MUS IN WORLD CULTURES
MUS IN WORLD CULTURES MUSC 324
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fleta Collins DDS on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 324 at Texas A&M University taught by M. Gariazzo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/225800/musc-324-texas-a-m-university in Music at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
MUSC 324 CHAPTER 10 MUSIC AND IDENTITY 1 INTRODUCTION A Among the many elements that de ne our identities are ethnicity race class gender and religious orientation 1 National or regional heritage language group political affiliation and occupation may also contribute 2 Identity is almost always constructed in relation to groups that we either wish to be part of or seek to distinguish ourselves from B Identities are complex formations that rarely stay static 1 Today many music traditions remain closely associated with communities that share background and history 2 Many aspects of ethnic identity are shaped by descent others are determined by consent and consciously chosen through affiliations C Musical styles that symbolize identity maintain strong links with the past or with an original homeland 1 A challenge in charting identity in the twentyfirst century and its expression through music is the increasing separation of identity from place 2 Geographic location is one of many important contextual factors that may de ne a soundscape 2 EXPRESSING INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP IDENTITIES THROUGH MUSIC A Case Study The Music of a Persian Composer 1 Reza Vali was born in Iran in 1952 a As a child he was not educated in the techniques of Persian music b Grew up schooled in the Western classical music tradition i Vali s knowledge of Western musical instruments and styles was acquired at home in West Asia a Further developed during his education in Europe b Settled in the United States ii Interest in indigenous Persian music began when he was a teenager in Iran a His early involvement in it focused on ethnomusicological work b Not focused on transmitting or performing traditional styles c A exible approach is need to think about a soundscape s setting and aspects of sound and performance 2 Vali s ute concerto brings together multiple elements from the composer39s background and musical experience a Commissioned by the Boston Modern Orchestra Project and first performed on February 13 1998 b Substantial Iranian musical in uence i Soloist hums while playing the Western ute E 4 5 a Sound resembles the Persian ney b Instrument of antiquity ii Western instrument with Persian in uence through unusual ute effects a Composer started experimenting with effects in 1987 b Effects including polyphony c In uenced by both Persian classical and folk music as well as by Persian visual arts Flute concerto may sound random or improvisatory but very little is left to chance or to the discretion of the musicians a Flute player is given explicit instructions about how to produce the desired sound b The composition also includes instructions to other instrumentalists Vali clearly draws inspiration from Persian music while representing in sound the complex identity of a Persian expatriate a His works commentary on the dialectic between Western and world musics transcends issues of individual and community b Considers broad questions regarding the role of music as it seeks to convey intercultural identities Reza Vali s music provides an example of informed musical synthesis B Case Study The Multiple Meanings of Karaoke N E 4 UI Karaoke quotempty orchestraquot originated in 1972 at a snack bar in Kobe Japan a Technologically mediated musical performance b Spread throughout Japan and Asia later internationally Karaoke has been discussed by scholars on several levels a As a performance medium grounded in new technologies b As a settingspecific musical genre c As a ritualized form of musical behavior Karaoke is closely associated with particular social settings a Originally popular in bars and night clubs substituted for live performance b Also had an active life at dinner parties and in private homes In Japan both social and musical behaviors associated with karaoke are quite formalized and patterned a Rules for karaoke performance circulate formally in karaoke journals i Popular list of quotseven taboosquot in karaoke ii Rules are intended to help regulate gender hierarchies and politeness in public space b Additional quothidden rulesquot as well Karaoke draws on the traditional Japanese value of kata quotpatterned formquot a Pervades many Japanese arts i ii expressive forms are composed of precise named patterns Form is here considered to be more important than original content b The kata principle as manifested in an historical musical style is found in the kabuki theatre C i ii Kata guides everything Kata shapes musical expression Kata provides the aesthetic framework for repeating a wellknown pattern an aesthetic that reverberates through karaoke 6 Karaoke also draws on a long tradition in Japan of communal public singing a One Japanese popular song genre called enka is particularly associated with karaoke 1 ii iii Enka is based on stylized formulas The karaoke singer of enka must reproduce the songs words and music