Honors Food Prep and Mgmt
Honors Food Prep and Mgmt HEC 2240
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 9 milk Casein the primary protein 80 found in milk it can be precipitated solidified our of solution with acid or certain enzymes Whey the liquid portion of milk consisting primarily of 93 water lactose and whey proteins primarily lactalbumin and lactoglobulin It is the watery component removed from the curd in cheese manufacture Homogenization a mechanical process that breaks up the fat globules in milk into much smaller globules that do not clump together and are permanently dispersed in a very fine emulsion Coagulate to clot or become semisolid n milk denatured proteins often separate from the liquid by coagulation Ultrapasturization a process in which a milk product is heated at or above 280 F 138 C for at least 2 seconds Curd the coagulated or thickened part of milk Probiotics live microbial food ingredients ie bacteria that have a beneficial effect on human health Prebiotics nondigesticle food ingredients generally fibers such as fructooligosaccharides F05 and inulin that support growth of probiotics Composition of milk 0 Nutrients I Carbohydrates I Protein I Fat I Vitamins I Minerals 0 Color Compounds 0 Food Additives Types of milk 0 Fluid Milk and Cream I V2 milk produced in US I Fresh Fluid Cow s Milk 0 Whole 0 325 milk fat 825 MSNF o MSNF Total Solids Minus the Fat 824 o Reducedfat and Lowfat o 20 and 10 milk fat respectively 0 Fatfree or nonfat o No more than 05 milk fat 0 Fluid Milk I Fresh Fluid Milk From Other Animals 0 Goat 0 Sheep 0 Camels o Reindeer o llama I Flavored Fluid Milks 0 Chocolate 0 eggnog I Packaging 0 Carbonated o UHT Ultra High Temperature I Nutritionally Altered Fluid Milks o Imitation Milk 0 Product defined by FDA I Appearance taste and function of original counterpart but nutritionally inferior o Filled Milk 0 Milk fat replaced by vegetable fat 0 Lowsodium milk 0 6mgcup I Lowlactose o Reducedlactose 0 Soy beverage 0 Rice milk 0 Almond milk I Canned fluid milks 0 Whole 0 Evaporated evaporated fatfree o Sweetened condensed 0 Dry Milk I Nonfat dried 0 Instant o Agglomerate gather into a mass or ball 0 Protein particles regroup larger more porous o Cultured Milk Products I Curd coagulated or thickened milk 0 Buttermilk o Yogurt 0 Acidophilus o Kefir o Sourcream o Yogurt 0 Cream a 0 Flavor c Fermented semisolid milk Active yogurt cultures Ingredients added to yogurt Definition 825 MSNF and 05 Acid Calorie content varies Probiotics live beneficial bacteria Prebiotics nondigestible food ingredients FOS support growth of probiotics nd substances Crea m Fat droplets 0 Top layer of nonhomogenized whole milk 1836 milk fat ubstitutes Cream 5 Whipped toppings 0 Coffee creamers 0 Dry mixes 0 mitatioin sour cream Milk products in food preparation hanges Bland slightly sweet flavor o Lactose Salts Sulfur compounds SC FA 0 O O fat 0 Mouthfeel and body es Heat Sunlight Oxidation nfluenc O O O 0 Copper 0 Equipment or utensils 0 Feed ingested by the source animal Coagulation and precipitation Heat Acid Enzymes O O O Polyphenolic compounds Salts Acidmilk 9 casein coagulates 0 Milk also coagulates when combined with certain enzymes originating from animal plant or microbial sources 0 Rennin enzymes from inner lining of calf s stomach sold commercially as rennet I Whipped milk products 0 Whipped cream 0 O O O 0 Fat content Temperature Age Sugar Whipping time o Whipped evaporated milk 0 Nonfat dry milk I Whipped foam 0 Structure 0 During whipping protein is mechanically stretched into think layers that trap I Air bubbles I Fat particles I liquid What happens when milk is heated 0 Nutrient found in milk 0 Whipped milk product what factors influences the nished product 0 Storage guidelines for milk 0 Refrigerate o Storageguidelines I Milk I Yogurt I Buttermilk I Sourcream opening 0 Drystorage lt or equal to 3 weeks 1st 10 days or up to 34 weeks 34 days or up to 34 weeks unopened up to 1 month best used within a few days upon I Nonfat dry milk dry tightly closed containers quot 1 year I Unopened evaporated and sweetened condensed milk up to 1 year in dry ventilated areas 0 double that if refrigerated I ultrapasteurized milk unopened at room temperature up to 3 months I stored at or alightly below room temperature o 72 F220C I Once opened all must be refrigerated Chapter 10 cheese 0 Classi cation of cheeses fresh soft etc know examples 0 Ways to classify I Microbial characteristics I Appearance I Mode of packaging I Place of origin I Processing method I Milk source I Moisture content 0 Fresh countrycheese gt80 0 Cottage 0 Cream 0 Ricotta o Soft 5075 0 Brie o Camembert 0 Hispanic cheeses o Semihard 4050 0 Roquefort 0 Blue 0 Muenster 0 Brick o Gouda 0 Hard 3040 0 Cheddar 0 Swiss Very hard 30 o Parmesan o Romano 0 Basic steps for cheese production milk selection coagulation curd treatment