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by: Thaddeus Becker


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Entomology > ENTO 305 > EVOL INSECT STRUCTURE
Thaddeus Becker
Texas A&M
GPA 3.7

Robert Wharton

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Robert Wharton
Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thaddeus Becker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 305 at Texas A&M University taught by Robert Wharton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/225788/ento-305-texas-a-m-university in Entomology at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Entomology 305 The Abdomen append dorsalls gonangulum SCX T H TR endite s TR endite 8 exites endite lquotquot depression 1 rec eus p u I J postclypeus r 39 g k ng neolabru m 7 a archilabrum xx F I FE OMquot C E gonangulumeritsT lab al I 339 1 a D Mquot x r quot PAT 3 ya C I F gonostylus Tl BT 39Ta maxillary palp Fig 69 Cercopodata Monura ATC Dasyleptus sp U Carboniferous of Illinois USA A adult female lateral with cercal leglets instead of cerci B ovipositor close to groundplan of Dicondylia C segmented head All abdominal legs gonostyli and cercal leglets have claws Thysanura D F Ramsdelepidfon schusterf U Carboniferous of Illinois USA D segmented head lateral E female dorsal with segmented head thoracic sidelobes homologous to protowings and 2 pairs of abdominal vesicles endites on first 7 segments F ademen ventral Lettering as in Fig 61 After KukalovaPeck 1987 appendix dorsalism CSIRO 1991 Stng h 39 stn p1 st FIG 139 Examples of abdominal sclerotization With reference to the dorsopleural line aa and the p1euroventra1 line bb A metathorax and abdomen of adult male Gryllus B metathorax and abdomen of larva of Calosoma ltg laterotergites mtg mediotergite pl pleurites stn sternites Snodgrass 1935 a grasshopper tergum tergum tergum tergum ter um 2 tergum 4 6 8 g 3 i tergum tergum antecostal 5 7 tergum tergum sulcus 10 I eplproct segment 11 metapostnotum a a paraproct t m anum E y P ovrposrtor valves s iracle1 quot sternum sternum p sternum SteTum 6 8 steqmm stergum 3 stergum stemum b fly tergum 4 tergum tergum 5 2 Intersegmental membrane tergum 6 tergum 5 7 tergum EE 8 t spiracle 1 ergum spiracle2 sternum sternum stergum sternum Stergum pleural Stergum 4 7 Stemum membrane 8 4 visible abdomen lt l lt normally concealed gt Fig 111 Abdomen in lateral View a An insect in which parts of all 11 segments are present in the adult female red locust Nomadacrz39s Orthoptera after Albrecht 1956 b An insect with a reduced number of segments in the adult Segments 6 9 which form the ovipositor are normally retracted Within the anterior segments female house y M usca Diptera after Hewitt 1914 Chapman 1998 mesosoma alitrunk r 1 metasO I I I I I I I I I gaster 39 4 I I I I39 l I l I 39 propodeum I abd 589 1 I I 39 i I worker ant of Formica subsericea Figure 23 4 Mesosomatic structures in Hymenoplera lateral view A chalcidoid To rymidae B cuckoo wasp Chrysididae C paper wasp Vespidae D thread waisted wasp Sphecidne ax axilla ac coxa emp epimeron cps epistemum n notum ml prenatal lobe nt notaulus pl pleuron pp prepectus prd propodzum sca scapula 5d sculellum sct scutum39 cg tegula FIG 140Postgenital segments of the abdomen A B N esomachilz39s maoricus C Plathemz s lydz a adult male ventral View D ephemerid adult male E perlid larva F embiid G Gryllus assimilis H Blatta orientalis ventral View I Anisolabis mari tima female J Blatta orientalis dorsal View segments separated K Dissosteim carol ina female L Magicicada septendecim male An anus Cer cercus cf caudal lament cxpd base of cercus COXOpodite Eppt epiproct 071p