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# APPLIED ARCH STRUCTURES ARCH 631

Texas A&M

GPA 3.82

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This 73 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanora Ernser III on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 631 at Texas A&M University taught by Anne Nichols in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/225802/arch-631-texas-a-m-university in Architecture at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15

ARCH 631 Note Set 183 F2007abn Examples Timber Example Design aFlat Roofjoist 16 in on center oc 18 span With Douglas fir larch No 2 Snow load is 30 psf Dead load including ballast roo ng sheathingjoists amp ceiling 189 psf C 115 for bending only Fb 875 psi Fv 95 psi E 16x 106 psi Also design the glularn girder supporting the joists if it spans 35 ft simply supported and F1 2400 psi Assume the density of the glularn timber is 32 lbft3 SOLUTION The load case thatis mostlikely g quot d 39g 39 quot Live quot L quot 39 J39 CD115 1809sz 21px 189p11f1530pvf425 0I395I The distributed load for each joist needs to be found by multiplying the area load by the tributary width w 30 Ib Z189Ib z16in1 12in652Ib 2 72 652 3 18 Mm W 2541 f 8 8 i L L LL L L L J i quotr L Mm L L JL and CV F2 FbCDC 87521151151157 lbinZ M 254W l Sveq39d 2 W39azm 2741713 SECTION PROPERTIES lbtk 4 AI JOISTS AND BEAMS Shear can quite o en govern the design of timber A A quot953515 iii21718 Bond beams Nomlnll Slide s bquot Sin In Inches A by z Llnear Irynch s FogDengn I I 36 I J2 pl wl 552 1 WM 11 quot1 quot quot quote Vinax L 587 x 15 x 15 2 25 0562 0422 033 2 2 x 15 x 25 375 155 1 050 x 15 x 35 525 305 067 o Allowable stressis the tabulated stress multiplied by i 2 35 525 100 all applicable adjustment factors which would be CD x 15 x 725 1088 1314 4763 133 my x 1 15 x 925 1388 2139 9893 67 39 x 12 15 x 1125 1688 3164 17798 200 x 12 15 x 1325 1988 4389 29078 233 FV39 FVCD 95 g115109MquotZ x 25 x 25 625 260 326 075 x A 25 x 35 875 510 100 x 25 x 45 1125 844 1898 125 Shear stress inarectangularbeam is found from X 25 X 55 1375 1260 3466 150 3V2A x 25 x 725 1812 2190 7939 200 x 1 25 x 925 2312 3565 16489 250 W 368715 x 12 25 x 1125 2812 5273 29663 00 Amd 2 81712 x 14 25 x 1325 3312 7315 48463 350 x 16 25 x 1525 3812 9690 73887 400 2F 21092 ARCH 631 Note Set 183 F2007abn Allowable de ection is not known but Ireqd could be determined from A 5m 5w4 g Alma the Ireq d 2 384E1 384mm From the section property table a 2 x 12 satis es Areqd and Iraq39d bending govems GiftSf The distributed load on the girderis the reaction ofeach joist overthe 16 inch spacing plus the selfweight ofthe girder Guessing a self weight of 40 lb m 32 lbl 3x1 2 Ldr w lzl40 48015 spacing 16m Mmax 2 48015 35 2 L 2 7350015 t Allowable stress is the tabulated stress multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors which would be Cr We don t know the depth but we can guess 18 inc es 6 6 CF 2 2 0956 lt1 d 18 1572 SW 2 amp 12 38441313 F5 24001542 0956 No information is available to evaluate shear orde ection Based on that try a 5 18 x 225 It has a smallerarea than the 8 34 section with a big enough S 2 Check selfweight yA 32M 3 11531712 1 2615 which is less than whatwas used 12m 12 5 Check C 0932 which is smaller 225 We could try a smaller section which would mean calculating a new selfweight then moment then Sreddand comparing Samuel to read The lowerselfweight means a lowerdesign moment but the smallerCr means a smallerallowed stress so we might end up with the same section quot2quot 2 lJ7J J in r vuuaur so mawow NOLDBS OEHICIOW in Ds sn lnoow l urv39vaav ARCH 631 Note Set 183 F2007abn Example 2 Example Problem 020 Design ofWood ColumnsFigure 066 834quotx root beam A 2239 tall glulam column is required to support a root load including snow of 40 kips Assuming 83 4 in one dimen sion to match the beam width above determine the min 39 1 m 39 the top and h r I A L 2239 Select from the follewmg sizes Glulam post 834 X 9quot A 7875 m 3 quot X 1 1 quot A 91188 2 Pin supports 8 A 0 z m top and bottom 834quot x 12quot A 10500 1112 Solution Figure 1066 Ginlam culunm design Glu lam column FL 1650 psi E 18 X 10quot psi Try 1334quot gtlt 1012quot A 10500 in 5 2239 X 12 11111 11 39 875 in 302 lt 50 max slenderness ratio 041815 0418 18 X 1061b 39 2 FEE 2 2 m825psi Led 302 F 2 1ch 1650 psi gtlt 115 1900 psi snow a 825 7 F 1900 0 03943 From Appendix Table 14 Cquot 0403 F FZC 19001b1n2 gtlt 0403 765 psi Pquot F x A 765 