MUS & HUMAN EXPERIENCE
MUS & HUMAN EXPERIENCE MUSC 201
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fleta Collins DDS on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 201 at Texas A&M University taught by Laurine Marlow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/225801/musc-201-texas-a-m-university in Music at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Elements of Music Frequency the relative highness or lowness Interval distance in pitch between 2 notes Scale system of pitch organization a series of whole and half steps 0 Do re mi fa so la ti do ABCDEFG o Octave covers 8 notes 0 MajorScale between CC Half steps on 34 and 78 happier feel 0 MinorHalf steps 23 and 56 darker feel 0 PentatonicS tone scale Melody horizontal organization of pitches notes sound one after the other 0 Note smallest unit of music Conjuct smooth Disjunct jagged angular Motives unify the piece Sequence repeat 0 Phrases breathing points Harmony vertica organization of pitches 2 or more notes sound at the same time o Chord 3 or more simultaneous sound arpeggio harp o Consonance nice o Dissonance harsh sounds o Cadences ending patterns 0 Tonality key majorminor system in western music Texture function of the number of and general relationship of musical line to one another 0 Monophonic one person singing o 39 singer 39 Iby c o Polyphonic group of people singing Duration the length of notes and rests o Rhythm combinations of patterns of duration 0 Tempo rate of speed of music I Largo now adagio slow andante walking moderato moderate vivace perky I Accelerando speed up I Ritardando slow down 0 Meter organization of the beat into groups patterns of strong and weak beats I triple meter one accented strong beat followed by 2 unaccented weak beats I Duple meter 2 beats per meter Dynamics level of loudness pianosoft 9 forteloud o Accent gradually get louder Timbre quality of sound 0 Classification of instruments families of instruments I Voice types and ranges I S soprano O O O O 39 music I A alto I T tenor I B bass 0 Articulation legato staccato Form shape or structure of a piece of music 0 Strophic verserefrain o Binary AB 0 Ternary ABA o Rondo ABACADA o Sonata themes and variations Genre types and category of music Notation the use of written pr printed symbols to indicate musical sound I Acoustics science of sounds how it is produced transmitted and perceived I Pitch position of a sound pm a range from very low to very high Wavelength distance between the peak of each wave Frequency number or waves per second Amplitude determines the volume of sound The Piano I AG I Whole step divided by black note I Half step 2 notes that are side by side The Orchestra and its Instruments I The smaller the instrument the higher the sound I The larger the instrument the lower the sound I Conductor size and complexity increased it was important to have one person in charge 0 Directs with a baton I 100 musicians orchestra I 4 families in the orchestra brass string percussion and woodwind I Flute only woodwind not made of wood I Oboe uses a double reed and what the orchestra tunes too I Clarinet made in more shapes and sizes than any other instrument I Strings made in kids sizes I Double basses vary in size and shape more than any other stringed instrument I Glissando special effect created by the harp I Horn uncoiled it is 16 ft long I Brass instruments produce sounds by buzzing lips I 7 positions on trombone slide I Percussion earliest musical instrument lSt musical instrument our body I Kettle drums also called tympani I Percussion has 2 groups 0 Those with pitch xylophone tympani 0 Those with out pitch drums cymbals Families of instruments in the Orchestra I Woodwinds aerophones o Flutes piccolo 0 Double Reeds oboe English horn bassoon 0 Single Reeds clarinets saxophone I Strings chordophones 0 oil 0 Viola o Cello violoncello 0 Double bass viol O Harp glissando effect I Vibrato finger wiggles I Pizzicato pluck strings I Legato smoothly connected I Staccoto detached I Brass aerophones 0 French horn o Trumpet o Trombone 0 Tu a I Percussion 1850 or later membranophones or idiophones o Timpani and bass drum 0 Cymbals and tambourine o Triangle and side drum 0 Wood blocks and xylophone o Celesta and castanets o Gong Summary of Forms St I l movement sonata form d I 2 movement aria form relaxed and melodic d I 3r movement minuet trio and minuet o meter moderate temo in ternary form and contrast to trio th I 4 movement rondo s form fast lively Extra Terms I Sonata solo instrument and piano I Symphony strings violin woodwinds brass percussion I Concerto solo instrument and orchestra I String quartet 2 violins viola and cello I Allegro sonata aegro form 0 Largo and adagio o Minuet and trio o Presto I Lied German for song art song I program music instrumental work that is in some way tied to a story or event or something I leitmotif brief musical phrase or idea connected to a something I glissando continuous melodic motion notes tied to one another I mazurka polish folk dance triple meter I overture purely instrumental opening movement to a longer work often for voices I modulate to move to a different key area I Crescendo Gradually get louder I Diminuendo decrescendograduay get softer I Recapitulation Third and final section within a sonataform movement in which all the themes presented in the exposition return I Exposition section within a sonataform