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by: Brendan Kling


Brendan Kling
Texas A&M
GPA 3.78

Charles Lafon

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Charles Lafon
Class Notes
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brendan Kling on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 203 at Texas A&M University taught by Charles Lafon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/225770/geog-203-texas-a-m-university in Geography at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
GLOBAL PATTERNS OF CIRCULATION I Adiabatic Temperature Changes a Diabati 39 because Aheat add heat Via Air conditioner 7 air rising and descending results in Aair temperature without a i Rising air cools low pressure descending air warms high pressure adiabaticall 39Lri lowers capacity to hold water vapor from warm air cool air particles closer together and precipitates c Higher precipitation in Japan and northern South America d Wind i Rising air at tropicsequator ii spreads out amp sinks over poles iii return ow to 0 Low pressure zone ii Around equator b Process i Air rises off of equator ii air forced down around 30 amp back to Equator 1 Subtropical High a Zone of high pressure 2 Hadley Cell a Trade winds i Northern Hemisphere northeasterly winds ii Southern Hemisphere southeasterly winds iii Air rises off of Polar Front 60 Low pressure zone 2 Westerly winds iV Air travels over Polar front to Polar High over poles 1 High pressure zone 2 Polar easterly winds IV Continents disru u t ow of u atterns August 1 7 i December January February i Due to continental summers ii Trade winds cross hemispheresamp bend b Pressure increases in summer i Subtropic High pressure cells over water because pressure is off of warmer continents c Aleution Low disappears from January through July d Monsoons 1 ITCZ moves north onto Southern Asia Iune September EXTREMELY rainy months Other months only 212 rain months West Africa less dramatic than Asia bc no giant mountain like Himalayas interfering with jet stream opposite months than Asian monsoon e Lack of cloud coverhigh pressure i Rising and cooling adiabatically creates clouds V Circulation in Upper Atmosphere a Less complex b Westerly general ow sinuous curves c Rossby Waves waves in the higher level of ow VI Circulation in Oceans 34 of Earth s surface a Wind blowing over ocean pushes water develops currents i Not affected by Coriolis Effect just blows left of right ow ofwater anticyclonically i Brings cool water on west coast of a continent warm water on east coast of a continent ii Currents affect climates of continents adjacent to them 1 Coldsubsiding air amp high pressure little rain in summertime N ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE I Hydrologic Cycle a Water stored on Earth evaporates i Stored as ice ocean lakes groundwater Becomes clouds water vapor Atmospheric advection of water vapor i Transfer of ow ofheat in water vapor within atmosphere Precipitation Latent heat released with condensation and warms atmosphere 95quot P i 1 Vegetative environment ii Plants transpire water like sweating mixed with evaporation of water iii Water from surface atmosphere water vapor i 100 relative humidity water vapor present ii Pressure caused by water 1013mb caused by Nitrogen avg iii Warmer air exponentially increases maximum amount of water vapor pressure b Relative Humidity of water vapor actually present vs possible to be present 111 Condensation a Occurs at 100 relative humiditysaturation b As temperature cools relative humidity increases s i Dew point tem u erature air has to be at for saturation to occur necessary for precipitation to occur dust soot ash ocean spray etc 2 Dew amp frost must condense onto something 3 Fog temperature of air decreases to dew point condensing onto dust and particles in the atmosphere Advection fog when air migrates to a place perfect for saturation summer fog Evaporation fog as water evaporates from water to cooler air above humidifies the air for saturation steam fog Upslopevalley fog fogs created by landmass lifting over mountain or falling into a valley 4 Clouds air parcel from surface pushes up water vapor to convergence aloft a Lifting condensation levelbasebottom of clouds b High enough to cool adiabatically c Types classified by height and shape 39 Cumuluspuffy vertically thick stormy i39 Cirrusreally high thin clouds ice crystals ii39 Stratuslow layered thick overcast iv Mtall v Nimborainy v39 Stratolayered A F 5quot ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY I Introduction a Donora PA 1948 steel mill w little rising in atmosphere pollution spewing hun in air dark amp couldn t quotescapequot because foggy look a Atemperature with Aaltitude b Normal Lapse Rateaverage on Earth 64 C1000m c Environmental La u se Rateactual lapse rate at a location ii 10 C i Atemperature at amp past dew point ii lt10 C1000m III Stability Instability and Conditional Stability a Condition between ELR DAR amp MAR determines stability