curing ripening 9real the text on all these 0 Basic common steps I Milk selection O O I Coagulation I Curd treatment I Curing I Ripening I 10milkquot lcheese9whey Milk selection greatest influence I US pasteurized Cow s Milk I Europe Middle East sheep or goat I ran Afghanistan camel I Lapland reindeer I Mongolia horse I Philippines india Italy water buffalo I China Tibet yak zebu Coagulation I Casein protein I Method 0 Determines 0 Characteristics I Two methods 0 Enzymes 0 Acid Curd texture I Soft spongy I Influenced by pH I Solid and compact as acidity increases Curd I Remove more whey 0 Cutting 0 Heating 0 Salting o Knitting optional 0 Pressing optional Curing I Temperature and humidity control during aging Ripening I Chemical and physical changes during curing Whey and whey products I Low in fat I Rich in nutrients 0 Water soluble whey proteins 0 Lactose 0 Water soluble vitamins minerals I Processed into 0 Whey cheeses o Modified whey products 0 Dry whey 0 Process processes cheeses I Patented James L Kraft 1916 I Processed cheese I Coldpack cheese Process cheese food Process chese spread Imitation cheese I Tofu 0 Food additives in cheese Preserved food made from milk Unprocessed typical ingredients Process processed typical ingredients 0 Processed cheese I Blending 1 or more varieties of cheese w or wo heat and mixing w other ingredients 0 Nutrient contet of cheeses 0 Food preparation with cheese select the best cheese and keep temperatures low and cooking times short 0 Storage of cheese 0 Dry storage I Process cheese spreads o Refrigeration I Wrapped in original paper I Prevent drying and absorption of odors 0 Frozen I Gradually thaw I Not recommended for highmoisture cheese Chapter 11 Eggs 0 List ways eggs are used in food preparation 0 Composition of eggs 0 Structure I Yolk 30 wt 0 Germinal Disc 0 Vitelline Membrane o Membrane surrounding egg yolk 0 Attached to Chalazae I Albumen 58 wt egg white 0 Chalaza pl chalazae o Ropy twisted strands of albumen 0 Anchor yolk to center of thick egg white I Shell membranes 0 Inner outer I Air cell between 2 shell membranes I Shell 12 wt 0 Calcium carbonate 0 cuticle or bloom o waxy coating on eggshell o protects against I bacterial contamination and moisture loss 0 Functions of eggs in foods 0 Unique qualities of eggs I Flavor I Color I Emulsify I Thicken I Bind I Foam I Interfere I Clarify 0 Food preparation I Emulsify o Eggyolk o Lecithin o Thicken and stabilize 0 Salad dressings o Sauces o Mayonnaise I Binding 0 High preotein content 0 Foods dipped in egg white before battered o Binderinmeatloaf meatballs lasagna I Foaming o 68 X original volume 0 Aerate and leaven o Puffy omelets o Souffl s 0 Angel food cake 0 Sponge cake 0 Meringues 0 Fresh eggs 0 Thick egg whites 0 Dry egg whites 0 Provide consistent results I Factors affecting foaming o Beating technique 0 Start slow 0 Gradually increasingspeed 0 Testing for doneness 0 Observe peak formation 0 Avoid overwhipping o Prevent collapse and separation of foam 0 Temperature 0 Bowl I Deep bowl I Rounded bottom I Sloping sides I Avoid plastic bowls o Beaters 0 Eggs 0 Room temperatures 0 Separation of eggs 0 Egg yolk catins fat interferes w foam 0 Egg separators I Careful separation of egg white from yolk imperative I Do not pass egg back and forth between two shell halves 0 Sugar stabilizes foam 0 Inhibits mechanical coagulation 0 Add near end of beating o Fluid increase volume decrease stability 0 Salt decrease stability and volume 0 Rarely added 0 Acid egg whites alkaline 0 Lower pH more stable foam I Interfering o Interfere w formation of ice crystals or large sugar crystals I Clarifying 0 Egg white protein attracts particles 0 Makes product clear and pure I Color 0 Golden brown from yolk 0 Nutrient content of eggs 0 Preparation of eggs effect of time and temperature dry heat methods and moist heat methods 0 Extremely versatile I Prepared alone or in compination I Dry or moistheat methods I Changes in prepared eggs 0 Effects of temperature and time 0 Keep temperature low 0 Cooking time short 0 Coagulation temperatures I Egg whites 140 F 159 F 60 C 700C I Egg yolk 144 F1580F 62 C 700C o Beaten eggs coagulate at slightly higher temperature quot 156 F 69 C 0 Effects of added ingredients 0 Color changes I DRYHEAT PREPARATION o Frying o Fried eggs I Sunnyside up I Over easy I Over medium I Over hard 0 Scrambled o Omelets I Prime or season seal the pores of a pan s metal surface w a layer of heatedon oil 0 Baking o Shirred I Whole eggs 0 Meringue o Souffl Moisthear preparation Soft and hard Egg white foam Modified omelet 0 Thick base white sauce or pastry cream 0 Egg white foam 0 Flavoring ingredients Stiffly beaten egg whites folded into thick egg yolk mixture Weeping or syneresis escape of liquid to the bottom of a meringue formation of pores filled w liquid Beading formation of tiny syrup droplets on the surface