New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Ch. 10 Notes

by: Isabella Morles

Ch. 10 Notes PSY2012

Isabella Morles

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

from class
General Psychology
Professor Kimberly Smith
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


Reviews for Ch. 10 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/23/16
Ch. 10 Human Development • Post Hoc fallacy - logical error where you assume that A causes B just because B came after A All serial killers drink milk as babies, so milk causes people to be serial killers. A. Drink Milk B. all serial killer … so milk causes people to be serial killers  Bidirectional influences – two-way street Children's development influencers their experiences, but their experiences also influence their development Sarah is very mean to her father. (Unidirectional explaining - Sarah is grumpy, bidirectional - Sarah's father hit her frequently as a child) 1. Two out of 5 teens who smoke marijuana have a DIU, so smoking marihuana causes DIU. This is an example of... Post hoc fallacy Design type ◦ Cross sectional design - examining people of difference ages at a single time ‣ Measuring the cardiovascular health of pre-menopausal vs post-menopausal (this is about different points of their life, making you younger pre-menopausal)  Cohort effect - effects that can differ in one set of people due to a difference in time periods (college freshman, college seniors) (group of people that share a characteristic) ◦ Longitudinal designs - track the development of the same group of participants over time (like how Mario has changed in video games from 1985-2010) (about a timeline- problem is people drop out) ‣ Example: studying the effects of chemo on a group of People Nature vs Nurture Debate Both play a role! ◦ Nature via nature  genetic predispositions often seek out and create their own environments (something you get from your parents) Ex. Timmy goes to the library o Reason 1: Timmy loves to read o Reason2: Timmy does not like confrontation so he avoids the cafeteria. ‣ Gene expression- activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout development • Ex. Trinity's mother is very leadership oriented and her father is very anxious. Everyone says Trinity is a little jittery like her father, so they were surprised when she ran for class president ◦ She did not express this gene trait until she was put into that environment Stage of development Name the baby shape 1. Fertilized shape - zygote 2. Identical cells with no function - blastocyst 3. Cells assume functions - process - embryo 4. Major organs developed- fetus Stages of prenatal development Germinal stages- zygote, blastocyst  Embryonic stage- blastocyst, embryo  Feral Stage- embryo, fetus Obstacles to development  Teratogens - environmental factors that affect prenatal development (like smoking alcohol, chicken pox)  Prematurity - being born prior to 36 weeks 1. Susie went to the doctor and had a miscarriage, at what stage did Susie most likely miscarry? Embryonic stage because the baby is developing and it's more likely to happen now because of problems like teratogens Motor development - surviving  Reflexes o Sucking reflexes  Drinking o Rooting reflex  Eating Movement • Motor behaviors - bodily motions that occur as a result of self imitated force that moves the bones and muscles. Keep in mind 1. Children achieve motor milestones differently 2. Influenced by physical maturity and cultural and parenting Practices. 3. Always achieved in the same developmental sequence 1. Syd is posing in a picture with her newborn Andy. Her caption on the pic is "kisses for mommy". Andy is most likely exhibits what motor behavior? rooting reflex - his mouth is up to her cheek and his reflex is to naw and not suck on her cheek. Physical Development in Teens and Adults Physical Maturation Brings:  Physical growth - stimulated by pituitary gland  Sex hormones - released by reproductive system (estrogen – breast growth, uterus and vaginal maturation and androgen [testosterone is a type] - physical growth and pubic hair) (both is in male and women just at different levels) Puberty Causes changes in:  Primary sex characteristics - distinguish the sexes Reproductive organs [penis] and genitals  Secondary sex characteristics - distinguishing but not related to reproduction Breasts, facial hair, voice change Theories of cognitive development Differ in 3 ways: 1. How children's understanding of things change  Stagelike- spurts and stability  Continuous - gradual and incremental 2. Cognitive development - how children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate and remember.  Domain general- changes in children's cognitive skills affect most or all areas of cognitive function one behind the other Ex. Katy learned how to tell her mom that she is hungry, and soon started to point to the fridge right after. 1.Katy learned communication 2. She than learned reason because food is connected to a fridge  Domain specific- children’s cognitive skills develop independently and at different rates across different domains, such as reasoning, language, and counting. EX: Kelly knows that one person plus one person is 2 people. According to the Domain Specific theory she should have a easier time learning how to read. (false) 3. Principle source of learning  Physical experience - moving around the world  Social interaction - how parents and peers engage with them  Biological maturation - instinctive programming of certain mental capacities Ex. Lilly's mother took her to the park and is teaching her how to throw a football. She started Lily off with a standard side ball even though she is only three. What source of learning is this? Social interaction Piaget's theory Domain- general, stage like • End point of cognitive development is ability to reason logically about hypotheticals • Children have limited experience of the world so they view it different from adults. • Children are active not passive learnings. Maintaining Equilibrium for Thinking What children use to acquire new knowledge within a stage: ◦ Assimilation - absorbing a new concept so that it makes sense with the original concept ◦ Accommodation - altering beliefs about the world to make them more compatible with experience. Piaget's stages  Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years) o No thought beyond immediate physical experiences o No object permanence - objects continue to exist even when out of view (like peek a boo) ‣ Ex. If you close a fridge a child lacking object permanence will think the food is no longer there. ◦ No deferred imitation - ability to perform an action observed Earlier.  Preoperational stage (2-7 years) o Can construct mental representations of experience Ex. Timmy using the hair brush as a microphone  Experience: the mic can be held, has a long handle and a rounded top.  Mental representation - hairbrush can be held, has a long handle and a round top) Limitations: ‣ Egocentrism - inability to see the world from others point of view. • Asking a child to look at a forest from the ground, won't be able to imagine it from an aerial view.  Can't perform mental operations Have two components: 1. Mental image 2. Operation aka action, task, process ‣ You can ask a child to imagine if a mirror was on the wall, but he won't be able to tell you what would happen if the mirror broke Mental image: mirror on wall Operation: mirror breaking ◦ Conservation task - task used to test children's ability to perform mental operations Ex. The cup experiment (tall glass and wide glass)  Concrete operations (7-11 years) o Can perform mental operations o But only for actual physical events ‣ Ex: Timmy can imagine the mirror broken but can't answer "what happens to Timmy if the mirror breaks" (why? Because what happens to Timmy is not a physical event but a logical concept.) Limitations  Lack ability to solve hypotheticals  Formal operations (11-adulthood) o Can understand hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and the now.  What would happen if no more babies were born?  How can you say that if it has never happened? o Can understand logical concepts  If-Then statements  EX: If I am late for school then I will get sent to the principal’s office. o Can understand abstract questions  Either or statements  Ex. Mom says I can either go to Sydney’s house or go to the movies tonight. Vygotsky’s Theory Domain specific  Scaffolding- parents structure environments for learning and then gradually remove the structure. o Ex. Imagine when construction works put up support beams during construction than take them off after the building can support itself.  Zone of proximal development- for any skill children move to this phase when they are ready to take off the scaffolds. Developing Personalities Temperament is emotional style Three major styles:  Easy (adaptable and relaxed)  Difficult (fussy and easily frustrated)  Slow to warm up (disturbed at 1 but gradually adjust) *Behaviorally inhibited (scaredy cat) Attachment Emotional connection we share with those whom we feel closest. Harlow Monkey Experiment- on love from a mother: wire mother with food or soft cloth mother who is comforting. The monkey, even when scared, always went to the cloth mother. • Imprinting - sensitive periods for an emotional attachment with the first thing resembling its mother (not in humans) Contact Comfort • Reassuring physical contact plays a huge role in developing attachment • Nourishment is not the only criteria for attachment Strange situation Task  A mother and stranger are present in the room how the child reacts when the mother leaves determines attachment style. Attachment Styles  Secure (60%) o Explores room but checks on mom watching o Return to mom if stranger enters o Reacts to mom departure by being upset o Happy to see mom return  Insecure avoidant (15%-20%) o Infant explores room independently o Indifferent to entry of stranger o No distress at mom leaving o Little reaction upon mom’s return  Insecure anxious (15%-20%) o Sometimes called insecure resistant o Will not explore without mom o Show distress when stranger enters o Reacts to mom departure with panic o Shows mixed emotions on her return  Disorganized attachment (5%-10%) o Reacts to toys, strangers, and mom with inconsistent response. Parenting Styles  Permissive – Lenient, little discipline, affectionate  Authoritarian – Very strict, punishing, little affection  Authoritative – Supportive but set firm limits  Uninvolved – Neglectful and ignoring Watch this ( v=csVO9NCVutk) Development of Gender Identity  Sex- biological (male or female)  Gender- psychological characteristics (girls are calm and boys excited) Gender Identity behaviors that are associated with being male or female (girls cook and boys fix cars) Gender role individuals sense of being of male or female Kohlberg’s Moral Development  Preconventional – focus on punishment and reward  Conventional – focus on societal values  Postconventional – focus on internal moral principles Should do it shouldn’t do it Punishment/reward Societal Moral Social Transitions in Later Years  Biological- in terms of a person bodily functions “I have the heart of a teenager!”  Psychological- mental functions “My grandmother is 71 and can beat me in Madden!”  Functional- ability to function in roles given in society “I’m only 80 I'm not ready to retire!”  Social age- behavior associated with a certain age “Why does your grandmother hang out The Young and Hot club?”


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.