ovipositor Papt paraproct paptl lobe of paraproct sal supra anal lobe xmcls muscles of tenth segment 3339 l 21 1A0 I I 39 l i 39 133quot 1 M01 i 5 1A0 5 l VMcl l Z p F s G FIG 137 Sclerotization of the abdomen AE examples of variationin the abdominal sclerotization above and below the dorso pleural line aa F typical second ary segmentation of the abdomen G inner View of consecutive tergal plates With muscle attachments A 39 quot39 f I FIG 149 Larva of Sialis showing leg like appendages of the abdomen 290 The Insects of Australia 39Zquot 1quot w w W If i g r WWW 30 mm Q v quot k WWW 919M Fig 1611 Nymphs A Mirawara sp Ameletopsidae B Coloburiscoides sp Coloburiscidae MI Quick 16 Ephemeroptera 9quot a W x v I 25 2 f 1 l 39jquot Fig 1613 Nymphs A Kirrara sp Leptophlebiidae B Atalaphebia sp Leptophlebiidae C Jappa sp LeptOphIebiidae D Austrophlebioides sp Leptophlebiidae E Ephemerellina Austremerella picta Ephemerellidae F Tasmanophebia sp Oniscigastridae M Quick CSIRO 1991 lT Brn Brn Sty39 StY SD CgiP f Brn l ns f mm FIG 150 Abdominal appendages of an ephemerid larva A diagrammatic cross section of an abdominal segment showing pleural lobes Cxpd of the body bearing the gills Bm B a gill and its basis Cxpd in the pleural wall of the body C the gill muscles Snodgrass 1935 l 291 I II R nmw laym w TlPd 39 B FIG 146 Abdominal appendages of Protura A abdominal leg of E osen tomon germanicum From Prell 1913 B musculature of rst39abdominal leg of Acerentomon doderoi From Berlese 1910 r FIG 147 Abd0minal appendages of a collembolan Tomocerus vulgaris insect With furcula in exed position B collophore C tenaculum D furcula A entire Snodgrass 1935 Smcls xpd W8 C FIG 148 Appendages of Apterygota 39 A metathoracic leg of N esomachilis with coxal stylus B abdominal appendage of N esomachilis bearing a stylus Sty and retractlle vesicle Vs C abdominal appendage of Heterojapya with base Cxpd united With sternum v A 39 39 Sty B C FIG 138 Pleurosternal plates of the abdomen A under surface of abdominal segment of N esomachz lz s showing true sternum Sm and plates of limb bases Cxpd B abdominal sternum of H eterojapyx with limb bases united With sternum and a sternal apotome Apt separated from the latter C de nitive sternal plate or coxosternum of ninth abdominal segment of male termite Termops39is Snodgrass 1935 coxol style sternum gonopophysis penis vesicle l39 coxol plate f 39 f 39 39quot 39 39 i39 39 exsertile vesicle style style Fig 121 A 4th trunk segment of Hanseniela sp Symphyla 6 ventral with functional limbs coxai styles and eversible vesicles B mid leg of AIomachilis froggatti ARCH 9 posterior with coxal style no eversible vesicles on thorax C mid abdominal segment of A froggatti ventral with coxites incorporated into sternum styles rudimentary distal segments of limb and eversible vesicles D 9th genital segment of Machiis variabiis ARCH 6 with coxites gonostyles and gonapophyses but no exsertile vesicles After Snodgrass 1957 cercus appendix clorsolis gonopophysis i cercu appendix dorsolis gondpophysis 8 coxite 8 l 39 onolpophysis 9 coxile 9 gonopophysis 8 coxile 8 gonopophysis 9 coxile 9 A lmm C Fig 123 Female terminalia of Apterygota A AIomachiis froggatti ARCH lateral B appendages of 9th and 8th segments of same dorsal C Ctenoepisma longcaudata THNU lateral CSIRO 1991 scales superior longitudinal B lamella ridge inferior cav39ty Iamella trabeculae longitudinal transverse ridge ridge pedicel A clear Winged Sphinx Hemaris di inis Boisduval Pterophoridae plume moths Modification of wings 32 O h s n Wm In a v 9 unfit t t w amp 3 Al UCITA 5ER iii s i xe quot1 C EUTHRIPS Fig 104 A Wings of Olivert39na Neuroptcra after Comstock 918 B