of a baked meringue 0 Variety of methods 0 quotBoiledquot 0 Hard or soft quotboiledquot methods 0 Coddled eggs Hardstart 0 Soft 34min 0 Medium 57 min 0 Hard 1215 min Coldstart 0 Soft 0 Medium 0 Hard 10min 1 min 35 min 0 Prepared in a cup 0 Poached o Custards 0 Sweet and savory 0 Ingredients Milk andor cream sweeteners 0 Sugar 0 Honey Flavorings o Vanilla 0 Nutmeg o Etc Eggs or egg yolks 0 Preparation O O 0 000000 I Stirred or baked Sweet custards I Puddings or as fillings Savory custard I Nonsweet quiches Stirred custard I Soft custard or custard sauce I Ingredients stirred while heated Baked custard I Poured into ungreased custard cups I Placed in the oven 0 Microwave 0 O 0 Eggs cook extremely rapidly Special caution taken to avoid overcooking Manufacturer s instructions should be followed for microwave egg cooking Whole eggs w intact shells I Never microwaved Steam expanding within shell can cause eggs to burst Same principle applies to whole eggs out of the shell Puncture egg yold w toothpick or tip of a knife prior to microwaving o In all cases eggs are cooked at simmering temperatures 0 Storage methods for eggs safety tips Eggs deteriorate as soon as they are laid and lose quality rapidly at room temperature An egg ages more in 1 day at room temperature than in 1 week refrigerated To ensure freshness Whole or liquid Refrigerate Freeze Size of an egg s air cell provides another indication of its age Resta u ra nts Food service institutions Other food manufacturers Must be especially careful about storing eggs because large quantities are purchased Storage eggs Used w1 month Stored up to 6 months Eggs treated w a light coat of oil or plastic Stored in high humidity at low refrigerator 0 Temperatures very close to egg s freezing point 29 F320F 150C00C 0 Frozen Cannot freeze whole egg o It will crack under the expanding liquids Food manufacturers break the eggs open at the processing plants where contents are frozen 0 Whole 0 Whites and yolk mixed 0 Separated 0 As whites or yolks o Dried I Drying eggs is a simple process I Whole eggs or separated yolks are spraydried o Creat a fine powder which is mixed w anticaking substances to prevent clumping 0 Egg whites I Granule flake or milled textures I Stored up to 1 year in refrigerator I Kept in tightly closed containers to prevent clumping that can result from moisture accumulation 0 Safety tips I Chances of an egg being internally contaminated are relatively low 0 lt1 in 10000 commercial eggs I More common for contamination to occur during handling and preparation after egg has been removed from its shell Chapter 12 vegetables and legumes 0 Composition of vegetables read text p 246250 on parts and pigments 0 Plant cell structure I Cell wall 0 Fibrous compounds indigestible by humans 0 Cellulose Pectic compounds Hemicelluloses Lignin OOO Gums O O O Humans I Lack the enzyme necessary to break down cellulose to glucose Parenchyma cells I Cell type 0 Vegetablesand fruits I Cytoplasm 0 Compounds for 0 Starch content Color Watervolume OOO Flavor I Plastids 0 Storage organelles for substances ie starch and pigments o Leucoplasts I Starch and water I Major digesticle portion 0 Chloroplasts I Chlorophyll essential for CH0 synthesis I Green color 0 Chromoplasts I Carotene or xanthophylls pigments I Orangeyellow color I Vacuoles 0 Store water and other compounds 0 Turgor 0 Rigid firmness of plant cell resulting from being filled w water I Organic acids 0 Cell pH 0 Flavor and acidity I Parenchyma cells 0 ntercellular air spaces 0 Spaces between cells fill w air 0 Add volume and crispness o Closeness of cells 0 Textural differences in terms of crispness 0 Fruits and vegetables wo air 0 Soft and flaccid Plant pigments 3 major groups I Carotenoids I Chlorophylls o Carotenoids and chlorophylls plastids 0 Fat soluble I Flavonoids 0 Water soluble 0 Lost in cooking water 0 Nutrient content of vegetables 0 Phytochemicals O O O Nonnutritive compounds I Possess healthprotective benefits Cruciferous I Indole containing vegetables 0 Crossshaped blossoms I Protective effect against cancer Examples I Broccoli I Brussels sprouts I Cabbage Cauliflower I Kale Mustard greens Rutabaga Kohlrabi I turnips o What is most important consideration when selecting fresh vegetables 0 Consider season of the year when selecting vegetables 0 Legumes nutritional content also read about soybeans 0 000 O O Beans Peas LentHs ExceHentsourcesof I Hber I Protein I Iron I Complex CHO All legumes grow as seeds wl a pod Dietary staple since the bronze age Soybeans I Relatively high PRO and fat I TVP I Meat analogs I Tofu I Fermented soy I Textured vegetable protein I Meat analogs I Tofu I Fermented soybean foods 0 Miso 0 Natto o Sufu o Tempeh o tamari 0 General guidelines for preparation of vegetables p 261 o Dryheat I Baking o 375 F191 C o Potatoes 0 Boilerorbaker I Roasting o 375 F425 F191 C218 C o