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PHL 223: Week 9

by: Paola Araque

PHL 223: Week 9 PHL 223

Paola Araque
GPA 3.29

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these notes cover the lecture from dr. rachels class for the week of test 2
Medical Ethics
Stuart Rachels
Class Notes
medical ethics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 223 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stuart Rachels in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Medical Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/23/16
Lecture  ❖ What about infanticide?   ❖ Warren: A newborn has no right to life, and it is not okay to kill a baby.   ❖ Once the baby is born, it no longer burdens the mother.   ❖ Why not make others happy?  ➢ Adoption  ➢ Foster care  ➢ Infants are valuable to other, if you don’t want it someone else does.   ❖ Objection to Warren  ➢ Why do 1­5 confer a right to life?  ■ 1) consciousness  ■ 2) advanced reasoning  ■ 3) self motivated activity   ■ 4) language   ■ 5) self concepts   ➢ Warren doesn’t justify them well  ❖ Characteristic   ➢ Sentience (feel pain)  ➢ Must be alive  ❖ Corresponding right  ➢ Right not to be tortured  ➢ Right not to be killed  ❖ Don Marquis:  ➢ “Why abortion is immoral?”  ➢ Why is it bad to kill an adult?  ■ Personal reason→to harm victim   ■ Social reason→harm to others  ❖ It’s very wrong to kill a “hermit”  ➢ The main reasons are personal  ➢ How does killing you hurt you?  ❖ Marquis:   ➢ you lose your future. No friendships, no chocolate, no accomplishments, no sex,  nothing.  ➢ Marquis’ Account Explains:  ■ Why killing is so ba→it deprives its victim of everything  ■ Why dying young is tragic   ■ Why killing person­aliens is bad  ■ Why killing people who are suffering and dying is not bad  ■ Why killing babies is bad  ➢ But the fetus loses even more potential than an adult!   ➢ The fetus has even more good life ahead of it. Bottom line, abortion is murder.     ❖ Famous people who died young:  ➢ James Dean, Kurt Cobain, Andy Kaufman, John Belushi, Marilyn Monroe  ➢ Amy Winehouse, Jim Morrison, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, Elvis Presley  ➢ John Lennon, Jimi Hendrix, Tupac SHakur, Jon Binet Ramsey, Patsy Cline  ❖ Emmett Till→killed at 14 years old and spurred civil rights movement.   ➢ Killers found not guilty by all white jury  ❖ Marquis’ Argument:  ➢ Killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their future.  ➢ If (1), then killing fetuses is wrong because it deprives them of their future.  ➢ Killing fetuses is wrong because it deprives them of their future.  ➢ (3) is in old testament: if you’re a slut, you should die.   ■ But this could kill the baby too  ❖ Historical accident that anti­abortion is related to Christianity.   ❖ Criticisms to Marquis:  ➢ Its inference is valid  ➢ “If you apply, you’ll get in.”  ➢ You apply. What do you expect?  ❖ The vulnerable step is (2)  ➢ (2) relies on an analogy between adults and fetuses.  ➢ A possible disanalogy: Why does killing a 20 year old deprive him of his future?  ■ Because if you don’t kill him, he may live another 60 years.  ■ We assume: the same person will exist this whole time  ■ This assumption can be questioned regarding fetuses.  ■ Will the fetus be the child it develops into? If not, it’s okay to deprive  fetuses of their futures, since they won’t exist for very long.   ➢ Why think this?  ❖ Three Theories According to Which You Never Were a Fetus:  ➢ 1) same person requires same parts.  ■ Plutarch’s Ship of Theseus:  ● Periodically, a plank is replaced  ● After many years, every plank has been replaced.  ● Is the ship the same? Maybe.  ■ Cell turnover/ cell addition:  ● Because the child has few cells in common with the fetuthe  child is not the fetus  ■ Objection→ does this imply that no one lasts more than 9 years?  ■ 2 growing things, do they have enough in common (at any point in time)?  ➢ 2) Same person requires memory links  ■ ex) advanced dementia:   ● Real question: is this the same grandma I used to know?  ● No memory. (people think, “my friend is gone.” why?)  ■ ex) complete amnesia  ● Can’t remember being earlier person ⇑⇑⇑  ■ Objection: “I don’t remember my 6th birthday party, but i was there.”  ■ Response: a chain of memories links you to that person  ■ I can remember some even when i was 10. When i was 10, i remembered  something when i was 7. That 7 year old version remembers 6th birthday  party.  ■ On this view, you were not the fetus because the fetus has no memories  to establish a link to you.   ■ Was that you when you blacked out at a party?  ● You have memories when you are blacked out. Yes you are.  ■ What about your bizarre dreams, that you don’t remember?  ● Is that you dreaming? Maybe, maybe not, it depends on whether  the dream person remembers your life  ● 18% of our lives are spent dreaming  ➢ 3) same person requires same personality .   ■ Dissociative identity disorder→different personalities (very rare)   ■ Same person, but just no memory, same personality  ■ Myers Briggs personality test  ■ What about random person with close personality?  ■ When you grow up, your personality stays the same.  ● But the fetus has no personality, so you can’t be the same person  as the fetus.   ■ But maybe bodily (small changes everyday) continuity is enough to ensure  same personhood.   ● If so, then the fetus is the adult and Marquis argument is  supported.   ❖ Judith Jarvis Thompson   ➢ “A Defense on Abortion”  ➢ When a woman has voluntary sex, she has not made the promise to have a baby.    


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