b Stable push it and it won t change i ELRltMARltDAR air denser than environment ii uncommon c Unstablebarely push it and it changes i MARltDARltELR air more buoyant than environment ii air rises suddenly d Conditional Instability push it and changes at a certain point i MARltELRltDAR example mountains to push over ii Common condition PRECIPITATION I Precipitation Formation a Sta e in water c cle clouds are not rec39 itation rather a rereuisite for it If 39 391 c Clouds amp precipitation i Small droplets of water form one water drop 1 Collision coalescence to form larger droplet that can eventually fall to Earth wo evaporating while falling ii Clouds must be thick and quotoldquot iii snow akes ice crystals with rain droplets attached II Mechanisms for Lifting Air a air converges and lifts ITCZ low pressure system hurricane b 39 all local heating over a dark surface amp lifting i Summertime midmorning cumulus clouds ITCZ ii Unstable thunderstorms huge clouds c lam over a barrier such as a mountain Rain shadowdesertleeward side A J dramatic warm air lifts over cool air III Precipitatlon Patterns a Worldwide average rainy in ITCZ Pacific Asia Central America and southwest Central African coast Cordilleramajor mountain system ofa continent Rockies Pacific northwestwettest part of North America Moderate moist area ofUS Southeast USwettish because Gulf of Mexico amp Atlantic Ocean i Azores High winds bring hot air over southeaster US Appalachians cause wettest area in southeast Tennessee Most snowfall is atop mountains 11 NY VT NH ME ID MI CO WA OR MT r 9990 corn convention and stability not Orographic causes Great Lakes AIR MASSES amp FRONTS l q l l l gt b Lat1tude Class1f1catlon Where It moves from i ArcticAntarctic A AA cold ii Polar P cold iii Tropical T warm iv Equatorial E warm c Underlying Surface classification 1 Maritime m Wet ii Continental c 1 EXtremities mP moisthumid COOL ampunstable e cP dry COLD east of Rockies stable P f mT moist high humidity WARM stable to conditionally unstable in west unstable in east cT dry HOT northern MX desert unstable II Fronts limat squotmiXing G l Warm air lifts over cool air 1 Diagonal cut Band of clouds and precipitation ahead of front Mild s mptoms 1 Warm air taken over by cool front 1 Blob cut cold mass Severe weather l lf39n 1 Rare shortlived ii Neither air mass advancing iii Pressure not forcing movement v 1 fr Pf mmgw cutoff 1 Both moving in same direction ii Cold front catches up to warm front and overtakes it becoming a pure cold front AIr Masses 8L Fronts Tuesday October 29 2013 Air Masses large area of air Source Regions mid latitudes North America Active zone Winter Canada really cold dry air that moves south to the US Summer Moist air from maritime tropics move north to Canada Classification of Air Masses by source regions Latitudein uences temp Also moisture in that warm temps permit gleater humidity Arctic A Antarctic AA 7 coldest type originating at highest latitudes over snow Polar 1P17 cold originating at high latitudes in northern hemisphere eg Canada Siberia often originate over snowcovered ground but not always Tropical 1T17 warm or hot originating in tropics or 39 r39 esp in 39 quot with 39 r39 39 high pressure Equatorial E 7 warm originating within 10 degrees north or south of equator but not as common as T For our purposes we will focus on P and T A or AA behave similarly to P but are more extreme Underlying Surfacecontinent vs ocean in uences humidity of the air mass also temp because of more extremely cold or hot temps over continents than over oceans Classi cation by underlying surface Continental c 7 originating over a continent and therefore dry ie humidity is low temperatures may also be extremely hot or cold Maritime m 7 originating over an ocean and therefore more humid temperatures typically are milder than those ofc air masses Combining latitude and underlying surface to classify the general air mass types and where they form cP continental Polar 7 cold dry air masses that form over the continents in high latitudes Note that cA or CAA would be similar but even colder and drier Houston vs Brazil Mean temps for summer amp winter are more extreme in Houston because of the continental environment mP maritime Polar 7 cool humid air masses that form over oceans in high latitudes cT continental Tropical 7 hot dry air masses that form over subtropical deserts mT maritime Tropical 7 warm very humid air masses that form over subtropicaltropical oceans What are the principal air mass types and where do they form P Polar form at high latitudes cP cold dry low humidity mP cool moist high humidity T Tropical form in tropics cT hot dry low humidity mT warm moist high humid Fronts are the boundaries between air masses of di erent temperature What are the types of fronts and how to they differ What are map symbols 1 Warm Fronts humps Warm air eg mT advancingrises over cold airrain e g 0P 2 Cold Fronts triangles cold air eg cP advanc esquickagainst a warm air mass eg mT 3 Stationary