Sprinkledwoil I Saut ing I Deepfrying o Moistheat I Simmering 0 Vegetables ought not be boiled I Steaming o Foilwrappedvegetables I Braising I Microwaving o Retain texture color nutrient content 0 Servingstyles I Plain I Buttered I Creamed I Au gratin I Glazed I Scalloped I Stuffed I Souffle I Omelet 0 Handling and preparation I Buying 0 Freshest 0 Amount needed I Storage 0 Appropriate temp and humidity I Washing o All vegetables 0 Veggie wash I Cooking liquid 0 Small amount I Timing 0 Short as possible 0 Changes during heating I Texture 0 Starch felatinizes o Cellulose softens I Flavor 0 Degorge 0 Draw out bitter substances I Odor 0 Pleasant 0 Pungent sulfur compounds I Color I Nutrient retention 0 Minimal water 0 Legumes I 3 soak methods 0 Overnight 0 Short soak o No soak I Avoid hard water I Wait to add salt 0 Acid I Indigestible CH0 0 GI discomfort 0 Cooking methods dry heat and moist heat 0 Storage guidline and example of which vegetables should not be stored in refrigerator 0 Refrigerated I Cooler temperature important factor in reducing respiration rates I Fresh vegetables will last at least 3 days if refrigerated I Prevent moisture loss I Storage times for various vegetables based on the water content 0 Special storage requirements Chapter 21 0 Functions offats in foods heat transfer shortening power emulsion melting point plasticity texture satiety flavor 0 Heat transfer saut ing pan frying deep frying o Shortening power biscuits pastries cakes cookies 0 Emulsions mayo salad dressing sauces gravies puddings cream soups o Melting points I Vary I Degree of saturation gt Saturated liquid at room temperature gt Unsaturated solid at room temperature I Length I Cis trans configuration I Crystalline structure 0 Plasticity confections icings patries other baked goods Solubility fats do not dissolve in water yielding unique food flavorstextures and foods such as salad dressing 0 Flavormouth feel flavor butter bacon fried foods lubricity thickness cooling 0 Textures creaminess flakiness tenderness elasticity cutability viscosity 0 Appearance sheen oiliness color 0 Satiety fats contribute to quotfeeling full 0 Nutrients 9 calories kcalgram 0 TABLE 21 1 PAGE 420 0 Types offats butter margarine shortening and oils know characteristics and how they are each used in cooking 0 Butter I Unhomogenized milk aka whole fat gt 10 cups or 2 12 quarts milk 1 stick or butter I 80 milk fat is less than or equal to 16 H20 4 MS I Grading gt Voluntary gt Graded on texture flavor color salt content gt FIGURE 21 7 I Types TABLE 21 2 PAGE 426 o Margarine I Butter was in short supply during the Napoleonic Wars gt Developed 1869 by French Pharmacist and Chemist per Napoleon III I 9 kcalg same as butter I Composition gt 80 fat gt 16 H20 gt 4 milk solids I Fat sources differ o Shortening I Hydrogenated plant oils gt Solid and pliable gt Soybean oil MAJOR SOURCE 39239 Hydrogenated until solid 39239 Whipped or pumped with air 39239 Plastic and white gt Frying oil 0 Oil I Variety of seeds fruits and nuts I Food preparation TABLE 21 3 PAGE 427 gt Soybeans Rapeseed or canola Corn Sunflower Cottonseed Safflower seed Fruit oils Avocado Coconut Palm Kernel Olive TABLE 21 5 gt Almond oil peanut oil walnut oil I Differ in taste color and texture o LardTallowSuet I Lard Swine gt Major shortening used in early 1900 s I Tallow Beef Cattle or Sheep I Suet Solid fat around kidneys and loin of Beef 0 Cocoa butter I Seeds of theobroma cocoa tree I Melting point just below body temperature 0 Food preparation with fats frying care temperature optimal frying conditions 0 350 Fto 450 F 0 Heat foods quickly 0 100 fat I Vegetable oil except olive or sesame oil I Hydrogenated Shortening 0 Minimal flavor o Butter and margarine NOT RECOMMENDED I Contains water I Low smoke point 0 Lower fat preparation techniques p 436 to 437 0 Follow MyPyramid 0 Follow a meal pattern lower in fat especially saturated type 0 Relying on lower fat or non fat cooking methods 0 Reducing fat in recipes 0 Terms hydrogenation o Hydrogenation a commercial process in which hydrogen atoms are added to the double bonds in or p ateu39 fatty acids to make them more saturated 0 Storage of fats o Butter and Margarine are best stored in the refrigerator 0 Butter will keep for months in the freezer DO NOT FREEZE Margarinec emulsions may separate 0 Shortenings and most oils stored at room temperature and should be kept tightly covered in a dark spot on the cupboard shelf I Best refrigerated bc they will keep longer 0 Olive oil should be refrigerated soon after opening 0 Monounsaturated fats keep for about 1 year 0 Unrefined polyunsaturated fat keep about half a year Chapter 22 0 Types of cakes example of each 0 Shortened cakes contains fat chocolate cake fruit cake pound cake spice cake white cake yellow cake 0 Unshortened cakes no fat angel cake sponge cake 0 Chiffon chocolate chiffon lemon