111111 x 919 in 703001b gt 40000113 C Cle again trying a smaller more economical section Try 8 1quot x 9quot A 88 in2 4 1 w u 4 and F all remain the same as in trial 1 The only change that affects the capability of the column is the available cross sectional area P F gtlt A 7551121111 gtlt 788111 603001b P 603 k gt 40 k Use 834quot X 9 glu 1am section ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND SYSTS ARCH 631 DR ANNE NICHOLS FALL 2008 lecture twenty ve foundations retaining walls Foundanons 7 A mmzeczuraI SIIULmIes III FZOOBaDn Lecture 25 ARCH 637 quot 7 quot3 Fr 4 u u L 4 39 an Lw Jgu b L47 7 FJOO Earner bar s 4 ace some as halrzonfal bars pewd 5x MFJDQ 7 quot 300 CORNER DETAIL FOLm1an 2 AlchZecMa Structures Lecture 25 ARCH 637 FZOOBSbH Structural vs Foundation Design structural design choice of materials choice of framing system uniform materials and quality assurance design largely independent of geology climate etc FUundatluns 3 Architectural Structures lll Lecture 25 ARCH 537 FZOOBSDN Structural vs Foundation Design foundation design cannot specify site materials site is usually predetermined framingstructure predetermined no site the same no design the same Euggesfed anquot pa em av Sail baring Foundations 4 Architectural Structures lll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Design Assumptions validity dependant on quality of site investigation construction monitoring your experience exibility of the design Foundations 5 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Soil Properties amp Mechanics unit weight of soil allowable soil pressure factored net soil pressure shear resistance backfil pressure cohesion amp friction of soil effect of water settlement rock fracture behavior Foundanons 5 Arctrrtecturai Structures ill annaabrr Lecture 25 ARCH 531 Soil Properties amp Mechanics compressibility settlements strength stability shallow foundations deep foundations slopes and walls ultimate bearing capacity q allowable bearing capacity qa q Foundations 7 Arcnrtedural Structures lll Lecture 25 FZOOBabn ARCH 637 PRESUMP Load anng pressure Class of material pounds per square foola 1 Crysiallrne bedrock 2 Sedimentary rock 3 Sandy Gravel 4 Sand silty sand clayey sand silty gravel and clayey gravel 5 Clay sandy clay illy clay amp clayey sill Note a l ps P FIGURE Presumptive surface bearing values of various soils it given in 1139 BOCA National Building Curls 1996i HrIrmlu l ll In u39rllerirrll Foundaticns 8 Architectural Structures III F20083bn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 slip zone punched wedge Foundations 9 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 active trying to move wall passive resists movement Foundations 10 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Settlements Considerations How do we estimate the amount for a given design What are the tolerable movements If our estimate is greater than the tolerable movement What do we do Foundations 11 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Settlements Components vertical immediate sands consolidation clays secondary organic soilspeats tilting eccentric loads nonuniform stress distribution distortion A L F20085bn Foundations 12 Architectural Structures lll Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Excessive Settlement we can try deeper foundation alter structure concretesoil mat foundation reduce the load move the structure modify the foundation type modify the soil Foundations 13 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Foundation Materials concrete plain or reinforced shear bearing capacity bending embedment length development length other materials piles steel wood composite Foundations 14 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Construction unique to type of footing excavation sheeting and bracing water control drainagestabilization ll placement amp compaction pile driver or hammer caisson underpinning existing foundation Foundations 15 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Basic Foundation Requirements safe against instability or collapse no excessivedamaging settlements consider environment frost action shrinkageswelling adjacent structure property lines ground water underground defects earthquake economics Foundations 16 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Generalized Design Steps Foundations 17 Lecture 25 calculate loads characterize soil determine footing location and depth evaluate soil bearing capacity determine footing size unfactored