Wings of Alucila Lepidoprera from Bourgogne 1951 C Forewing of Euzhrips Thysanoptera from Pesson 1951b mesepisiernum mesepimeron metepisrernum39 melepii neron pronoium Coleoptera elyirul com 2 com 3 prosternum Elytron Antenna Mandibles EP P39BW mesos39ernum proepisiernum proepimeron Labial pa p Fig 303 Notonomus violaceus Carabidae lateral F Nanninga MaXIIIBW paip nrp 3 notopleural suture pIst s pleurosternal suture La brum Compound eye Pronotum Elytron Femur Hindwing Abdomen 7 Tibia iii eiyfro epipleuron l I Tarsus I 77 7 r Claws Fig 305 Transverse 39section of the junction of the ely ra A Colpochila sp Scarabaeidae B Sympetes sp Tenebrionidae C transverse section of the junction of elytron and sternite 3 IF Nanninga pleuriteof mesepimeron segment 2 Iobdspiroce7 meiothoro39cic spiracie obdspirocle1 mesofhoracic spiracle under Fig 3011 Aulacocyclus collaris Passalidae right elytron and wing removed to show disposition of spiracles F Nanninga Hymenoptera Hamuli 39 I l l39 39v quot 1 st ll 4 u u A I t s 15 n L39 L II n A 3 y 39 39 A 39 39 39 39 quot I quot 39 v e I v v a o c a v I c l 39 39 39 o 39 l 3 t AalunArxisn34uugn 1L39511 I g I dorsal Hicks papillae lt gt undifferentiated papilla long axis center of mass of haltere of end knob scapal plate basal basal lobe plate Hicks papillae insertion of y chordotonal Organ scapal plate 4 D ventral I lower ppe39 calypteres C A2 at A1Cqu tre siptera Diptera or Coleoptera append dorsalls gonangulum SCX T H TR endite s TR endite 8 exites endite lquotquot depression 1 rec eus p u I J postclypeus r 39 g k ng neolabru m 7 a archilabrum xx F I FE OMquot C E gonangulumeritsT lab al I 339 1 a D Mquot x r quot PAT 3 ya C I F gonostylus Tl BT 39Ta maxillary palp Fig 69 Cercopodata Monura ATC Dasyleptus sp U Carboniferous of Illinois USA A adult female lateral with cercal leglets instead of cerci B ovipositor close to groundplan of Dicondylia C segmented head All abdominal legs gonostyli and cercal leglets have claws Thysanura D F Ramsdelepidfon schusterf U Carboniferous of Illinois USA D segmented head lateral E female dorsal with segmented head thoracic sidelobes homologous to protowings and 2 pairs of abdominal vesicles endites on first 7 segments F ademen ventral Lettering as in Fig 61 After KukalovaPeck 1987 appendix dorsal is CSIRO 1991 Tan 7 xx 131281quot 395 f I 11 H FIG 104 Middle leg of a grasshopper anterior Viewa A 39f39 C I D FIG 107 Diagrams illustrating structural details of the conga A lateral View of coxa B C inner View of outer wall of basicoxal region D a coxa with the meron extended distally Bc basicosta bcs basicostal suture Box basicoxite c pleural articular socket Caz coxa cxs coxal suture f anterior coxotrochanteral articulation Fm femur g posterior coxotrochanteral articulation M 6739 meron Tr trochan ter A 1 w FIG 112 Diagrams illustrating threetypes of coxal articulation 1 with pleural articulation 0 only B with pleural c and trochantinal e artlculatlons C w1th pleural c and sternal d articulations 1 w 139 I 0 O c 39 39 U I HM Uh w X H B X C FIG 111 Examples of foot structures of insects A Periplaneta americana dorsal view B same ventral view C M agicicada septendecim ventral view D asilid y lateral view E same ventral view Ar arolium dorsal lobe Emp empodium median ventral process or lobe ls unguifer process of tarsus l auxilia m aroliar pad n accessory sclerites between claws P1 pulvillus lateral ventral lobe Tar tarsus Un ungues lateral pretarsal claws Utr ungitractor plate at tendon of depressor muscle of pretarsus retractor of claws Snodgrass 1935 M EJLJIIIFILIA IWLINE HF BASIC LEG STRUEquotIquotUHE a iEl lEl lt hairs 1 J1 b Euckars adhssiua cunts