Introduction to Finite Element Concepts
Introduction to Finite Element Concepts CEE 6900
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maverick Prosacco on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEE 6900 at Tennessee Tech University taught by Faisal Hossain in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/225707/cee-6900-tennessee-tech-university in Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) at Tennessee Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
CEE 6900 Environmental Agglications of Remote Sensing Lecture One F 1 39 of Remote Sensing 3 hours gt Overview the course syllabus gt Overview the text book and reference text book Course structure expectations etc gt Assign Reading material 7 Chapter 1 of text book Must read all before next class gt HW1 Due next week 7 Problems l234 and 5 of Chapter 1 of text book page 25 gt Cover the following lecture in first class 3 hours gt Recap with Lecturelpptpdf So what exactly is remote sensing For the purposes of this tutorial we will use the following definition quotRemote sensing is the science anal to some extent art of acquiring information about the Earth 39s surface without actually being in contact with it This is alone by sensing anal recording reflecteal or emitted energy anal processing analyzing anal applying that information quot There are lots of definitions see chapter 1 of text book In this course we will focus more on applications and environmental aspects In environmental aspects the focus will be primarily on water in any of the 3 phases liquid solid and gasprecip Consider this 7 Say you want to get a ball park on how hard and far a certain wall is in front of you before you make a judgment So you take a tennis ball and hit on a wall from a distance The ball comes back to you Intuition will tell how something about the nature of the wall if it was a fake cardboard wall the ball would probably break in if you threw it hard Also if had an idea of the velocity with which you threw you could measure the distance using projectile equations and making some reasonable assumptions What you did above was technically some sort of remote sensing We do all sorts of remote sensing everyday without realizing it Remote sensing will involve the following key components 1 use of energy in the ball case you used mechanical energy 2 a target that you are interested in sensing 7 in the ball case it s the wall 3 reception you will have to receive something in return to make out the traits of the target There can be no remote sensing without the use of energy target and reception To get more detailed and expand on the 3 fundamental components consider the following 7 components Acknowledgements These lecture notes have been modified from the Canada Center for Remote 1 Sensing 6556900 Envimnmental Lira an a Remote Semiquot Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx a Remote Senxin 3 hours a cums t em 1 of tnterest 7 target rtwru eorne m eontaet wrth andrnteraet wrth the atmosphere rt passes through sensor the tw nh r and the radAanon n r rafter eolleet andreeord the electromagneth radtatton 39l n a u m to be transrnrtted o en m e1eetronre form to areeervrng and proeessrng statron where the data are proeessedrnto an rrnage hardeopy andor dAgxtal 5 Interpretation and Analysis I rthe proeessedrrnagers rnterpretedvrsua11y andor dAgxtally or e1eetronrea11y to entraet mformauon about the target whreh was ruurnrnated quotr F W 10 r t tt r pamwlarproblem T1417 17 F m FROMBEGH JNDIG TO END Senang onva Envimnmental Aggb39ca an a Remote Sznxing Ledaquot One 7 Fundaznznmlx at Remote Senxing 3 hams Every day Remote Sehsmg by you h vw t t V t u m remote sehsmg where the souree ofmformauoh Is at some dASLance The othertwo rely on dArect eohtaet wnh the souree ofmformauon e whreh are they7 a warm IS THIS REMOTE SENSJNG77 Remote serrsmg can use any type ofenergy Do notjust Lhmk opucal39 or electromagnenc39 7 a mccrulcc39l BUT MOST REMOTE SENSING AT LEAST IN THIS COURSE WILL BE PRED OMINANILY USING ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY VISIBLE AND NONr VISIBLE Sehshg 6556900 Envimnmental