movement that introduces all the themes I 39 39 r 39 39 quot andI quot 39 39 the themein sonata I Da Capo direction to go back and play from the beginning of a piece I Tonic note that establishes a key based on its distinctive relationship with a particular set of harmonies in the underlying scale Also the chord based on the first scale degree Kenny Endo I On ensemble name ofthe man in charge ofdrummers I Taiko means drum inJapanese I Odaiko the embodiment of power due to the size of the drum the volume and the endurance it takes to perform The odaiko is the largest drum of all taiko if not the entire world I Shakuhachi Japanese flute I Shinobue tranverse flute that has high pitch sound I Shamisen is a threestringed Japanese musical instrument played with a plectrum called a bachi 19th Century I Nationalism grows out of a desire for national regional or ethnic identity 0 Composers incorporate folk music and traditions of their nation including history folk tales and legends glories and triumphs I Traditionalists made use of the forms balance and clarity of classical period romantic emotional expressiveness SMSB o Brahms born in Germany spent life in Vienna Friend with Schumans I Revolutionaries aimed at expanding the technical range of their instruments experimenting with forms and harmonic language Ex Expositions not necessarily repeated 0 Berlioz growthdevelopment of orchestra wrote a very influential tratise on orchestration Wrote orchestral music operas and choral music quotSymphony fantastique quotid e fixe o Mendelssohns Very rich family piano prodigy at a young age Spoke many languages traveled a lot 0 Liszt Born Hungary son of an official of the esterhazy family Virtuoso pianist Great Piano player first person to turn it sideways so audience can see the pianist s figure as they play opens the top of the piano All the bitches loved him quotRenaissance Era Rockstarquot o Wagner German composer involved in politics MOST famous composer of OPERA I Music drama form ofart 2 important characteristics I Music is continuous throughout opera I Use of leitmotifs or themes Opera I Soprano coloratura lyric and dramatic I Alto mezzosopranos and contraltos I Tenor lyric or dramatic tenors I Bass baritones bass buffo basso profundo I Opera buffa comic opera I Opera seria serious opera I Grand opera elaborate scenery and costumes large crowd scenes I Operetta smaller in scale lighter subject matter Classic Opera I Classic written for public and private performances throughout Europe I Mozart operas strong dramatic sense combined with beautiful yrica melodies character development and humanity 0 Child prodigy wanted public success 0 Likes to play with the listeners minds I Haydn father of symphony string quartet piano trio and sonata form 0 Austria 0 Surprise Symphony Joke Quartet Farewell Symphony o started fugue rondo and double variation form I Beethoven the genius German Born in Bonn and moved to Vienna in early 2039s Two brothers took care of them had many diseases death unknown Follower llfanll of Mozart and Hyden Friends with Schubert Romantic Opera I Romantic combination of music poetry drama and visual effects makes it a major medium of romantic expression I SchumannRobert from a literary family his dad wanted him to be a lawyer goes to law school then his dad dies so he is not pressured to do that anymore Wants to be a musician but he fucked up his finger so he could not play piano Teachers daughter Clara 10 yr difference they fall in love Father dislikes Clara is known as the High Priestess of Music she does what many other women at that time were forbidden too I Verdi greatest figure in Italian opera very popular sought to make opera quotoriginal interesting and passionate heroic topics Rigoletto La Traviata Aida I Industrial revolution and other advances I Tone poems symphonic poems I Character piece piano piece Composers I Haydn Symphony No 102 III 3rd mvt Minuet and Trio I Mozart Symphony No 40 in G Minor sonata aegro symphony 1788 symphony I Mozart Piano Concerto No23 K488 sonata aegro quotdouble exposition symphony soloist I Mozart The Marriage of Figaro 4 Count BasiioSusanna and cherubino Opera Buffa I Beethoven Symphony No S sonata aegro I Schubert The Erlking Erlkonig 0 Opera Piano Father son the erlking I Mendelssohn Overture to a Midsummer Might s Dream 1826 5 themes why the fuck do people look so in depth into music why cant I just listen to it I Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique IV March to the Scaffold ABA dee fixe percussion alot I Chopin Mazurka in B Minor I Verdi La Traviata quotFollie Sempre libre I Brahms Symphony No 4 IV passacaglia Music The Elements of Music Melody orizontal organization of pitches 7 notes sound one a er the other Scale A system ofpitch organization ofpitches 7 a series ofwhole and half st s Musical Alphabet The musical alphabet consists of7 different letter names and sharps and tlats The 7 letter names are A B C D E F G Also known as the NATURAL notes Solfege Lntervals distance in o Unison Syllables do re mi fa so la ti do pitch between two notes Tl P4 P5 m6 M6 m7 M7 octav Successive Intervals Chords 3 or more simultaneous sounds 39n39iads 3 note chord that can be stacked in thirds Consonance Nice Sounds Dissonance not nice sounds Melodic Sequence Texture the way the melodic rhythmic d armonic materials are combinedin a composition thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece 0 Monophony melody without accompanying harmony Homophony two or more musical types move together in harmon Polyphony a texture consisting oftwo or more independentmelodicvoices as opposed to music with just one voice monophony or musicwith 39nant melodic voice accompanied by chords homophony Counterpoint The relationship between voices that are harmonically 39nterdependent polyphony but independent in rhythm and contour Canon a contrapuntal compositional technique that employs a melo 39th one or more imitations ofthe melody played a er a given duration eg quarter rest one measure 0 o o 0 etc Frequency the relative highness orlowness of sound Notation Onsrmmirr mu at A ans Moderate minerrvmw m Scales any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch Tl 201 Exam I Review Fundamentals amp Musical Terms Rhythm Combinations of patterns and duration 0 Beat basic unit ofmusical time o Barlines to separate the divisions of me o t rs Organization ofthe beat into groups 7 patterns of strong and weak beats Tempo Rate ofthe speed ofmusic o Grav argo Adagio751ow Andante Moderato 7 Moderate Allegro Vivace Presto 7Fast Dynamics Level of Loudness 0 Piano 9Forte 0 pp p mp mf r ff sfz 0 pp pianissimo o mezzo mediummoderate o escendo 7 diminuendo Orchestra Instruments 0 Woodwinds piccolo tlutes etc 0 Brass French Horns 39Il39umpe s o Percussion drums cymbals trian es 0 strings Harps Violins cellos double bases A cappell a o sung without instruments of any kind Acoustics o The science of sound how it is produced transmitted andreceived Amplitude o the size of a sound wave determines volume B allad o a poem or song that tells a story Binary r m o a musical structure consisting oftwo repeated halves AABB Cadence o a point of arrival signaling the end of a musical unit Cade a o in a concerto an elaborate improvisation by the soloist on themes heard earlier in the movement w no accompaniment from the orchestra It occurs near the end ofthe recapitulation Call andresponse o a technique where one musician plays or sings an opening motive and another musician or group sings an answer Chamber music instrumental music for a small ensemble with only one player to each part Ch rd 0 three 3 or more notes played or sung at the s oment Coda 0 Italian fol tail A section at the end ofa musical work or movement that stands outside any formal structure and brings the whole to a close Comic opera 0 in Italian opera buffa A genra that uses many of the same conventions as serious operas 7 arias recitatives ensembles choruses 7but with plots revolving around believeabl e everyday characters rather than mythical or historical gure Concerto 0 an instrument genre for a soloist or sometimes more than one soloist and a larger ensemble Consonance o the sound ofnotes together that our ear nds naturally right Like dissonance consonance is a relative concept that can change over o periods oftime Da Capo 0 Italian for from the head 39 a direction to go back and play from the very beginning of the piece Development 0 the section within a sonataform movement that thematically and harmonically manipulates develops the movements themes most intensively Dissonance o the sound of notes that clash either harmonically or melodically and do not seem to belong together Dissonance is relative and can change over time Double exposition concerto form a structure based on sonata form but with two expositions one for the orchestra alone and one for the soloist and orchestra together It also includes near the end of the recapitulation a cadenza for the soloist Duple meter 0 an underlying pattern of rhythm in which each unit measure consists of one accented strong beat followed by one unaccented weak beat ie in a 44 1 2 3 4 1 would be the strongest and 3 the second strongest Dynamics the volume of sound determined by the size amplitude of each sound wave Exposition o the section within a sonataform movement that introduces exposes all of the movements themes Finale 0 a last movement of a multimovement work Form 0 the structure of a musical work39 the way in which its individual units are put together Frequency 0 the number of soundwavelengths in one second Full cadence o a musical point of arrival that creates a strong sense of closure Gospel music 0 religious themed music that borrows from RampB blues and other popular styles in its vocal and instrumental styles Genre 0 the category of a work determined by a combination of its performance medium and its social function Glissando o a continuous gliding melodic motion up or down that goes by so fast we almost cannot hear the individual notes Half cadence o a point of musical arrival that is not yet closure If though of as punctuation a half cadence is like a comma whereas a full cadence is like a period Half step 0 the smallest distance between two adjacent notes on a piano white or black such as CC Harmony 0 the sound created by multiple voices playing or singing together Homophonic texture o a musical texture in which a melody is performed with a supporting accompaniment Imitation o a shortened form of the term imitative counterpoin the same theme introduced by different instruments or voices in succession Interval o the distance between two pitches Key 0 the central note and mode on which a melody or piece is based Major mode 0 a type of scale producded singing doremifa solatido or by playing the white keys