loads calculate contact pressure and check stability estimate settlements design footing structure factored loads Architectural Structures ll F2008abn ARCH 631 ng 5mm l uulmg may 1 ummmm Foundaticns 7 8 Architectural Structures III F20083bn Lecture 25 ARC 631 Types of Foundations mat foundations retaining walls basement walls Pile Cap pile foundations Files or Other Type of Deep Foundations Foundations 19 Architectural Structures ll F20083bn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 wl 1W 41K Foundations 20 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 80 10 mm 9303 Emmgmm s 83635 8 8lt R 395338 Concrete Spread Footings plain or reinforced ACI specifications Pu combination of factored D L W ultimate strength Vu s VC 075 for shear plain concrete has shear strength Mu S Mn 09 for flexure Foundations 22 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 W Jr t y I L L l 1 4 4 a c m m n quota Aquot k hum um nmmw mum w n mi wmlmunl wwa qu mm Foundations 23 Architectural Structures III F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Found E ions 24 Architecturai S mctwes Iii F2008abn Lsc ure 25 ARCH 5 31 Over and Underreinforcement reinforcement ratio for bending A pb use asa design estimate to find Asbd max 0 from 85mg 0004 minimum for slabs amp footings of uniform thiCkneSS 7 0002 grade 4050 bars 00018 grade 60 bars Foundations 25 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Critwcal section where M en 39 12d slrawghl 4 41h i 3 through 4 8 r H L w mmm hm Foundaticns 26 Architectural Structures III F20083bn Lecture 25 ARC 631 J gm a AJid u MW 1 w L I r n 0 meanng 0 Cl rum 0 for bearing amp H 3 OOWG 4 3quot IF A 3 15 8 bars each way spacing 8 t 104 FZUUBabn Foundations 27 Arcmzecma szmcmes m Leanne 25 ARCH 531 Wall Footings continuous strip for load bearing walls plain or reinforced behavior wide beam shear bending of projection dimensions usualy dictated by codes for residential walls light loads Foundations 28 Arcmzecmai szmcmes lll FZUUBabn Lecture 25 ARCH 531 Wall Footings plain vs reinforced trade off in amounts of material can save time if cost of extra concrete is justified plain local codes may not allow plain footings With same load plain about twice as thick as minimally reinforced footing Foundations 29 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Foundations 30 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 Differential Soil Pressure to avoid large rotations limit the differential soil pressure across footing for rigid footing simplification of soil pressure is a linear distribution based on constant ratio of pressure to settlement Foundations 31 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Guidelines want resultant of load from pressure inside the middle third of base ensures stability With respect to overturning SF Mresist M M overturning pressure under toe moment 5 ga shortcut using uniform soil pressure for design moments gives similar steel areas Foundations 32 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Combined Footings supports two columns used When space is tight and spread footings would overlap or When at property line E soil pressure might not be uniform proportion so pressure Will uniform for sustained loads behaves like beam lengthwise Foundations 33 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Combined Footing Types rectangular trapezoid strap or cantilever prevents overturnin of exterior column raftmat IIIEI El El El El more than two columns a u u n u a over an extended area 393 D 393 E39 393 393 Foundations 34 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Proportioning uniform settling is desired area is proportioned With sustained column loads resultant coincides With centroid of footing area for uniformly distributed pressure assuming rigid footing qmax S qa Foundations 35 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Multiple Column Footings used Where bearing capacity of subsoil is so low that large bearing areas are needed grid foundation continuous strips between columns treat like rectangular combined footings with moment for beam Foundations 36 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Multiple Column Footings when bearing capacity is even lower strips in grid foundation merge into mat upside down flat slab or plate Foundanons 37 Arctrrtecturai Structures lll FZUUrSabn Lecture 25 ARCH 531 Settling of Multiple Column Footings use if we can t space columns such that the centroid of foundation coincides With load