basibarsma 7 quot r r F D g going iamurrIErE g T Il rslznmere 339 tarsamal 4 f39 Earsnmara 5 39 1 mm Fig 333 A hmw path a Tip chm13mm hair if Figs 39iawmm Calmpmm Smphylinidae a cr 5mm quotHEEL b Suckers on tha Ihrtltg IT male Djrnkms Culmptcrm Dy midac after I Ir39iizilL 1922 Chapman 1998 a digging b grasping 39 l lquot n 39 quot 39139quot 39l39l39o h39 quotIquot 39lliyp 39 trochanter pretarsus tarsus tibia pretarsus l d pollen collecting inside outside c grooming tibia pollen basket spur rake pollen Press basitarsus comb basitarsus comb Q Fig 89 Adaptations of legs a Digging Foreleg of a larval cicada after Pesson 1951 b Grasping Leg of Haematopz nus Phthiraptera after S guy 1951 0 Grooming Foreleg of a mutillid Hyrnenoptera after Schonitzer amp Lawitzky 1987 d Hind tibia and tarsus of a worker honeybee showing the pollen collecting apparatus partly after Snodgrass 1956 Chapman 1998 Fig 378 Tarsus of Harpobittacus sp Bittacidae M Quick CSIRO 1991 BOX5J COURTSHIP AND MATING IN MECOPTERA Sexual behaviour has been well studied in hangingflies Bittacidae of the North American Hyobittacus Bittacus apica is and Btfacus species and the Aus tralian Harpob z z acus species and in the Mexican Panorpa scorpionflies Panor pidae Adult males hunt for arthropod prey such as caterpillars bugs flies and katydids These same food items may be presented to a female as a nuptial offering to be consumed during copu lation Females are attracted by a sex pheromone emitted from one or more eversible vesicles or pouches near the end of the male s abdomen as39 he hangs in the foliage using prehensile fore tarsi Courting and mating in Mecoptera is exemplified by the sexual interactions in Harpobttacus austrais Bittacidae The female closely approaches the calling male he then ends pheromone emis sion by retracting the abdominal ves icles Usually the female probes the prey briefly presumably testing its quality while the male touches or rubs her abdomen and seeks her genitalia with his own If the female rejects the nuptial gift she refuses to copulate However if the prey is suitable the genitalia of the pair couple and the male temporarily withdraws the prey with his hind legs The female lowers herself until she hangs head downwards suspended by herterminalia The male then surrenders the nuptial offering in the illustration a caterpillar to the female and she feeds as copulation proceeds At this stage the male frequently supports the female Gullan and Cranston 1994 MODIFICATIONS OF THE BASIC LEG STRUCTURE 159 Fig 810 Silk production in the V integument b of basitarsus seta foreleg of an embiid a Basitarsus a seen in transparency to show the silk tibia basitarsus glands b A single silk gland showing duct ltS connectlon to a seta reservoir duct to exterior cell layer Chapman 1998 I donuuv 39n 1quot tha1 n J I 39 1 39 39 4 hquot h quot 39quot nr39 s s39quot 391 V I 39 39 uquot quot39quot39 quotquot U 9quot An a r mhuca quot V 39 quot quotHquot 39e v A 39 zv ruin quot 39 quot A 2 lt 39 3939 quot 39 H wisp 12 quotNFH 2 39 E 39 quot 39 39 39 333quot 337 i J 5 quot I 39 239 I v H an n M r 39 39 v 39 39 39 39 quot quot5 1 39 f 39 r 391 39 39 nuquot a quot n r r 39l v I gty 39 I V U 39quot 4 quot3939 392 quot quotIV 39u quotLr quotquotquot quotv o quot39 39 239 39 A 39 quotm 392 5 L h gt 9 I Fig 261 Adult embiids dorsal A Notoligotoma nitens Notoligotomidae 6 B Metaligotoma sp Australembiidae 6 i B Rankin CSIRO 1991 391 c f 39 Fig 37 Hind legs modified for movement on or in water HEMI A Noonectidae B Corixidae C Belostomatidae COLE DI Dytiscidae E Hydrophilidae F Gyrinidae r F Nanninga CSIRO 1991


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