MUS IN WORLD CULTURES
MUS IN WORLD CULTURES MUSC 324
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sterling Haag I on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 324 at Texas A&M University taught by M. Gariazzo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/225800/musc-324-texas-a-m-university in Music at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
MUSC 324 CHAPTER 9 MUSIC AND POLITICS 1 INTRODUCTION A Music has always been an integral part of formal displays of political power B It has traditionally conveyed both national identity and official ideologies through symbolic acts such as the singing of a national anthem 1 Important to recognize the difference between open and coded political messages a Musical displays of power or public transcripts often affirm and perpetuate an existing power structure b Hidden transcripts may be used to describe musical performances and repertories through metaphorical or coded terms 2 Music is crucial in understanding and interpreting how power is enforced as well as how it is challenged C Music can empower people within a particular setting while being used and transformed in very different contexts 2 MUSICS OF POWER AND RESISTANCE A Case Study The Birth of a National Anthem 1 Music can challenge inequitable power relations a Nkosz39 Sikel39 iAfrika originated as a Christian hymn and was transformed into a musical emblem of political resistance b In the 1990s it became a respected national anthem i Melody was composed by a choirmaster and teacher at a Methodist mission school near Johannesburg South Africa ii The text is sung in several different South African languages iii Deeply in uenced by Western music and harmony 2 Became associated with the African National Congress ANC a Nelson Mandela was its leader for much of the late twentieth century b ANC was banned by the South African government as subversive c With Mandela s release and subsequent presidency the nation needed a new anthem 3 For a time The Call of South Africa and Nkosz39 Sikelel39 iAfrika were designated as dual national anthems a Nkosz39 Sikelel39 iAfrika was viewed as an anthem of freedom and independence throughout Africa Became the official national anthem of countries such as Tanzania and Zambia c South African government later approved a single composite national anthem 4 Over the years Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika has continued to accrue multiple layers of meaning a As a Christian hymn Fquot b As a song of resistance c As an integral part of the new South African national anthem B Case Study Reggae 1 Ras Tafari became Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in 1930 a Became a widely known and compelling gure to many people of color in North America and the Caribbean b His govemment s autonomy was challenged by the Italian invasion in 1935 i Provided a symbol for the Rastafarian politicalreligious movement ii Became closely associated with the musical style known as reggae 2 Rastafarian movement had its philosophical roots in the 1920s and the Back to Africa movement a Belief that a black king in Africa would mean deliverance for all black people i Coronation of Ras Tafari as Haile Selassie was interpreted as the ful llment of these prophecies ii In the West Indies an outcome of these events was the formation of groups supporting the Ethiopian emperor a Heralded the downfall of quotBabylonquot and an end to colonial rule b Promised deliverance of oppressed blacks b Rastafarianism provided fertile ground for the development of powerful rituals and symbols i Green yellow and red the colors of the Ethiopian ag were adopted by Rastafarians ii Dreadlock hairstyles iii Use of mindaltering substances 3 At first no single musical style was associated with Rastafarianism a By the early 1960s a predecessor ofreggae called ska was popular i Based on an indigenous Jamaican rhythm b Ska was followed in the mid1960s by rock steady i Slower tempo ii Teth discussed freedom and equality 4 In 1968 reggae came on the scene a Its name was taken from the song Do the Reggay i Defined early on as encompassing quotpoverty suffering Rastafari everything in the ghettoquot ii Regular b Rhythm is essential to the Rastafarian reggae tradition riddim i Some riddims are named such as cordiroy corduroy bangara from bhangra or diwalz39 a Hindu festival 5 Reggae musicians have taken strong political stands through their music E Fquot O Internationally Bob Marley has become the musician most widely associated with reggae and other Jamaican musics Reggae has maintained its status as music of political resistance through various transformations on the international stage i Reggae entered mass culture through recordings ii Led an increasingly dual life as both a cult and commercial music The 1990s also saw the emergence of new kinds of localized reggae styles such as reggaeton C Case Study The Shoshone Powwow The setting of Shoshone Indian Days 1 a d e The first Native American powwow was held in the late nineteenth century i Algonquian word pawwaw means quothealing ceremonyquot ii By 1900 the word was applied to any type of Native American gathering The modern intertribal powwow has its origins in 1920s Oklahoma i Large intertribal powwows became increasingly widespread over the years ii Today the number of North American powwows is estimated at more than two thousand per year The Eastern Shoshone Indian Days festival is part of the increasingly wellestablished quotpowwow circuitquot i The powwow takes place in the town of Fort Washakie Wyoming a Wooden arbor is the focus of powwow activities b Center of arbor is reserved for dancers ii During the evening hours the powwow dance competitions are held a Participants come from throughout the West b Features multiple drum groups that take turns accompanying the dancers Competitive dances are usually divided into separate traditional and fancy styles i Fancy and Traditional War Dances for men a Main difference between the styles is that there are added spins and twirls in the choreography of the Fancy War Dance b Women originally did not dance the War Dance but they do today ii The traditional dances have lost some of their popularity a Fancy War and Fancy Shawl Dances are popular with young people b Jingle Dress Dance is popular The focus of most modern powwows is the dance competitions 2 The Flag Song s sound and significance a Every powwow begins with a quotgrand entryquot i Veterans carry in the American ag the state ag and banners of the Veterans of Foreign Wars a Flag presentation is accompanied the Flag Song b Solemn ceremony ii Shoshone repertory contains many Flag Songs a Native American ag ceremony replaces the national anthem with Native American song b New Flag Songs commemorate the different military con icts in which Native Americans have served 3 Honoring warriors in song the War Dance a War Dance Songs make an overt political statement i Warriorfighter has given way to the warriordancer a Presentday War Dances mimic traditional military movements b Motions sustain the War Dance39s historical connections to the Wolf Dance b War Dance is also connected to nature c The War Dance Song is the centerpiece ofthe powwow i Shoshone singers often borrow songs from other groups ii Sometime borrow from nonNative American sources 4 The changing settings of powwow music a The music of the powwow has also shifted to new settings i Halftime at football games ii Rodeos and other ceremonies b Reaching new audiences through mass media c American Indian Dance Theatre 3 CONCLUSION
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