chiffon 0 Cake terms p446 to 447 0 Angel food cake I Whipped egg whites and the lack of fat contribute ro the very light airy texture and taste of cake I Special angel food cake pan with a tube in the middle creates the hole in the middle ofthe cake and prevents it from falling on itself 0 Boston cream pie pie is really a cake cream is vanilla custard spread between two layers of sponge cake chocolate glaze poured over top created in Boston by hotel chef in 1855 o Bundt Cake Prepared in a Bundt pan Wasn t famous till it won 2nd place in a Pillsbury baking contest in 1966 o Butter cake Standard cake commonly used for birthdays weddings and graduations Many flavors exist but most common are white chocolate and yellow 0 Carrot cake Resembles a quick bread Very moist dense cakes Prepared in layers a loaf pan or as cup cakes Basic ingredients grated carrots nuts and cinnamon Other ingredients added contribute to cake s moistness and denseness are oils apple sauce or apples raisins or well drained Served plain or with cream cheese icing o Cheesecake Fillings made from cheese cream cheese cottage cheese ricotta cheese mixed with eggs sugar and flavorings Crust can be made from gram cracker crumbs wafer crumbs gingersnaps finely ground nuts or pasty ngredients are baked in springform pan or cheesecake pan and may include top layer of sour cream Textures vary from light and airy to heavy and dense according to their ingredients vary from regions 0 Chiffon cake Light and airy denser than angel food texture is made by combining the beaten egg whites of sponge foam cakes with the richer denser taste of butter cakes Vegetable oil and egg yolks increase the cake s moisture and density Tube pan and extra baking powder are required to lift the cake during baking 0 Ciambellone Ring shaped cake Lightly sweetened and flavored with dried fruit and lemon zest 0 Coffee cake I Sweet rich cakes and breads are usually served at breakfast brunch or afternoon tea I May contain fruits nuts spices chocolate fruit jam streusel or cream cheese Cup cake I Small individual cake baked in a paper lined cup shaped mold usually muffin pan that can be made from many different cake batters Dacquoise I Name originates from Dax France I Alternating layers of meringue and buttercream create this French cake I Ground nuts are usually added to the meringue and sometimes whipped cream may replace the buttercream Devil s food cake I Rich chocolate layered cake with a reddish hue Fruitcakes I Traditional British Christmas cake is full of fruit candied and dried nuts and spices I Laced with alcohol usually brandy I Sometimes covered with marzipan and royal icing Genoise I Italian cake named after Italy s city of Genoa I Use of whole eggs and melted butter makes if different from other sponge cakes I May be sliced into layers separated by chocolate or fruit whipped cream German chocolate cake I German originated from Dallas homemaker who used Baker s German Sweet Chocolate sweeter than baking chocolate to create this chocolate buttermilk cake I Typical coconut pecan frosting also differentiates it from other chocolate cakes Ice cream I Serves as the center of a butter cake or the quotcakequot is pure ice cream shaped like a cake Meringue I Layers form the basis ofthis cake whichis usually topped with soft spreads such as marzipan and whipped cream Mooncake I Round shaped Chinese confections are traditionally consumed each fall during harvest moon festival I Larger brighter moon during this time allowed harvesting to continue into the night I About the size ofa cup cake I Very dense rich cakes are cut into small wedges and consumed with Chinese tea 0 Muffin I Miniature versions of short breads o Petit four I Small multi layer cakes I Averaging only 1 inch square I Usually elaborately decorated with icing 0 Pound cake I Derived from the original British recipe that utilized one pound each of butter sugar flour and eggs I Cake still retains much of its original richness and demsity o Roulade I Rolled sponge cake I filled with various ingredients that can include preserves frostings nuts or other flavorings I created by placing cake batter in a sheet pan often used for prepating cookoes I thin baked cake which is only about 12 is thick is rolled while still warm to set its log like shape unrolled when cooled spread with fillings rerolled and then left plain on its outer surface or covered with frosting or powder 0 tiramisu I Italian dessert I quotTirquot and quotsuquot together means quotpull up I Coffee and cocoa main ingredients I Finely grated chocolate is sprinkled over the top of this dessert which is basically layers of sponge cake or lady finger cookies soaked in coffee and alcohol wine brandy or liqueur and then spread with the unique Italian ingredients of mascarpone cheese andor zabaglione I Mascarpone is a soft very high fat Italian cheese because