resultant geometry helps reduce differential settlement variable soil structure sensitive to differential settlements Foundations 38 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 gt S settlement pressure q q k8 S k is a mechanical soil property Foundations 39 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 Retaining Walls purpose retain soil or other material basic parts wall amp base additional parts counterfort buttress key Foundations 40 Architectural Structures lll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Retaining Walls considerations SF MW gt15 2 overturning overturning settlement allowable bearing pressure slIdIng SFZM2125 2 I sliding adequate dralnage FreSiSt procedure proportion and check stability With working loads design structure With factored loads Foundations 41 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Retaining Wall Types gravity wall usually unreinforced economical amp simple cantilever retaining wall common lbCan1lleverretaining wall Foundations 42 Architectural Structures lll F2008abn Lecture 5 ARCH 631 Retained material Retained material Retained material Counterfon c Counterfon wall d Eunress wall Foundations 43 Arch ecfural Structures III F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Deep Foundations usage When spread footings mats won t work When they are required to transfer the structural loads to good bearing material to resist uplift or overturning to compact soil to control settlements of spread or mat f0undations Foundations 44 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Deep Foundation Types piles usually driven 6 8 5 pmm drilled excavated concreted With or drilled shafts Without 8feel 25 10712 caissons bored piles pressure injected piles Foundations 45 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Deep Foundation Types mm mmmw Wmme nr mm w 11 snzn mcknw 812 mm 10mm m w V anrmnfmcm cm an V m M W Calm women oume P Y quot 5 mm nnm mp pm Wu my cm quotWquot mum at a and 5mm mum m m mum furvnmnl mg was Mr 5m mm mm m um mm mm or quotWe beanmud a i r 4 Wm 31 b H g mmwm W T mm ramnmnmm Ruhmwguwk mm Humwm M WNW 0 mm Mm g 6de mm WWW xmummmm W a mm Deep Foundations classification by material by shape by function structural compaction pile placement methods driving With pile hammer noise amp vibration driving With vibration quieter jacking drilling hole amp filling With pile or concrete Foundations 47 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Piles Classi ed By Material timber use for temporary construction to densify loose sands embankments fenders dolphins marine concrete lift hook precast ordinary reinforcement or prestressed designed for axial capacity and bending With handling Foundations 48 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Piles Classi ed By Material steel rolled HP shapes or pipes pipes may be lled With concrete HP displaces little soil and may either break small boulders or displace them to the side Foundations 49 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 J L L Pa AIO fa for use in soft or loose materials over a dense base soft or loose layer socketed common in both P tapered clay amp sand sand amp silt s fadhesion NJ U O Foundations 50 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 112to P W 13or14 Foundations 51 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 Piles Classi ed By Function fender piles dolphins pile clusters large of piles In a small area compaction piles used to density loose sands drilled piers eliminate need for pile caps designed for bearing capacity not slender Foundations 52 Architectural Structures ll F2008abn Lecture 25 ARCH 631 Equot K194 u bundmg svucmve pm can grade beam one qroupmg VE nfotcing Foundaticns 53 Architectural Structures III Lecture 25 ARC 631 F20083bn Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Louis Kahn The vault is a kind of surface that could receive light The measure ofan interiorspace is its sense of position to light and in what way the light confirms the chosen shape of the room I put glass between the structure members and the members which are not of structure because the joint is the beginning of ornament And that must be distinguished from decoration which is simply applied Ornament is the adoration ofthe joint Louis I Kahn Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas LOUIS Kahn Architect Louis Kahn Born in Btonia 1901 Family immigrated to the United States in 1906 and settled in Philadelphia where he died in 1974 Kahn studied