Ch. 9 Notes
Popular in General Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
Reviews for Ch. 9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/23/16
Ch. 9 Intelligence What is intelligence? Traditionally – scores on IQ tests Recently – other dimensions Consensus: Abstract thinking: capacity to understand hypothetical concepts. Abilities to: o Reason abstractly o Adapt to novel situations o Acquire knowledge o Learn from experience Cultural Differences Galton Model (~1884) Sensory capacity- better senses acquire more knowledge Sensory capacities only weakly (?) related to each other Measures of sensory ability not highly (?) related to intelligence NOTE THAT… sensory capacity A strong interactive link between sensory discriminations and intelligence. (Melnick, M. D., Harrison, B. R., Park, S., Bennetto, L., & Tadin, D. (2013)) RESULTS: • endorse Galton & Spearman hypotheses • IQ scores predicted by individual sensory discrimination differences • sensory suppression a key factor in both intelligence & perception Binet and Simon Model (1905) Higher mental processes: reasoning judgement understanding … weak (.2 - .3) positive correlations across dimensions 100+ years later (Stanford-Binet IQ Tests) Spearman Model (1927) Two factors G factor: general intelligence S factor: specific abilities Explain overall differences (some just smarter than others) o General intelligence: a single shared factor explains correlations on IQ test dimensions (single shared intelligence factor) Reflect particular skills in specific areas o Specific abilities: domain specific abilities (particular skills in specific areas) High in ALL S = high g High in some S = moderate g High in ONE S = low g A.High g If low in S in spatial=? Catell and Horn (~1963) A mix of two capacities Fluid intelligence- learning to solve problems in new ways o Uses for… SPOON: eat, stir, hit family on head, poke a snake, earrings, dig out of prison Crystallized intelligence- creative problem solving (puzzles, iPhone) o Knowledge about the world acquired over time o Fact based: political parties and florida primaries Correlated (.3) w/openness to experience (directionality?) Increases with age Gardner (1983; 1999) Multiple Intelligences NOT –g 8 separate domains o Varied intellectual skill levels Frames of mind: different ways of thinking about the world Linguistic: speaking and writing Musical: perform, understand, enjoy Bodily-kinesthetic: physical ability Naturalistic: plants, animals, nature Spatial: objects in 3D space Logico-mathematical: solve math and logic questions Interpersonal: understand and interact well with OTHERS Intrapersonal: understand and have insight to SELF No formal tests Popular in schools Non evidence based practices Not all smart people are smart in the same way Sternberg (1983; 1988) Triarchical Model 3 domains of intelligence Having one does not equal to having another Practical intelligence- solve real world problems (street smart) (social intelligence: size people up and understand others) Creative intelligence- create and devise novel effective solutions (Art, Music, puzzles) Analytical intelligence- logical reasoning (book smarts) (similar to g: IQ tests and exams) Intelligence Testing Binet and Simon Stanford-Binet IQ Test Mental age: where score falls in relation to most others Chronological age: actual age How to calculate it: Mental age / chronological age x 100 For example: (12/10)x100 Works for children but not adults Wechsler Adult intelligence scale (WAIS) ADULTS: newer versions = deviation IQ: Compare your score to ‘normal’ for own age group Eliminates age effects Normal @ age x – 100 – scored at median (middle) level IQ as compared to others of the same age IQ score at 115 is scored one std. deviation above the median compared to same age others IQ score of 85: scored one std. deviation below the median compared to same age others AVERAGE: IQ score 84-114 (68% of the population) within one std. deviation of the median level score. ABOVE AVERAGE: IQ score 115-129 (14% of population) within 2 std. deviations above the median BELOW AVERAGE: IQ score 69-85 (~14% of the population) within two std. deviations below the median Problems with Intelligence Testing: Test Bias- predict outcomes in one group better than another Culture Language According to the textbook, are IQ tests bias for race? o Its society not the test o More likely environmental influences Culture Fair IQ (‘fair across cultures’) Eliminates language reliance Reduces testing familiarity differences IQ scores on the rise Flynn Effect Median IQ is increasing o ~3 points every 10 years Environmental: o Better testing o Modern world (internet) o Better nutrition Intelligence Testing Unintended consequences: Eugenics- practices aimed at “improving” the genetic quality of the human population. o Programs: Encouraged those deemed “fit” to reproduce Forces sterilization of those deemed “unfit” Low IQ scores Disabled Some minority groups BIOLOGY OF INTELLIGENCE Does size matter? Positive correlation between brain volume and IQ Moderate (.3-.4) Still leaves .6-.7 to explain Correlation does not equal causation Does speed matter? Yes- we think so More intelligent = think quicker = mental processing efficiency Working memory related to intelligence Nature vs Nurture Family Studies IQ runs in families Sibling IQs correlate at .5, cousins at .15 Child IQ in larger vs smaller families? o Smaller families have slightly higher IQ Twin Studies Reared together: o Identical: correlations of .7-.8 (monozygotic) o Fraternal: correlations of .3-.4 (dizygotic) Reared apart: o IQ similar as twins are raised together So … genetic influence YES/NO? But… o Not 1.0 correlation o Poverty may reduce gene effects So… o Identical twins more likely to have similar IQs Identical (r= .7-.8) vs fraternal (r= .3-.4) o Twin pair IQs (identical or fraternal) similar regardless reared apart or together o Poverty may reduce genetic effects (environmental) Group Differences in IQs MALES vs FEMALES o No average differences o Male scores more variable o Specific mental abilities o Females better on verbal and emotions o Males better on spatial ability RACIAL Why? o = environments show = IQs o Differences shrinking Group Differences: Stereotype threat: fear on confirming negative bias Gender Race Aging SES Other Dimensions of Intellect Creativity Emotional
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'