cream is added to the cow s milk before it is made into cheese I Zabaglione is a custard or sauce made by whipping egg yolks sugar and wine usually Marsala or liqueur over a boiler o Upside down cake I Baking this cake is literally turned upside down I Chopped or whole fruits such as pineapple or cherries are placed on the bottom of the pan on top of a layer of brown sugar before the batter is poured in I When the cake is inverted after baking the bottom layer becomes a decorative moist topping Preparation of cakes ingredients what does each one do 0 Flour 0 Sugar 0 Fats 0 Eggs 0 Milk 0 Leavening agent Preparing shortened cakes p448 to 452 0 Most common prepared 0 Round or rectangular cake pans 0 Pan is greased and floured o 325 to 350 o Halfan hour plus Preparing unshortened cakes p452 to 454 o Ungreased pan 0 Tube pans o 350 to 375 0 hour to 1 hour 0 Surface lightly brown Types of cookies 0 Almond cookies 0 Biscotti o Brownies o Butter cookies 0 Cannoli shell 0 Chocolate chip cookies 0 Cialde o Corico o Florentines OOOOOOOOOOOOO Fortune cookies Gingerbread Ladyfingers Lemon bars Linzer cookies Macaroons madeleines Mandelbrot Meringues Peanut butter cookies Russian tea cookie Mexican wedding cookies Sables Shortbread Sugar 0 Wafer 0 Baking cookies 0 Baking sheet shiny top dull bottom 325 to 375 225 for meringues and sponge OOOOO Chapter 23 Browning complete center done Higher temperature Lower baking powder and sugar Higher flour Microwave preparation mpractica Detrimental Prepared mixes 0 Types of pastry preparation of pastry ingredients mixing rolling baking 0 Plain pastry nonlaminated pie or short crust Hot water crust Short or sweet dough Piecrusts Quiche Main dish pie 0 Brioche pastry nonlamianted o Choux pastry nonlaminated Sweet yeast dough pate a choux Choux paste o Puff pastry laminated Cream puffs Prefiteroles Eclairs light airy flaky Quick blitz Phyllo gt VVVVVV gt filo Baklava Honey and nuts Patatopita Potatoes Spanakopita Spinach and feta Tiropita Cheese Croissant danish 0 Types of fillings o Chiffon 0 Cream Banana Chocolate coconut 0 Custard 0 Fruit Apple Apricot Blueberry Cherry Key lime Lemon Peach Plum Raspberry Rhubarb Strawberry 0 Ice cream 0 Meringue o Pecan 0 Vegetable I Pumpkin I Sweet potato Term lamination blind bake o Lamination the arrangement of altering layers of fat and flour in rolled pastry dough During baking the fat melts and leaves empty spaces for steam to lift the layers of flour resulting in a flaky pastry 0 Blind bake to bake an unfilled piecrust Chapter 24 Classification of candies crystalline or non crystalline and example of each 0 Candied or crystallized fruits o Caramels o Chewing gum 0 Chocolate 0 Fondants crystalline o Fudges crystalline o Flace fruits and nuts 0 Hard candies o Jellies o Licorice o Marshmellows o Marzipan o Nougats 0 Peanut brittle o Popcorn balls 0 Spun sugar 0 Taffy o Toffee Types of chocolate and how they are used in cooking 0 Tropical cocoa or cacao tree 0 Chief ingreidients many different candies o Theobroma quotfood of the Gods o Aztec xocolatl Terms tempering enrobe o Tempering to heat and cool chocolate to specific temperatures making it more resistant to melting and resulting in a smooth glossy hard finish Chapter 17 Starches are used for 0 000 O Thickeners Stabilizers Texturizers Water or fat binders Fat substitutes Emulsification aids Gelatinization increase in volume viscosity and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid Retrogradation seepage of water out of an ageing gel because of the contraction of the gel Dextrinization breakdown of starch molecules to smaller sweetertasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat Mother sauce sauce that serves as the springboard from which other sauces are prepared Starch characteristics factors affecting gelatinization O O Dependent on amount of water temperature table 172 timing figure 174 stirring Presence of I Acid I Sugar I Fat I Protein The 2 major sauce categories and examples of each one table p367 0 O Thickened I Cheese sauce I White sauce I Some gravies Unthickened I Other gravies I Hollandaise I Butter I Fruit I Barbecue I Tarter The 5 groups of mother sauces O O O O O Glaze B chamel or white sauce Espagnole or brown sauce Hollandaise sauce Tomato sauce Veloute sauce flavoring obtained from soup stock that has been concentrated by evaporation until it attains a syrupy consistency with a highly concentrated flavor o Roux thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat 0 Beurre manie thickener that is a soft butter and flour blended together 0 Slurry a thickener made by combining starch and a cool liquid 0 Au jus served with its own natural juices a term usually used in reference to roasts o Deglaze adding liquid to pan drippings and simmeringstirring to dissolve and loosen cookedon particles sticking to the bottom of the pan 0 Reduction to simmer