Fronts humps and triangles 2 stationary air parcels 4 Occluded Front purple humptriangles the front formed when a cold front cuts warm front from surface 400 km Copyright c 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall 1m g Tm mNRfo 12mm acumen mm Crab 7 fec39Flw Trwc l Tl39wz 2 W 4 K all lawu umvm gt all all told af was Colrl Wu alsHK WM colvl m m 4 wt Midlatitude Cyclones mamnude mm see aluxqupxumll What are delnnmde eyexmesn Dunng me was me me menu a we Lb Us mg 1 m 5 Stag af aM dlaumde cyclane zxxstbecame uflvw pressure summit 1 SuhamryFrmL bamdarybetw xs 2 e 3 open sage devdaps We abwut aweek A Oeexuaeasuge caldfmnt has caugmtw wah warm an mast extxeme mm here 5 n renames 5mm 15 campl e WthmhzrmC secmxsquot sme Mahmud smm7 What 15 me weathzr m EEFORE adelmmde eyexmev Caal SE wmds cleuw appraauhmg ems mas ay thes Lb wesmemke DURING Lb delamude cyclanz m me Wm secmxj 7 Wm Smeds med sink dauds humml thes Lb wesmemke AFTER adelamud eyexsmv cam Nmeds clear sky lww humxdlty eenwarmcaldm me acclx masuymMsyyme 7 spnngume gut extremes m mxmasses dumghsume What 15 humanly sssaemea mm eUnstable an a m 4N5 my unsesswewwmemanages mmmm mer eesvssmrms rs emsucsx mm 7 mm swmesmemunmw me rwatem her Tropical Cyclones Where do they form and during What time of the year Over Warm Water Atlantic Ocean Form only in tropics a consequence of warm ocean water do esnquott have to do with air mass contrasts Warm water has energy when evaporates emits latent heat latent heat causes troPical Cyclones Tend to occur mostly in September because June 21 is solstice but the lathinle draws out until Sept Can you have 2 big39hurricanes light after each other No because the rst cools everything off In US from the gulf Texas to Florida to central south to north US 39 romnm rue no O mucuuuluv AREA gtTrupica cyclones Wave cyclones Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Global Climates The global distribution of climates Climogmphs Show precipitation amp temperature Understand the distribution of the earth s major climate areas fin particular how they are distributed over the idealized c ontinent er words what are the major climate types where are they and why are they there What causes temperature andor precipitation to differ between seasons in many most ofthe climate regions Tropical Wet Climate Lots of precipitation At the e uator Tropical rain forest climate Generally Warm tempemtures Dry climate Lowlatitude hot desert Very low precipitation Seasonality but mostly 1d co Tropical Wet and Dry climate One season is Wet and is Northern Hemisphere Wet summer dry Winter Aw if um m n For the Southern Hemisphere THEIR Winter is dry and THEIR summer is Wet Dry Summer Subtropical climate Dry summer W Wet to Winter on the West side of the continent Marine climate Cool Wet mild climate Humid Subtropical climate Eastern side of continent Hot summer Humid Continental climate Only exists inNorthernHemis here More extreme seasonality bc higher latitude amp continental air mass subarctic climate Short summer long cold Winter Polar climate Summers are still very cold Cold all the time quotapical ttmam Mmmwmt cltmalus my mates annumann ctumatas Palm cl mates Mnsamommt a quotmum hmmas Water Budget Concept Water in dry climates evaporates faster As lon as is r tthan the soil is ne Precipitation potential evapotranspiration PE During Winter in College Station What does the Water budget look like Precipitation falls and is absorbed by soil amp runs off 39 the summer in College Station What does the Water budget look like Precipitation is less than potential evapotranspiration so there39s aWater defect that39s not replenished until Fall Dry vs Wet Climates Evapotranspiration Potential Evapotranspiration PE quotdemandquot is high but precipitation is low F As temps increase PE increases amp in July it exceeds precipitation deficit Storage in the soil Withdrawal PE taking Water ou De cit low Actual Evapotranspir n 1 0quot recharge Range Ma ps 8 Ablotlc 8L Blotlc Factors Abiotic and biotic controls on geographic distributions What is a geographic range Examples of biogeographic distributions amp range maps Range maps a biographic distribution has ecological and historical explanations we will focus on ecological in uences Range maps examples Range of Magnolia Trees Range Alligators Range of Post Oak trees cannot survive in the wetlands of US Distribution of Eastern hemlock and red spruce on Adirondack Mt landscape re ects infrared radiation instead of green when its healthy hemlock amp spruce like streams Sweden tundra tree line is low but when you look at a map it looks like it covers the entire area Utah forest cover by mountains and valley is dry desert Environmental Factors that in uence biogeographic distributions precipitation land boundaries moisture temperature elevation Abiotic In uences Aspects of the physical environment like precipitation non living Photosynthesis How plants get energy Respiration Opposite of photosynthesis Net photosynthesis what