Allb39ta anx a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Let39s learn alrttle about eleetrornagneue speetrurn to get ourselves started the target Thls energy ls m the form ofeleetrornagneue radlanon e e drops falllng and gets seattered Some re eetbaek Wrth our naked eyes we ean see the ram drop39s natural energy that rt ernrts so we rzlummatedrt to see the ram Howeyer lf u would 4 L eyes you would for other types of res electxlcal eld Both these elds travel at the speed ofllght e E C oeemeel Two eharaetensues ofelectromagnetl radlatlon are partreularly rrnportant for understandrng rernote sensrng These are thewavelength and frequency Sendng 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra an a Remote Seming cm One 7 Fun Remote Senxin 3 hours Le n damean at g lt L gtI i l m ii I 7u I iii lambda amplambda Wavelength ls measureolm metres m or some faetor of metres sueh as nannmetres nm lo39gmetres miern et sum lo Emetaes um 10 metres or eentrmeters em lU39zmetxes Frequency refers to the number of eyeles ofavvave passlng mm m to one evele per seeonol anol varlous multrples ofhertz Wavelength and frequency are related by the followlng formula where fhght xlnxrrv Therefore the two are lnversely relateolto eaeh other The shorter the wavelength the hlgher the frequency The longer the vvavelength the lovver the frequency avelen and free men understan t mfnrma n to he acted frnm remnte senseng data ex vve wlll be examlmng the way m whlch vve eategonze eleetromagneue radlauon forjust that purpose Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra an a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours Wavelength m Frequency me L a m y i J mm mm sensmg cculccr Frw mum 1c 39 L h m hn y kquot um 39 illuminated by UV radiatinn AND COULD BE USED FOR REMOTE SENSING 0E MINERALS WWW WWW W Ullravmlel Mar 2 mm m is mm W a Mr w m 1 mm 10 T l m 7 5 E m IE 1 u a ma aquot Em g HY E m39 mquotn Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra an o Remote Sensing Ledaquot One 7 Fundamensz og Remote Sensing 3 hours The lrglntwluen our eyes e our rernote sensors e ean oleteetrs part ofthe visible en smum ofthe speetrurn Tnere ls a lot ofradsaoon around us wlueln ls lnvlslble to our eyes but ean be oleteeteol by other rernote senslng rnstrurnents anol useolto our advantage vlslble wavelengths eover arange from approxrrnately 0 4 to 0 7 urn The longest vlslble TM tmn rt nt eolors using our eyes Visible Wmelerlym mdms nor mquot I151 toquot nAx l unensleez Wavelength us cm on Violet 0 4 e 0 446 urn Blue 0 446 e 0 500 urn Sensng onva Envimnmental Aggb39ca an a Remote Sznxing Ledaquot One 7 Fundmenme at Remote Senxing 3 hours Green 0 500 e 0 578 um Yeuew 0 578 e 0 592 um Orange 0 592 e 0 620 um Reel 0 620 e 0 7 pm e was cc Rlun mm F nLhEr twn but all nther cnlnrs can be armed by cnmhining h1uegzeenam1 red in xtxs vxsxble dAffenng amounts accordmg to wavelength m We Infrared M m meg In w mm e E z i m g g mquot ccmuu 8 Seneng 6556900 Envimnmental Allb39ta anx a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours wavelength range from appnonnnately 0 7 nnn to 100 nnn rmore than 100 tannes as wlde hm AIR rRRdlhwlw 39T dTR nnr lm V l 0 7 nnn to 3 0 nnn The thermal IRreglon ls qulte dlfferent than the Vlslble andne eeted m ponlons as ths energy ls essentaally the radlatlon thatls ennltted from the Earth s surface In the form of heat The thennal m covers wavelengths from appnonlnnately 3 0 nnn to 100 nnn THERMAL IRIS WHAT THE IRNIGHT VISION GOGGLES USE IN THOSE GOMMANDO TYPE MOVIES EVERY BODY ABOVE ABSOLUTE ZERO TEMIFERATURE HAS A TIR SIGNATURE AHOT STOVE RADIATES HEAT IN THE R RANGE Microwaves Wavelenmhlm pteenennywzl We mm W Wmtenntt Eviannay lmmsl mm m Emva a can I m neginn from about 1 mm to l m Thls covers the longestwavelengths used forremote senslng The shonenwavelengths have propemes snnllanto the thennal mfraredreglon IN THIS COURSE MICROWAVE AND INFRARED ARE THE TWO MOST MORTANT REGIONS OF THE SPECTRUMFOR REMOTE SENSJNG 0E Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra an a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fun nlalx at Remote Sensing 3 hours