of the paino between c and c in which half steps occur between notes 3 and 4 and notes 7 and the sound of the major mode is o en described as bright or happy in contrast to the minor mode Measure 0 a ryhtrnic unit indicated by bar lines in notated music that presents one complete statements of the meter Melody o a single line of notes heard in succession as a coherent unit Meter 0 an underlying pattern of beats that maintains itself consistently throughout a work See also duple meter triple meter Minor mode a type of scale produced by plyaing the white keys on the piano between A and A in which half steps occur between 2 and 3 and notes 5 and 6 but o en with the seventh note raised so that a half step also occurs between notes 7 and8 The sound of the minor mode is o en described as dark or sad in contrast to the major mode Minuet form 0 a ternary form ABA in which the opening section known as the minuet proper A is followed by a contrasting trio B which is followed by a repeat of the minuet proper The minuet is always in triple meter and its individual unit the minuet proper and the trio 7 are each in binary form Modulate o to move to a different key area Monophonic o a musical texture consisting of a single melodic line m I Octave o the interval between two pitches of the same name C to C G to G The frequency of the higher pitch is twice that of the lower pitch Opera 0 a drama sung from beginning to end Opera Buffa 0 Italian for comic opera see comic opera Oral tradition 0 one passed down without the aid of written words or notated music Ostinato o a short pattern of notes repeated over and over Orchestration o the manner in which various instruments are assigned to the musical Lines Pentatonic o a scale consisting of ve tones Percussion instrument an instrument that produces sound when it is truck Phrase pitch 0 a brief musical statement Polyphonic o a musical texture consisting of multiple lines of equal importance Recapitulation o the third and nal section within a sonataform movement in which all the themese presented in the exposition return all in the tonic key Recitative o a style of singing that lies somewhere between lyrical song and speech also the operatic number that is sung in this style Refrain o the same words with the same basic melody recurring at regular intervals over the course of a work Register 0 o the range of a pitch or series of pitches usually described as high middle or low Rhythm 0 o the ordering of music through time Rondo form a form in which an opening theme A returns repeatedly over the course of the movement interspersed with contrasting ideas B C etc An example of the resulting pattern would be ABACA Scale 0 A series of notes that provide the essential pitch building blocks of a melody Scherzo o in Italian joke a musical scherzo is a lighthearted movement in a fast tempo and in triple meter similar in mom to the rninuet Sequence 0 a short musical motive that repeats at successively higher or lower pitches Sonata 0 a type of instrumental genre39 literally a work that is played as opposed to sung cantata Sonata form a musical structure consisting of an exposition development and recapitulation allowing for the presentation development and resolution of multiple themses within a single movement Sonata form was widely used throughout the classical era and the nineteenth century Sound wave 0 the vibration through air that produces sound Stanza o a verse of poetry or the music corresponding to that verse see also strophe String instrument an instrument that produces sound when a taut string is plucked or stroked with a bow Strophe o a verse of poetry or the music corresponding to that verse see also stanza Ternary form 0 a form consisting of three parts labeled ABA Texture o the number and general relationship of musical lines or voices to one another Theme and variations form 0 a form in which a theme is presented and then altered in some way 7 through harmony melody texture dynamics or some combination of these 7 in a succession of individual variations Timbre o the character or quality of a sound 0 a style of writing that establishes a central ntoes the tonic as a harmonic and melodic center of gravity which in turn creates the potential for a strong sense of resolution and closure Tonic o the note that establishes a key based on its distinctive relationship with a particular set of harmonies or other notes in the underlying scale Also the chord based on the rst scale degree Tremolo 0 rapid repeated notes that produce a shivering or trembling soun Triple Meter 0 an underlying pattern of rhythm in which each unit measure consists of one accented strong beat followed by two unaccented weak beats 1 23 123 Tutti 0 italian for all the full ensemble as opposed to a soloist Unison o more than one performer playing or singing the same pitch or pitches at the same ti e Versechorus 0 one of the simplest modles in popular music The conatins the main idea of the song usually incorporating the title as well When the chorus turns it keeps the same text and music Verses advance the plot using the same music each time but different texts Versechorus for can use any combination of verses and choruses although the last unit will always be a chorus Wind instrument 0 an instrument that produces sound when air passes through it Whole step two half steps On the piano a whole step skips exactly one key white or black