its producing less what its consuming The rate of photosynthesis increases as temperature increases then levels off Zone of the optimum Place where photosynthetic rate is high also can be applied to animals inside blue dash on 1st graph Zonegs of stress On either side of the optimum zone Plantsanimals can survive under these conditions but it39s hard between blue dash and green dash on 1st graph Zone of Intolerance Plantsanimals can39t survive under these conditions outside green dash on 1st graph Niche concept Niche Relates plants performance role to environment Range of combinations where species can survive on a graph can be 2 D or 3 D Fundamental Niche What species need to survive Realized Niche AKA Actual Niche Smaller than fundamental niche Biotic in uences Predation 1 species gains at the expense of another species carnivores Doesn39t limit geographic range Australian Megapode species tigerscats DO limit the geographic range Parasitism1 species gains at the expense of another ticks viruses mistletoe Range of host limits geographic range the parasite is limited by the host Mutualism Bene ts both species owers amp bees Can limit geographic range Competition Neither species bene ts several plants using the salne light Mice in the US Climate change and geographic distributions Vermont upslope shift of trees Can we blame Shakespeare for Starling birds guy in US brought all the birds Shakespeare mentioned in his books to the US The Atlantic ocean is obviously too large for them to come Wmnmnm Finalx Ahiulkrtempmbismrzek man Nu mm m W m Envilunmenla adv m 4mm mmquotme T Biomes 8L Biodiversity Patterns E r a 5 1 s 9 an a Ingmmy physicalslmcture lrefer r 39 eetaiion height density ofplants etc What39 system What is abiome Alexander von Humbot quotFather ofBiogeogmphyquot 39 39 quot quot quot vegetationlandfonnsetc population All the individuals ofa species in one place Communit All the living species interacting Ecosystem All the living members and the physical environment sunlight mter etc Biome Global scale ofan ecosystem ex Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rajnforesl Biome Warm a wet yearround Soil is leeched ofnutrients due to stress Along the equator Tropical Seasonal Rainforest biome Fewer trees than tropical rainforest less dense There is a short dry season Woodlands amp Savanna biome Like Africa Still tropical Long dry season Scattered trees On outer edge of tropical wet amp dry climate Semidesert biome Like Western US Very dry little vegetation sparse Also includes deserts Temperate Rain Forest biome quotrainforestquot wetter Tall dense forests Temperate Forest biome Less wet Seasonal variation Less tall and less dense trees than tropical rainforest Grassland biome Shorter trees mixed grassland amp trees Suitable for agriculture Shrubland biome Dry summer wet winter Shrubs are dominant plants Found in the Dry Summer Subtropical climate Taiga biome only found in the Northern Hemisphere Associated w Canada Tundra biome coldest too cold for trees Found at Antarctica and Arctic Biodiversity This is a big topic and we have only a short time to spend on it I want you to know some general patterns How does species diversity change with latitude the latitudinal gradien What do island size and island isolation have to do with biodiversity Conservation implications Big Thicket NP example Bigger islands have more biodiversity How does habitat fragmentation for example cutting a forest into smaller fragments in uence biodiversity Vegetation Change Tuesday November 19 2013 1130 AM Vegetation change Ecosystems are dynamic 7 not static as may appear to be implied by concepts such as niche and biome Vegetation changes on different time scales Are ecosystems static No but vegetation patterns give the impression of stasis Vegetation changes as a consequence of the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions about 10000 years ago Holocene Colder climates re ected by isolated patches of boreal forest in Southern Appalachian Mountains In uences of Indians on the landscapes of the Americas Indians had no resistance to diseases Indians used agriculture amp intentionally burned the landscape Number of Indians is estimated to have been between 880 million high and low counters Changes that have occurred in the amount of farmland and forested land in the eastern forests of the Us over the course of changing human land use from early European settlement to present European Impact on the environment Introduced the city landscape instead of the agricultural landscape Forests grew Kudzu What are invasive exotic species and what are some kinds of ecological economic problems can they cause Invasive exotic species of plants amp animals kudzu poisonous brown tree snake wild p1gs What is a disturbance Anything that kills vegetation Anthropogenic disturbances human caused amp Natural disturbances Fires logging hurricanes etc Can quotresetquot succession Can maintain habitats for quotpioneer speciesquot that depend on disturbed