hurt the groups in question These groups form the nucleus of voices clamoring for a Constitution They are known as the federalists There are a variety of motivations for wanting to create a Constitution including class political and ideological interests you should be able to discuss them all You must also be able to discuss the groups who opposed a Constitutionthe Antifederalistsand their motivations and actions Finally you need to know how the Constitution became ratified You should have a clear understanding of the functions of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights You also need to know about the debate over religion that the Constitution sparked Did our Founding Fathers really create a Christian Nation You also need to be able to discuss what the Constitution says about slavery In the first Presidential administration of the New Republic Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson laid out two competing visions for America You should be able to discuss both of theses different visions and why they disagreed with one another Finally you should be able to analyze how the forces of history pushed America towards one vision instead of the other You need an understanding of the two political parties that arose from the two competing visions noted above Who were the Federalists and who were the Republicans What issues divided the two parties Warning don39t confuse the Federalist Party with the federalists who argued for the Constitution although there is some overlap You need an understanding of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson What was his philosophy of governing Were his actions consistent with his principles in his administration What were his major accomplishments What happened with the judiciary under his administration You should know why we fought the War of 1812which interest groups were for it and which were against it What happened during the war that threatened to tear the nation apart and why didn39t it What resulted from the war What issues of sectionalism emerged in the flush of nationalist excitement following the war This unit lays the groundwork for the Civil War by outlining the sectional differences that evolved following the Transportation Market and Industrial Revolutions You should understand each of these revolutionswhat brought them about and how they changed the way Americans both created and distributed goods You should also understand how the Industrial Revolution changed the way companies organized the relations of productionmeaning the relationships between management and workersand what impact that had on patterns of alcohol consumption and social stresses You should be able to explain how industrialization changed gender roles paying special attention to what occurred among the Northern middle class You should understand urbanization immigration and nativism You should be able to account for the responses to the Industrial Revolution in communal experiments and reform movements You especially need to be able to distinguish between the various types of abolitionism ID39S SECOND UNIT EXAM the Articles of t 39 39 and the p u Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Little Turtle39s Rebellion Shay39s Rebellion 1786 the Sans Souci Club The Federalist Papers Federalists and Antifederalists the Virginia Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom the Early Republic quot 39 39 throuqh Jefferson Report on the Public Credit Report on Finance Report on Manufactures strict v loose interpretation of the Constitution President Washington39s Farewell Address of 1thVhiskey Rebellion the XYZ Affair the Alien amp Sedition Acts the Virginia amp Kentucky Resolutions The Factory System Marbury v Madison The Virginia Dynastyyou don39t need to memorize all the presidents just know what the term means war and nationalism impressments Embargo Act of 1807 the Chesapeake and the Leopard the Hartford Convention Tecumseh amp Tenskwatawa The Monroe Doctrine the new political econorn y the quotAmerican Systemquot Second Bank of the United States Gibbons v Ogden and McCulloch v Maryand eary sectionaisrn The Missouri Compromise 1819 The Tallmadge Amendment THIRD UNIT EXAM INFORMATION Since you drop your lowest test some of you will not need to take the Unit Three Exam Since Tech policy demands a final of some sort however students opting out of the Unit Three Exam must turn in an essay in lieu ofthe third test This policy has caused some confusion in the past so let me clarify exactly what is going on here The Essaywhat the heck is it 1 You will write a quotcause and effectquot analysis of any topic that we studied since the Unit Two Exam In other words your essay must cover the material on the Study Guide for the Third Unit Exam Which means lectures from Week 11 to the end of the semester Essays that cover material that we have already been tested on or worse from the second half of the survey 1877Present will not count See 2 under quotregulationsquot below 2 What to do with the