and imitate the original singer s style Enka highlights shared values and forges group identity b karaoke has deep roots in traditional Japanese values and maintains a broadbased popularity in Japan supported by an active karaoke culture i The karaoke performance derives its significance from intimate settings 7 Karaoke first spread throughout East Asia a Changes were introduced as it was adopted in different national settings b Others worldwide have adapted karaoke to a variety of settings C Case Study Multiple Identities in Cajun and Zydeco Music 1 The French heritage of Creoles and Cajuns a Creoles and Cajuns share the same language and the same geographical region Both traditions trace their roots to the Frenchspeaking people who arrived in Louisiana between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries b i iii Creoles are a heterogeneous group of people who are of mixed French Spanish and African or AfroCaribbean descent Cajuns arrived later beginning in 1755 Cajuns descend from a more homogeneous community of French refugees who lived in Acadia a Expelled by the British b The name quotCajunquot derives from the French adjective acadien meaning a person from Acadia Presentday musical style most closely associated with Creole identityizydeco musiciemerged only in the mid twentieth century 2 Setting musics ofplace Fquot O 00 Cajuns sustained their French traditions and language which increasingly came into contact with a number of other peoples and cultures i Gave rise to a rich distinctive cultureiand musical style ii The culture and the music along with the people themselves came to be known as Cajun iii Cajuns contributed to other wellknown American musical styles Ensembles consist of accordion ddle guitar triangle and drums i Fiddle traveled with the Acadians ii Accordion was introduced by German immigrants iii Electric guitars and drum sets were incorporated into Cajun bands Emphasis in many Cajun songs is on the sound of the words i Cajun French has declined dramatically ii Cajun song was one of the few means of preserving the special Cajun French dialect The button accordion is at the heart of the Cajun sound The association of Cajun music with dance has played an important part in keeping Cajun music alive 3 Sound and signi cance singing ethnicity race and class a b O Historically Cajun and Creole cultures have had much in common i Poor Creoles of color and Cajun whites worked side by side in the same elds a Prolonged period of cultural exchange between the groups resulted in culinary and linguistic blending b Cajun dialect of French took on distinctive local features ii Cajun and Creole musicians even played together Cajuns and Creoles extend to their names for the very places they jointly inhabit Complicated musical racial and cultural interactions emerged including after World War II a distinctively Creole music that came to be called zydeco i Zydeco has interacted with other African American and Caribbean traditions ii Zydeco was at rst in uenced by Cajun music later zydeco began to in uence Cajun musicians more strongly a Zydeco uses the same core ensemble as Cajun music b Part of zydeco39s distinctive sound came from a found instrument a steel washboard or quotrub boardquot iii In black Creole society as well as in Cajun circles music ourished in bals de maison house dances 4 Zydeco39s kings and queens a The use ofthe titles quotkingquot and quotqueenquot comes from Joe Falcon who called himself the quotFamous Columbia Record Kingquot i Zydeco kings ruled this maledominated tradition ii Very few women were able to make careers as zydeco musicians b Ida Guillory is an exception among zydeco musicians i Queen Ida39s musical style embodies all the hallmarks of zydeco ii Virtuo accordion player 5 Raising voices together uniting Cajun and zydeco a Interaction between Cajuns and Creoles is once again emerging b New bands are now bridging the racial and musical gap MUSC 324 CHAPTER 7 MUSIC AND DANCE 1 INTRODUCTION A Like music dance exists in time and space B Dance its musical accompaniment it are so closely joined that both are often known by the same name 1 Dance almost always makes a statement about its time and place and about the people who are performing it 2 Dances can re ect and express a range of emotions C Dance enacts the most important values of a soundscape and serves to communicate and reinforce these ideas 1 Dance ethnologists specialize in dance studies 2 Choreometrics allows for measurement of many types of movement 2 HEARING AND FEELING THE DANCE A Case Study Moving through Time and Space with Bhangra l Bhangra is a dance tradition that originated in the Punjab region of India and is now associated with South Asian diaspora communities in Great Britain and North America a Originally referred to the rhythms played by the dhol drums i Twoheaded drum beaten with curved sticks ii Each head has a distinctive sound Giddha closely related dance for Punjabi women accompanied by handclaps rather than drums The dhol rhythm jhummar originated in Punjab Other instruments were used with the dhol drums i Bugdu a monochord ii Algoza a double ute iii Chimta an idiophone 2 Bhangra in the diaspora a Bhangra might have remained a regional harvest dance had many Punjabis