sites Can maintain species diversity Can create landscape patterns What is succession and why might it occur Turning into a forest Cycle of treesvegetation What is climax What is prescribed burning and why do resource management agencies practice it Denudation Weather 8L Mass Wasting Thursday November 07 2013 546 PM Geomorphology Science of landforms their origin evolution form and spacial distribution Relief Difference in elevation Landforms are a consequence of Tectonic processes that build up the earth s surface The denudation processes that wear down or rearrange the landforms Islands mountains beaches canyons etc Tectonics divergent and convergent plates Denudation Processes that strip down the landscape like weathering and erosion Weathering Physical Weathering cold climates ideal water freezing expanding in a rock and breaking rock Chemical Weathering warm climates ideal chemical change ex oxidation rust Karst Landforms Caused by chemical weathering of limestone bedrock that s been dissolved by water which has percolated through the soil and become more acidic then reached the bedrock Can cause sinkholes Differential Weathering Some rocks are more resistant to weathering than others Different rates of weathering results in different slopes Mass Wasting Geomorphic process Gravity is the force ex mud slides due to denuding of landscape no trees to hold soil in place Slope Forces Gravity friction amp cohesion The relative strength of those forces determine whether a slope is stable Slide Material sliding down a slope Oversteeping ofa slope slope comes down because of too much erosion Angle of Repose rest Steepest slope you can pile stuff up at without it falling PILE OF SAND Erosion amp Depositing Colluvium Anything deposited by mass wasting pile of rocks Classes of Mass Movement Dry vs Wet Slow vs Fast Rock fall rapid and dry Can be natural hazards Talus Type of colluvium at the bottom of a cliff caused by rock fall Stream parameters depth width length velocity ms origin volume awd kv gradient slope Dendritic Drainage Pattern Most common pattern Stream w a bunch of tributaries looks like a tree Trellis Drainage Pattern Long streams w short tributaries Not as efficient Develops in mountains Radial Drainage Pattern Streams moving away from a central high point Found on symmetrical mountains Parallel Drainage Pattern Like dendritic but ows parallel to each other Happens on a steep slope Deranged Drainage Pattern Network that s not welldeveloped Landscape of lakes Found in places that have glaciers It used to be welldeveloped but now its not Drainage Basins Each stream drains into a basin The continental divide separates the oceans East goes into the Atlantic amp West goes into the Paci c Stream Order 1st order no tributaries 2nd order l tributaries 3rd order 2 tributaries etc Stream order tributaries l tributaries stream order 1 How do streams erode material hydraulic action water abrasion solution How far down do they erode Base level the level where stream can no longer erode downward can be a lake What is the ultimate base level Sea level How do streams transport material Bed load suspended load amp dissolved load Alluvium Material deposited by streams is sorted sorts as it deposits and is unsorted Alluvium Colluvium Where is the velocity of a stream the highest On the curvequotcut bankquot Meandering Stream very curvy stream exaggerated Oxbow lake Created when a stream s ow gets cut offchanges paths What happens when a new stream path is created The slope gradient changes steeper or less steep Natural Levy Sediment deposited on the banks of a riverstream Keeps the water in place Distributaries Distribute sediment and deposits across delta Extra credit Because we had to cut this topic short I did not discuss in any detail the ecological role of fire in the southeastern U S Therefore this material which you can leam about further through the Demmon Greene and Lafon articles on electronic reserves will be for extra credit on the exam topics such as the importance of fire for longleaf pine forests on the coastal plain and the oakpine forests that occupy the interior e g the Appalachian Mtns and the kinds of evidence that help us understand the history of vegetation and fire Latitude Longitude amp Maps 2182012 80500 PM European temperatures decrease with climbing latitudes but LESS that North American temperatures because North America is more landlocked and Europe is full of seas and coastlines CONTINENTALITY Latitude is y Longitude is x LATITUDE o Measure inangular degrees angle based on Equator and line connecting point to circumference 0 Each degree has 60 minutes amp each min has 60 seconds o If circumference25000mi o 146250mi w 90 in it o 69mi of latitude for every degree o parallel of latitude lines circumscribing globe 0 usually shown at 10 intervals 0 College Station30o 20 0737 N LONGITUDE o Measured in degrees minutes and seconds o Meridians of longitude 0 College Station96 20 2525 W o Prime Meridian Greenwich England were