essay 1 Pick a specific historical event or outcome in history from this period of history 2 Ask yourself What the heck is THAT all about 3 Look for things that caused this phenomenon to occur 4 Explain specifically how the variables of historic causation led to this event or outcome in history 5 In short this is an extended ID 3 All essays must be Typed double spaced and roughly 35 pages Please use a font between 1012 You MUST staple these Do not bring them in and ask me for a stapler am not your secretary Do not give me a coversheetit is a waste of paper As you reference any of the lectures or course reading materials I expect footnotes that let me know where you got the ideas you are using You do not need a works cited page your footnotes are sufficient See below for how to footnote All essays are due by the end of class on the final day of classes 4 Essays must be turned in by the last day of cassno later When I walk out of the room from the test review I will no longer accept essays You may turn in an early essay but DO NOT slide it under my office door All essays MUST be given to me personally Also do not bring this to me and ask me for a staple or a paperclip I am not your secretary and will not staple your work I DO NOT ACCEPT ANY ASSIGNMENT LEFT IN MY MAIL BOX OR UNDER MY DOOR UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES WHATSOEVER 5 This essay is worth up to 5 points These points will be added into your total pointsthey are not extra points in the sense that they alter the scale I give you for points required for various grades Regulations Governing the Essay 1 If you write this essay you DO NOT have to attend the Unit Three Exam 2 If you do not turn in an essay or if it does not meet the specifications I will dock you one full letter grade An essay on the invention of the automobile or on Brown V Board ofEducation of Topeka for example does not count 3 You cannot do this essay in addition to the Third Unit Exam as extra credit lt39s eitheror 4 The essay must be wellconstructed and conform to accepted rules of spelling and grammar Run spell and grammar check Essays with more than 3 grievous blatant errors will not be accepted and will be counted as a quotno showquotsee 2 above By blatant errors I mean writing like you are text messaging your friendsnot using capitalization punctuation complete sentences etc I am not going to count off for a misplaced comma or two or an occasional misspelled word BAD EXAMPLE 5 This is not a research paper and discourage the use of outside sources If you are going to step outside of the classroom material and do extra internet research you must use a University sponsored siteone that ends in edu The use of Wikipedia is absolutely forbidden It is actually best to use your lecture notes the textbook or the documents I have provided links for 6 Do not plagiarize your essay Plagiarism involves more than just taking people39s words and not placing quotation marks around them Here is a linkto my handout on plagiarism so that you know what it is Plagiarism Let me quote from this document quotThere are two kinds of plagiarism the one involving the theft of another writer s actual words the other the theft of his or her ideas or factual material For the purposes of Tennessee Tech plagiarism shall be defined as passing off as one s own the ideas or words of another without crediting the source Therefore ANY idea taken from ANY source INCLUDING the lecture notes requires a citation Consult the handout for how to construct citations including how to cite your notes I am especially upset to see students simply copy and paste from my own lecture materials as if I do not recognize my own work Put everything in your own words 7 Please give me something interesting and thoughtful to read Moreover I am really curious about how much you all have learned about historical processes and about what things struck you as noteworthy over these last five weeks 8 ALL ESSAYS MUST BE GIVEN TO ME IN HARD COPY AND SENT ELECTRONICALLY AS AN ATTACHMENTS VIA EMAIL PLEASE PUT YOUR NAME AND ASSIGNMENT IN THE TITLE OF YOUR ATTACHMENT quotOSBURNCAUSE AND EFFECT ESSA Yquot PUTTING SOMETHING LIKE quotTHIRD EXAMquot OR quotCAUSES OF THE CIVIL WARquot DOES NOT HELP ME FILE AND ACCESS THESE FOR GRADING Suggested topics l have also included a list of topics for you to think about l have organized the suggestions around the idea of quotimpactquot but you may take these ideas in any direction you want Or you can do something entirely different Be creative and surprise me if you can 1 The impact of any war in the period we studied on race class or gender 2 The impact of any US foreign policy in the period we studied on either domestic policy or our standing in the world 3 The impact of any Supreme Court decision in the period we studied 4 The impact of any political ideology in the period we studied on our institutions 5 The impact of any technology in the period we studied on our institutions


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