DITERAC TION WITH THE ATMO SPHERE can be sensed39 through orfrom the atmosphere intern nn veq carefully ofscznering and zhsnrptinn e cans ncv path How mueh scattering takes place depends on several factors mcludmg the take place 10 Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Lira an a Remote Semiquot Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx a Remote Senxin 3 hours CCRSICWRzylEigh scattering occurs when pameles are very small eonnpanedto the wavelength othe radlatlon These could be panheles sueh as small speeks of dust onnltnogen and oxygen molecules Raylelgh seattenng eauses The bluel A t W sunllght passes thnough the atmosphere the shonten wavelengths l e blue of the vlslble 0 Hum V mnvi n and the longerwavelengths to penetnate the atmosphene ofthe radlauon Dust pollen smoke and watenvapon are common eauses of Me tt rm Seneng 6556900 Envimnmental Lira an a Remote Semiquot Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx a Remote Senxin 3 hours ancMIECVThe nal scattering rneenanrsrn oflmponance ls l L L 4 Water n rm r v vardlrmr ll l quanmles bluegreenreol llght whlte ll gm as 3911 14 accRsICCVAhsnrptinn ls the other mam rneenanrsrn at work wavelengths Ozone earbon dloxlde and Watervapor are the three mam atmospheric constltuents vvnren absorb radlanon sun to sunllght You may have heard carth dinxirlerefenedto as agreenhouse gas ans ls beeause n L b lrn vaporm year For example the an rnass above a desertwouldhave very lrnle Water vaporto 12 Senang 6556900 Envimnmental alumni a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours absorb energy whlle Une troplcs wouldhave hlgh eoneenlraaons ofwater vapor r e hlgh humidlty Absamad Transmlsslon quotm 5 gt9 9 gt INFRARED MICROWAVE Sun Eanh Ene y a 1 um um 1 1D 1 Mm Mm m Wavelength mucumchecause these gases absorb rrlookl whl n are not severely rn ueneeol by atmospheric absorpaon and thus are useful to mlan By e remote sensors are ealleol zlmnsphericwi eornpanng the charactenstlcs of must Effectivaly forremote sensmg Tne vlslble pomon ofthe spectrum to wlnen our level Fm uw around 10 mm Une thermal m pomon ofthe speeorurn whlle the large wmdow at wavelengths beyond 1 rnrn ls assoclated wlth Une mlcrowave reglon UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC WINDOWS FOR VARIOUS TARGETS IS FUNDAMENTAL TO REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT WE ARE LUCKY THAT DIFFERENT TARGETS ABSORBREFLECT DIFFERNTLY TO DIFFERENT REGIONS OF RADIATION Senang CEE 6900 Environmental Agglications of Remote Sensing Lecture One F 1 39 of Remote Sensing 3 hours TARGET INTERACTIONS G CCRS I GET Radiation that is not absorbed or scattered in the atmosphere can reach and interact with the Earth39s surface There are three 3 forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes or is incident 1 upon the surface These are absorption A transmission T and re ection R The total incident energy will interact with the surface in one or more of these three ways The proportions of each will depend on the wavelength of the energy and the material and condition of the feature Absorption A occurs when radiation energy is absorbed into the target while transmission T occurs when radiation passes through a target Re ection R occurs when radiation quotbouncesquot off the target and is redirected In remote sensing we are most interested in measuring the radiation re ected from targets We refer to two types of re ection which represent the two extreme ends of the way in which energy is re ected from a target specular re ection and diffuse re ection Acknowledgements These lecture notes have been modified from the Canada Center for Remote 14 Sensing 6556900 Envimnmental Allb39ta anx a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx at Remote Sensing 3 hours all of the energy ls duected away from the surface m a slngle duectlon Diffuse m all duectlons Most earth surface features he sornewhere between perfeetly speeular or e or olornrnate For example nergramed sand would appear falrly srnooth to long wavelength mlcrowaves but would appear qurte rough to the vlslble wavelengths m um I Ecl at the vlslble