the dominant power when this was decided MAPS 81 CARTOGRAPHY o Thematic mags present a graphic theme about a subject o Reference maps have a general purpose 0 Example road map topographic map o Issues with map projections 0 Earth is 3d paper is 2d 0 Cylindrical conic oval planar maps 0 Mercator for navigation makes xy grid makes Greenland look larger amp South America look smaller EarthSun Relationships 2182012 80500 PM The Earth is ROUND o Sunlight shines on curved Earth brighter on some places than on others bc of curvature o Radiation received is ROUGHLY PARALLEL to each point on Earth because of great distance from the sun 0 Most intense at low latitudes Equator where sun s rays strike at DIRECT ANGLE o Sun s rays OBLIQUE at poles o Dimmer amp spreads over a greater area DIFFUSE 1 Revolution a Revolution around sun takes 36525 days b Counterclockwise from North Pole c Clockwise from South Pole d Elliptical orbit i Closer to sun at certain times of year 1 Perihelion closest to sun January 3rd 2 AQhelion furthest from sun July 4th ii Northern Hemisphere has warmer summers and colder winters IIRotation a 1 rotation takes 24 hours 111 Inclination of Axis a Earth stays in 1 plane during year Plane of the ECIiQtiC b Earth tilted on plane at 2350 i Axis stays parallel ii North Pole always pointed toward PolarisNorth Star NCle IVConsequences of EarthSun Relationships a Summer solstice sun s direct rays strike furthest northern point i 2350N latitude Tropic of Cancer ii June let b Winter Solstice sun s direct rays strike furthest southern point i 23505 latitude Tropic of Capricorn ii December let c Circle of Illumination divides shadowy and illuminated parts of the Earth i Perpendicular to Plane of the Ecliptic d Arctic Circle 90235 665 N i Total sunlight June 215t e Antarctic Circle 90235665 S i Total sunlight December 21St f 6 months of sun at North Pole while 6 months of darkness at south pole during Northern Hemisphere summer 9 sun s direct rays hit between the tropics daily h Spring Eguinox sun s direct rays strike Equator i 12 hours of sunlight all over globe except poles ii March 21St i Autumnal Eguinox sun s direct rays strike Equator i 12 hours of sunlight all over globe except poles ii September 22nd23rd j Equinox neither hemisphere is tilted toward the sun more than the other k Always 12 hours of sunlight on the Equator l Day length affects seasons i Longer days in summer 14hours shorter days in winter 10hours V Seasonality a Climate is more seasonal closer to the poles i Rainforest amp Equator1 seasonal climate ii College Station2 seasonal climates iii South Dakota4 distinct seasons b 49th Parallel USCanada border has more night in winter 8hr sunlight day in summer 16hr sunlight c on June solstice North Pole receives more sun radiation that any other place because the sun is constantly on it but on December solstice it receives no radiation whatsoever Solar Energy amp Its Interaction with the Atmosphere2182012 80 I Introduction a Hot stove radiation infrared Awavelength b Glowing stove radiation red c Example frying egg on car i Sun heats car absorption ii Car transmits heat to egg d Example Water evaporating takes energy so sweat removes heat e Warm colorslonger wavelength RED f Cool colorsshorter wavelength PURPLE II SOLAR amp TERRESTRIAL RADIATION a Wien s Law to calculate wavelength peaks i Mmaxc0nstantT c0nstant2900 TKelvins ii Solarsun 29005800K12micr0meters VISIBLE ii39 Terrestrialearth2900258K10micr0meters infrared b StefanBolzman Law energy emitted i I TA4 Iintensity of radiation wattsmAZ sigmaconstant 567x10A8 wattsmAZKA4 Ttemp in Kelvins ii Solarsun64000000 wattsmAZ iii Terrestrialearth390 wattsmAZ iv Increase in temperature increases radiation emitted v Solar constant 194 langleysminute 1 1 minutes of sunlight1 year of human work 2 constant amount of radiation received from sun daily III Atmosphere a Most of mass of atmosphere in lower 35 mi closest to surface b Components 39 Nitrogen 78 Oxygen 21 ii39 Argon 1 iv Carbon Dioxide COv2 039 1 Greenhouse gas keeps Earth warm a Glass holds in longwave radiation emitted by plants in a greenhouse b Most landmass in Northern Hemisphere so COv2 levels decrease in summer due to plant intake v Ozone Ov3 1 Ozone and stratosphere layer above troposphere10 30mi above surface 2 Absorbs UV radiation 3 Diminished in abundances due to CFCs Chlorofluoro carbons a Get pulled upward to stratosphere during BIG updraft storms Broken down by UV rays and reduce concentration of Ozone Ov3 c Pollutant to Earth s surface vi Water vaporhumiditylt4 1 Most important greenhouse gas 2 Greater water vapor leads to greater greenhouse effects clouds increase greenhouse effects 3 Transports energy a Warmth of air moisturelatent air water invisible in air b sun heats water w energy amp turns to water vapor which now has storedlatent heatenergy c Pressure lbsinA2psi 39 Toricelli invented Barometer attempting to pump water up and over a hill using mercury levels instead of water ii Paschal atmosphere has