or boil a liquid until the volume is reduced through evaporation leaving a thicker more concentrated flavorful mass 0 Steps in creating a smooth lumpfree sauce p 369 0 Fat and flour in a roux should be blended until smooth before adding the liquid If the flour is coated with fat in this way it will not form lumps when it contacts the liquid 0 A small amount of sugar may be added to separate the granules but care must be taken too much sugar will cause the sauce to be irreversibly runny o A small amount of the starch 2 tablespoons may be vigorously mixed with cold water in an enclosed jar before incorporating it into the rest of the liquid to be added to the roux Chapter 18 0 Preparation of quick breads what are the 2 most important considerations and know the steps of the muffin method 0 Consistency of batter thin and thick 0 Cooking temperature 0 Muffin method I Sift dry ingredients together I Separate bowl combine moist ingredients I Stir dry and moist ingredients together few strokes dry ingredients are moist but still lumpy o Varieties of quick breads know how each one is prepared and characteristics of each 0 Pour batters I Pancakes less fat than waffles I Crepes fill with desert filling or with savory foods eggs meat etc I Waffles more fat than pancakes I Popovers puffy hollow center 0 Drop batters I Muffins I Brands 0 Boston brown bread 0 Corn bread Hushpuppies 0 Tea breads I Coffeecakes I Dumplings o Dough I Unleavened o Tortillas o Flour 0 Corn 0 Chapattis 0 Crisp flat breads o Matzo o Biscuit o Scones 0 Nutrient content of quick breads p378 0 Chapter 19 0 Preparation of yeast breads ingredients table p 387 mixing methods kneading fermentation punching down shaping proofing baking 0 Ingredients I Flour usually wheat flours I Liquid temperature of liquid is critical I Sugar feeds yeast I Salt gives flavor I Yeast leveling agent I Fat optional butter oil solid fat etc I Eggs optional enrich taste texture and color I Table 191 0 Mixing methods I Batter is simplest not kneaded I Rapid mix is used for bread machines I Table 191 0 Kneading I At least 10 minutes I Develops gluten I Physically handling dough I Smooth soft nonsticky surface I Not needed with batter method I Figure 192 0 Fermentation first rising I 85 degrees Fahrenheit I Proof box I Changes during fermentation dough doubles pH 60 to 55 to 50 I Figure 194 0 Punching down second rising I Optimal fermentation temperatures above 140 degrees will kill yeast I Dough doubles I Punched down I Left for 2nd rise 0 Shaping I 2quotd rising I Bread ready 0 Proofing final rising I Occurs onin the panbaking sheets I Quality of baked product I Proof increases volume 0 Baking I Changes during baking appearance texture flavor aroma I Protein coagulates I Starch swells and gelatinizes I Fat melts I Crumb development figure 1910 I Table 195 Proof increase the volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation Score the technique of taking a sharp knife or a special blade called a lame and creating to V2 inch deep slashes on the risen dough s top surface just prior to baking Oven spring the quick expansion of dough during the first 10 minutes of baking caused by expanding gases Crumb the cell structure appearing when a baked product is sliced Evaluation is based on cell size called open if medium to large and closed if small cell shape and cell thickness thin walls occur in fine crumb whereas thick walls predominate in a coarse crumb Types of yeast breads 0 Figure 1911 0 Sourdough wheat whole wheat bagels pretzels and bread sticks malt breads English muffins pita raised doughnuts pizza crust rolls specialty breads rye countryhearth steamed stonemason multiple grain health modified Storage of yeast breads o Wrapped well plastic wrap foil etc 0 Cool dry place 0 23 months in freezer can freeze unbaked dough Chapter 20 Sucrose table sugar Glucose dextrose StudV Guide for EXAM 2 HEC 2240002 Fall 2010 Chapter 5 Types of meal service Russian Most formal entire meal is served by waiters French Food is served and or prepared from a cart brought to the table by specially trained chefstaff English Host participates in serving guests waiters assist American Served on plates in kitchen and brought to table Family Guests serve themselves from platters brought to table and passed counterclockwise among the diners Buffet Guests serve themselves from a central buffet table As purchased and edible portion how do you calculate the amount of food needed EPAP EP Edible portion AP As purchased Multiply answer by the amount given in AP Recipes four styles Descriptive Standard Action Narrative Know how to set standard placement of dinnerware atware and glassware p 114 115 Work from the outward in Forks on left Knives and spoons on right Cup above tip of knife Handout modifying ingredient amounts Chapter 6 Composition of meats 120 124 terms collagen marbling Collagen