architecture in the Beaux Arts tradition at the University of Pennsylvania He graduated in 1924 Focused on differentiating between served spaces and servant spaces Used contrastingtextures in his material ectians Worked closely with engineers to find unique design solutions Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Lours Kahn Project information Architect Louis Kahn Structural Engineer August E Komendant Mechanical Electrical Engineer Cowan Love Mackson Inc Landscape Architect George E Patton Inc Project Architect Marshall Meyers Project Completion October 1972 Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Louis Kahn Program amp Function 39 mm rune nimm m u an dniumiiuu u m mum u Iexa wwwkimbellarmrgMuseumlnfoArchitectureaspx Political Funding Background AAA II39klli n mu KayKimbell J 39 April1964 um ms institution 1966 quot wwwMimhellarungMuseumlnfaArchitectureaspx amp Komendanu Wquot firm Preston M Geren Architect and Engineer almost lead to several lawsuits Komendant Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Louis Kahn The Building The preliminary design had a museum and an auditurium mnne ed with an arcade The semicircular shell roofs madethelrtirstappearance lnmisdesign Geren did not like the roof design and subsequently could not get it to work structurally Komendant who designed the cycloid vaults had no problem making them structurally sound Important design concept used by Keim or the nal design m n was tomcusdn silence and the quality of light Knmendanil The Kimbell Art Museum is considered to be Kahn39s masterpiece Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Louis Kahn Building Program Upper Level gallery space auditorium library bookstore refreshment area Lower Level laboratories shops shipping and receiving Basement Level mechanical and electrical distribution sys tems Entrance main public access on west side of upper level and an east side entrance on the lower level from the parking lots Louis Kahn I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas 7 Basic Structural Plan Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worthlean Louis Kahn Basic Structural Plan Louis Kahn I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas 7 East vaults are porlicos Basic Structural Plan Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas Louis Kahn l 6 wide channels between vaults for 1 39 mechanical and air handling systems Basw Strucwral Plan Louis Kahn I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas 7 Mirrored glass slits Basic Structural Plan Louis Kahn I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas 7 Main Entrance Basic Structural Plan Kimbell Art Museum Fort WorthTexas Louis Kahn Materials R00 concrete cycloid shells separated by a longitudinal skylight Walls exteriorwalls nunbearing and surfaced t a e ine marble on the exterior travertine marble and wand on the interior Double Insulating Glass gallery level Plexiglas skylights that run down the barrel vaults 39 39 hinaf wnrlr and infnrinr doars and frames lair hairlslradru hams windnw Blairan and handrail Kimbell Art Museum Fort WorthTexas Louis Kahn Natural Light Concepts Nothing static nothing static as an electric bulb which can only give you one iota of character of light So the museum has as many moods as there are moments in time and never as long as the museum remains as a building will there be a single day like the otherquot Each vault has a longitudinal 3 slit at apex works as a natural light fixture lters light through reflection gives room a silver glow Louis Kahn Barrel Vault Description Each vault a 23 X 100 foot clear span of2 cycloid concrete shells I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas l Vaults are supported by 2 X 2 foot corner concrete columns Each vault is structurally independent and is separated by the concrete channels Each vault has its own column supports Lours Kahn I Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas l Barrel Vault Structural Details weaving 5 Neither pure vault nor pure shellquot jinsul lidn Vaults are formed by two cycloid concrete shells that are separated by longitudinal skylight Cycluid similarto a semi ellipse with the bottom ofthe curve heinga vertical line Shells have a uniform thickness DUI in as required by codes and the space needed for steel reinforcement Roofinsulation and a leadcoated copper roof re applied above Vaults are solely supported on the corners by four square concrete columns

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