mass so mass should change with height 1 More mass at bottom of atmosphere than top iii Lapse rate decreases 64 C1000m decreases 36 F1000ft 1 Atemp w increased altitude in troposphere iv Temperature inversion when temperature gets warmer with altitudeheight v Troposphere tropopause Stratosphereozone layer mesopause mesosphere thermosphere D39 Earth39s Radiation Balance 2182012 80500 PM I Incoming Energy from sun a some is deflected some is absorbed some doesn t even reach the earth s surface because of clouds and atmosphere b Albedo reflectionreflective percentage of radiation i Example snow mirror water moon 6 clouds earth 31 ii Higher Albedomore radiation reflects off of surface amp less radiation is absorbed c Diffuse reflection 39 sky is blue bc shortwave radiation gets transmitted in different directions scatters shorter wavelengths scatter more blue and violet are shortest 39 sunset is redorange because we see a longer angle and see longer wavelengths red and orange are longest Ways heatenergy escapes surface 39 Evaporation Convection like an oven iii Latent heat cools surface and warms atmosphere as water becomes water vapor iv Direct longwave radiation 1 A14 units gain 96 lose 110 a space b atmospheric traps IIOutgoing Energy loss from Earth 111 Geographic variations in energy balance a Latitudinal Variations i lower lats have higher radiation and emit more longwave radiation but not proportionately to shortwave radiation received emit a lot of shortwave but receive more longwave 39 Wind and gulf stream transfer latent energy iii Without atmosphere we would have more extreme poles and a hotter Equator because no energy would be deflected away from Earth s surface b Urbandowntown heat islands i Roads are hotter because asphalt has a lower Albedo ii Sewers hold water water cannot evaporate to cool surface 0 iii Industries and humans add pollution and heat iv Longer growing season v Increased rainfall around it because enhanced convection 1 Creates cumulonimbus clouds that drift downwind of city Introduction to temperature amp Data Pattern52182012 80500 PM Isotherms contour map for temperatures lines o For patterns in temperature o Visual of temps Climatic patterns are what we look for Measurement o Stevenson Screen Thermometer in a box Protects from direct sunlight Measures a few feet above surface In shade with airflows White to decrease solar radiation absorption Insolation incoming solar radiation o Greatest afternoon 0 Greenhouse effect allows all energy absorbed during day to be trapped in atmosphere Daily lag between highest direct sunlight radiation noon highest levels of radiation in afternoon 0 Yearly lag because atmosphere hold energy to add to direct rays and heat Hottest in JulyAugust even though solstice is in June 0 O O O O O Spacial Patterns of temperature 2182012 80500 PM I Latitudinal Variations a Would have parallel isotherms if the only factor I I II La ndwater contrasts ll V 39 i Specific heat higher necessary to Atemp ii Evaporates with energy upward cools water iii Water mixes with itself and other items whereas landrock stays landrock iv Transparent so heats more total mass v High albedoreflective l l 39lv1l l WEI lil39lalil li l c Milder climate for land nearest watermarine climate because slower change in temperature Continental climate more seasonal warmer summers colder winters i Ex Scotland 56 N surrounded by water barely Atemp vs Montreal Quebec 49 N landlockedeHUGE Atemp e Global temperature ranges 39 Siberia Russia Canada super landlocked amp have large difference in seasons temperatures Tropical equator barely changes iii Coastlines change the least III Ocean currents Affect adjacent land masses b Warm current on east coast of N America cool current on west coast of N America Europe has mild winters considering high latitude bc North Atlantic carriers tropical current to them IVAltitude a Mountains 0 m 0 Get left off isotherm maps because no cities atop mountains to measure temperatures Really is colder at high elevations though ii39 High winds and other hazards skew readings V Geographic Situation Um WHAT IS AROUND YOU Marine west coast Is east coast oblivious to ocean and warm North Atlantic current next door i Storms and winds blow east From Canada causing a cooler climate Past Climates 2182012 80500 PM 1 Louis Agassiz the theory of a great ice age in the past amp some types of evidence for climate change a Glaciers plowed from European Alps to Mediterranean During period of extensive glaciation b AGASSIZ 18005 i Alpslots of glaciation ii Europe Ireland Scotland 1 Were there glaciers here iii Geomorphic elements landforms evidence of glaciers 1 Evidence of a past Ice Age a Matterhorn b Was broader until it underwent glaciation c America Maine and Lake Superior were most extensive spots d Brazil but he was wrong e Southern South America Strait of Magellan Ushapeglacier Vshapestreamriver Erratic transport over land by glaciers Many lakesevidence of glaciers Striationsscratched grooves in rock