a pearly white tough and fibrous protein that provides support to muscle and prevents it from overstretching It is the primary protein in connective tissue Marbling fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops Inspection and grading of meats USDA Food Safety amp Inspection Service Guarantee of Wholesomeness Does Not Ensure Quality or Tenderness LicensedVeteIinaIian or Specially Trained Supervised Inspectors Inspection Mandato Meat Crossing State Lines orEnteijng US tlirougliForeign Commerce USDA Food Safety amp Inspection Service Meat Passes Fedeml Inspection Marked W Inspection Stamp Gmding Voluntary Meat Processors Contract W USDA Cut Between 12th amp 13tl1Rib HACCP in Slaughterhouses E coli Testing Quality Quality Grades Fat Content BeerSDA Quality Grades Yield Be able toidentify the main cuts of beef pg 132 Aquot w 5 I y snip Lain Steak Top Siituin Boneless Butt Steak Rib Eye Rbu Full Tendenuin V l Cubed Steak Rib Eye Rnll Steak Rib Raast Ready rob unside Ruurid Steak a rap Inside mm t a W4 mum Gonsenezk Rmmd Heel but rrimmed as g Shoulder tied Roast Emisin Steak Swiss MM oWJust the coW chuck rib short loin etcww Top siitairi Em Stzak enter Cut Short Ribs Categories of doneness p 140 141 Rare Medium Welldone Know the cuts appropriate for dry and moist heat cooking Dry heat Roasting Moderate to large tender cuts Usually 2 12 inches think and provide more than 3 servings Broiling and Grilling Smaller cuts of tender meat ranging from 1 to 3 inches in thickness PanBroiling Very thin cuts of meat Less than 12 inch Frying Tender small pieces of meat Low in fat or breaded coating Moist heat Braising Less tender cuts beef chunks round steak amp ank steak Microwaving Storage guidelines Store in fridge or freezer Fridge 3236 degrees Fahrenheit Wrapping meat ControlledAtmosphere Packaging Frozen 612 months ground beef 3 months Wrapping meat Retail meats in plastic wrap Refrigerated in original wrap up to 2 days Storage beyond 2 days Store wrapping removed Replace with Loosely Wrapped Plastic wrap Wax paper Aluminum foil Wrapped tightly Aluminum foil freezer paper heavy plastic bags Store lt or equal to 0 degrees Fahrenheit Trim meat of bone and fat Divide into individual servings before wrapping and freezing Frozen foods labeled and dated Chapter 7 Dry and moist heat cooking methods for poultry Dry Roasting 0r Baking Broiling 0r Grilling Frying Moist Braising 0r fricasseeing Stewing Poaching Microwaving Storage guidelines only Prevent bacterial contamination Campylobacter and salmonella Refrigerated Fresh readytoeat Poultry lt 40 degrees Fahrenheit up to 3 days Vaporproo ng wrapping Repackaging up risk bacterial contamination Bottom shelf Frozen 612 months 0 degrees Fahrenheit Cooked leftovers up to 4 months Chapter 8 Veltebrate and invertebrate types of sh Vertebrate Fin sh Tuna Cod Alaska Pollack Salmon Catfish Flounder Sole Sea Mammals Dolphin Whale Seal Invertebrate Shellfish Crustaceans Shrimp Crab Lobster Cray sh Mollusks Bivalves Univalves Cephalopods Inspection and grading of sh Inspection Voluntary Wholesomeness of the sh Sanitary condition of the processing plane Paid for by the processer Conducted by National Marine Fisheries Service of the US Department of Commerce Grading Only inspected n sh can be graded Voluntary Paid for by the processer US Grade A US Grade B Substandard Based on appearance texture uniformity good avor fresh odor and absence of defects Breaded sh are further evaluated in terms of their breading and bone to sh ratio Determining freshness and signs of decay Freshness Smell fresh sh aroma Skin that is bright and shiny Eyes that bulge are jet black and have translucent corneas Tight scales Firm esh Stiff body Red gills Belly free of swelling or gas Decay Eyes atten and concave Pupil turns gray or creamy brown Cornea becomes opaque and discolored Bright red gills tum paler brown Dry heat and moist heat preparation methods for fish Dry heat Baking Broiling Grilling Frying Moist heat Poaching Simmering Steaming Microwaving Types of sh high in omega 3 fatty acids p 171 Herring Mackerel paci c jack Spanish Salmon Atlantic king pink Tuna blue n White sh Bass freshwater Blue sh Mackerel Atlantic Salmon chum Coho sockeye Smelt Striped bass Sword sh Rainbow trout Storage guidelines Fresh sh Best consumer 12 days of purchase Store in coldest portion of refrigeration lt 40 degrees Fahrenheit Wrap tightly to prevent odors from coming in contrast with other foods Spoilage Proteolytic enzymes break down muscle proteins Provide amino acids for bacterial growth Bacterial enzymes break down proteins to amino acids Elevate levels of the toxin histamine Fresh shell sh Consume the day purchased See inside back cover oftext Storage requirements very Depend on type of shell sh Fresh cool salty mussels well aerated precooked crabs coldest
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