andlnfraredwavelengths lnteraets wnh thern Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Lira an a Remote Semiquot Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx a Remote Senxin 3 hours G i E quot oemleev Leave A ehernreal eornpounolrn leaves ealleol ehlorophyll strongly absorbs radlatlon m the re and blue wavelengths but re een wavelengths Leaves appear greenest to us m the surnrner when ehlorophyll eontentrs at rts rnaxrrnurn In auturnn there ls less Th mtml If our lnfrared trees would appear entrernely bnght to us at these wavelengths In fact deterrnrne how healthy or unhealthy vegetauon may be R IR 3 a E R R R W S oecaslea Water than shorter vlslble wavelengths Thus water typreally looks blue or blueegreen olue to water booly then thrs wlll allow better re eeuvrty and a bnghter appearanee ofthe water H 0 mi d w th Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra an a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours wheh algae ls present The topography of the water surface rough smooth oahhg matehals problems of speeularre eehoh and otherm uehees oh eolor and bnghmess so Vegelallan E Re ectance M as 05 m 05 us wavelengthlum BECRSVECY trwmt tquot Wdr hwR BY between them where we mrghthotbe able to lfwe ohly eompareolthem at one wavelength For example water and yegetahoh may re eet somewhat slmllarly m the be qurte yarrable ever for the same target type and ear also vary wrth tame e g greenr hess ofleaves ahdloeahoh KNOWING WHERE TO LOOK SPECTRALLY AND UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF THE FEATURES OF INTEREST ARE CRITICAL TO CORRECTLY INTERPRETING THE INTERACTION OE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WITH THE SUREACE Sermhg 6556900 Envimnmental Aggb39ra ans a Remote Sensing Lecmnz One 7 Fundamensz at Remote Sensing 3 hours PASSIVE AND ACTIVE SENSING Tu r m V w w from passlve or an aeaye remote sensrng F r energy or rads at on The sun provldes a very convement souree of energy for rern ole sensmg The sun s energy ls eltherre ected as n ls forvlslble wavelenglhs or absorbed v r ll M L ls rllurnrnaang the Eath There ls no re ected energy avallable from the sun at mght long as the amount of energy ls large enough to be reeoroleol W n eons cm Aeu39ve sensors on the other hand provlde Lhelr own energy souree for rllurnrnaaon The sensor emlts radlauon whlch ls duectedtowardthe targetto be lnvestlgated The m for aeaye sensors lnclude the abllltyto obtam measurements anyarne regardless ofthe r Mule V d H r uorosensor and a synthetic apenure raolar SAR Sensng 6556900 Envimnmental Allb39ta anx a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundamenme at Remote Sensing 3 hours TIEE REMOTE SENSING IMAGE What you get after rernote senslng ls an lmage descnblng the target Thlnk not ofthe regular optreal photograph lmage but ofan lmage thatrs 2rD andthe thud dlmenslon provldes rnforrnauon o a speerfre eharaetenstre e g ternperature ofsoll greenness of ll such lnnag s are essentiallx e land land uselandtype ramfall rntensrty ete A d39 39huted or RASTER data images and phntngraphsrn rernote senslng An lmage refers to any pretonal r m h w 4 photo to the left ofpart ofthe erty of Ottawa Canada was taken m the vlslble part of the speetrurn Photos are normally reeorded overthe wavelength range from 0 3 urn to 0 9 urn the vlslble andrefleetedrnfrared Based on these defrnrtrons we ean say that all photographs are lmages butnot all lmages are photographs Therefore unless we are e Senang 6556900 Envimnmental Allb39ta anx a Remote Seming Lecmnz One 7 Fundalrlznlalx at Remote Sensing 3 hours relauve bnghtness The eornputer dlsplays eaeh dlgltal value as dlfferent bnghtness representrng and dlsplaylng rernote senslng olata ertherpretonallv or dlgltally are when convemng back and forth eolours We see eolour beeause our eyes oleteet the enure vlslble range of wavelengths colours7 That ls how many sensors work The lnformanon from a narrow wavelength We e blue green andred The data from eaeh ehannel ls representedas one ofthe pnmary eolours and dependlng on the relatrve bnghtness r e the dlgltal value ofeach plxel m h h nu eol ours Senang