Loess deposit dust of ground up rick from glacier that wind carries IIReconstructing climate history a Instrumental records thermometers i Currently in warming period b Ice cores few thousand years back Annual temperature variations from isotopic composition of water ice and temperature heavier Oxygen or Hydrogen Volcanic eruptions windborn dust ii39 Aatmospheric composition from ice bubbles Little Ice Age around time colonists traveled to North America Average temperature when Rome was founded 1 C 12000 years ago had 6 average temperature i Holocene warm period 10000 BC now human history D110 n Dramatic COLD period fluctuating getting colder than abrupt warming i Ice Age occurred right before current pdHolocene g Pleistocene Period 3 million years ago h When Oxygen decreases more isotopic and less glacial 111 What causes climate change a Changes in Earth s orbital parameters i Milan Milankovitch 1912 proposed changes in orbital relationships and tilt could affect periodseras Pleistocene b What configuration of orbital parameters would favor glacial expansion in higher latitudes of northern hemisphere because Southern hemi follows suit i LOW SEASONALITY 1 Minimal tilt922 a Warmer wintersmore humid and more snowfall b Cooler summerskeeps ice cold 2 Aphelion in N Hemi Summer a Cooler summer in N Hemi b Precession of Equinoxessolstices 3 High Orbital eccentricity a Not a perfect circle b Lower solar radiation at aphelion for cooler northern summer c Thermohaline circulation temp amp salt 39 Europe s climate milder because of Atlantic Ocean getting colder Water sinks in N Atlantic bc water is densercolder due to increased salinity ii39 conveyor belt gets stuck and warm shifts back south iv should be heading toward glaciation again IV Climate change vegetation amp humans a East Coast of N America 39 Larger coastline back in the day Sea level was lower due to glaciers taking up water Pollen grains reconstruct vegetation changes and enforce theoretical glaciation periods Atmospheric Circulation Pressure amp Wind2182012 80500 PM 1 Pressure a Isobars lines that connect points of equal pressure i zones of higher amp lower pressure 1 closer together means great change over a small distance measured in 45 iii wind blows from higher pressure to lower pressure fl lillj ml l ml 0 3 l 4 v Apressure causes air to move alll39l 2375 7quot 39 l vii lowest pressure NV western Kansas eastern ColoradoPLAINS REGION viii highest pressure GA SC NCSOUTHEASTERN COAST ix Climatic Patterns are semipermanent b Causes of Pressure Variation i Hot air rises and expands decreasing pressure over land surface convergence Hot air sinks over cool surfaces subsiding air Cool surfaces contract creating increased pressure 1 Sinking airhigh pressure 2 Rising airlow pressure iv Relative temperature not actual affects pressure levels v Rising airconvection vi Warm surface divergence aloft and surface convergence low pressure vii Cool surface surface divergence and convergence aloft high pressure IIForces that causes Atmospheric Motion a Something that accelerates wind or changes motion direction i Pressure Gradient Force 1 Apressure results in wind 2 Apressuregradient Aspace 3 ex balloon when you release air balloon with pressure makes wind to outer spaces steeper pressure gradient if isobars are closer together 23 will l p b Coriolis Effectbc on rotating Earth 392 w l39ld 39il lii l l g l i ll llquot39 llquotilwll39l lll39lCJl l l3 bluilwsl ll l 57quotila ljquotlli ll Hi Curved path deflected to right of direction wind is coming from on Northern Hemi iii Curved path deflect to left of direction wind is coming from on Southern Hemi 1 Strength varies based on atitudestronger at higher latitdues a no spinning at Equator facing direction b minimal spinning at College Station30 N c North pole spins like reunion tower full 360 over course of 1 day iv Geostroghic flows directly parallel to isobars c Friction 39 No geostrophic wind if there is friction Angles across isobars based on amount of friction ii39 Reduces Coriolis Effect iv Greater friction means a greater angle of deflection 1 Downward in Northern Hemisphere 2 Upward in Southern Hemisphere III Cyclones amp Anticyclones a Cyclonic spins same way as Earth rotates i Northern Hemispherecounterclockwise ii Southern Hemisphereclockwise iii Curvature of isobarspressure fields result in a curvature of winds iv Tropical storms winter storms v Surface convergence low pressure rising air Anticyclonic spins opposite way as Earth is rotating i Northern Hemisphereclockwise ii Southern Hemispherecounterclockwise iii Surface divergence high pressure sinking air Northern Hemisphere High right Low left i Aloft spins within isobars 039 O ii Surface spins out of isobars from places of highest pressure to places of lowest pressure d Southern Hemisphere High left Low right i Aloft spins within isobars ii Surface spins out of isobars from places of highest pressure to places of lowest pressure


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