not migrated to Britain in the early 1950s i By the 1960s bhangra provided a context in which South Asian youths could affirm their cultural identities in a positive way ii By the late 1970s a number of amateur Punjabi groups were performing traditional bhangra at community events iii By the early 1990s bhangra styles had emerged in Great Britain and abroad and had crossed over into the mainstream b In North America bhangra performance spread to schools and college campuses i Many campuses now have bhangra clubs Fquot 9 ii Many students view participation in bhangra as a way to construct a relationship with the traditions of their Punjabi bom parents c Competitive bhangra retains traces of the music text and choreography of the Punjabi dance and drumming i Movements of the competitive bhangra dance are much more tightly coordinated than its Punjabi predecessors ii Gender segregation into male and female teams performing bhangra and giddha respectively is common Many bhangra styles including rock bhangra house bhangra and bhangramuf n have used new technologies and sampling combined with acoustic instruments i Aao Nachz39ye was a bhangra hit of the mid1990s performed by the Sangeet Group a Use of synthesizers and electronic manipulations b Retains a number of traditional elements In recent years Bhangra has moved well beyond college campuses to enter the professional quotIndipopquot scene i Bhangra has also been performed regularly at clubs in England and in urban North America ii Bhangra and hiphop are partners in creating new hybrid styles 3 1 D B Case Study The Polka 1 N 5 Originated among the Czechspeaking people of Bohemia a The polka first appeared in Prague in 1837 b Origin of name uncertain c It is a dance style in double time performed by couples and cultivated in urban ballrooms By 1844 the polka was also known in the United States a A large number of Czechs migrated to the Midwest and Texas i Polish and German immigrants also performed the Polka ii Popular among Mexicans and Mexican Americans The accordion was associated with the polka The polka dance is characterized internationally by its distinctive step a Beer Barrel Polka is one of the most famous earlytwentieth century polkas b Became a landmark polka largely due to its international appearance on jukeboxes i Brought the polka to working class people of a wide variety of ethnic backgrounds ii Reinforced its popularity among Mexican Americans Polkas continue to be widely performed at weddings and have even been played during the Roman Catholic Mass Milwaukee Wisconsin is considered the quotPolka capitalquot of the United States a In 1994 Wisconsin officially named the polka its state dance 3 DANCE STYLES AND THEIR MULTIPLE MEANINGS A Case Study The Tango 1 Sound and steps a The tango39s musical foundation is a quadruple meter strongly emphasized in the bass i Uses habanera rhythm named after the Cuban rhythm from which it was derived b Circular dance with steps that progress counterclockwise i Includes a number of standard motions ii Some steps are also used in Latin dances such as the chachachd and rumba c Played by the orquesta tipz39cal i Piano violin and bandoneo39n ii Eventually became larger ensembles 2 Around 1910 tango dances began to be sung with texts a The singer most r quot 39 for the intei quot quot quot ofthe tango was Carlos Gardel i He was a major force in popularizing the tango in Paris and in Argentina ii Tango39s popularity spread through nightclub performances and recordings radio and lm b Tango lyrics drew on the lunfardo a lowerclass dialect of Buenos Aires i Organ grinders organitos also played tangos throughout the streets c Migration of the tango to Europe insured its upward mobility in Argentina i Buenos Aires followed Paris39s lead in welcoming the tango to upperclass cabarets and theatres 3 New sounds for the concert hall a Astor Piazzolla created a purely instrumental quotnew tangoquot one not intended for dancing but for the concert hall i Retained the sound of the bandoneo39ncentered tango ensemble while expanding the rhythmic and harmonic complexity of the music ii Reshaped its sound to span the divide between popular and classical music iii New tango ensemble includes several bandoneo39ns strings and percussion instruments as well as piano b European classical composers such as Igor Stravinsky had incorporated the tango into their compositions c As the tango spread different dance styles developed i Argentine style performed in a close embrace ii International style simpler than the Argentine tango and is highly choreographed for competitions iii American style a social dance although it is used for competitions as well 4 Signi cance a The signi cance of the tango remains a source of dispute in Argentina i Themes of overt sexuality and male dominance are embedded in the choreography of the dance ii Body language incorporates and perpetuates notions of masculine dominance b As the tango spread it was considered exotic and was exploited as a commodity i Holds great signi cance for its many a cionados who are enthralled with the grace and rhythm of the dance ii There are tango clubs throughout the world including in Argentina Germany and Japan
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