New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Reagan Okuneva


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Animal Science > ANSC 107 > GENERAL ANIMAL SCIENCE
Reagan Okuneva
Texas A&M
GPA 3.77

W. Ramsey

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

W. Ramsey
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Animal Science

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reagan Okuneva on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 107 at Texas A&M University taught by W. Ramsey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/225815/ansc-107-texas-a-m-university in Animal Science at Texas A&M University.

Similar to ANSC 107 at Texas A&M

Popular in Animal Science




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/21/15
3 Ammonium Chloride ruminant diets especially for castrated males acidic reduce pH of urine to dissolve stones and prevent urinary calculi 3 Urinary calculi caused by improperly balanced diets calcium phosphorus should be 21 not a problem in free grazers usually 3 Many dietary problems caused by restricting diets too high carbs and grains not enough forage too much phosphorous decrease B vitamin production Humans create problems with formulation of rations 3 Phosphorous does not go away in the body causes contamination 3 Add limestone calcium to increase calcium level and offset high phosphorous levels 3 Acidosis ruminants eat too much feed too quick transition from high forage to high grain diet microorganisms don t have time to adjust everything begins to move quickly or out of control pH of rumen becomes more acidic and this kills bacteria damages rumen wall and bacteria escape across the wall taken to liver to be detoxified lead to liver abscesses 0 Also can result in bloat and founder 3 Rumens utilize lots of forage and roughage must be kept in diet for proper function and balance normally 70 roughage feedlot 4050 roughage to increase growth don t want to damage rumen environment so diet changes must be done carefully 3 Antibiotics disrupt function of rumen kill those bacteria too9supplement with probiotics to restore balance can inoculate with yogurt as well also supplement with a shot of B complex vitamins thiamin produced by bacteria and is very important to function 3 quotLimiting Amino Acidsquotican only build protein until run out of limiting AA eg lysine in pigs Can increase production by increased supplement of this AA 3 Bacteria provide VFAs and MCPs Vitamin K B vitamins o Nitrogen is precious in the system 0 Urea cycle hang on to all of the N that is present 0 N is absorbed across the rumen wall 9 salivary glands to be recycled and reused by bacteria 0 Protein produced is considered sufficient 3 Most protein in a ruminant is microbial 0 Must use undegradable proteins to get past the bacteria 3 Urea nitrogen and protein are expensive to buy and feed 0 Look at maintenance requirements of animal on feed 0 Feeding grainlots of carbs in feedlot true growth is reduced need l4l6 protein fed corn 10 DDG bumps to 129add urea so the animal can take that nitrogen and convert to protein using carbohydrate carbon skeletons 0 Costs much less that other types of supplements very little needed 3 NPNNonprotein Nitrogenion a label it means urea is included in the feed 0 Want 24ish from NPN not too much 0 CANNOT FEED TO MONOGASTRICS CANNOT METABOLIZE WILL KILL THEM 3 Essential AA 1025 total 0 quotPrivate Tim Hallquot 0 Ruminants no need to worry 0 Swine dogs cats etc must worry 0000 O Swine lysine cats arginine Fiberproducing animals methionine may not need to supplement High quality proteins animal proteins provides complete balances of AA Plant proteins are not always high quality Microbial protein generally considered High Quality 3 Undegradable proteinsUDPbypass rumen O Megalacprotected fat same idea is encapsulated and digested by animal instead of microbes 3 Lipids Fats O O 0 Saturated vs unsaturated fatty acidsisaturated has no double bonds 224 carbon chain PSE in pigs peanut meal was cheap and provided great gain but was wrong type of fat and caused undesireable texture of lean Cheapest gain add fat to increase energy very high energy most calories Too much fat causes scours in cows diarrhea in monogastrics and damage to the rumen in ruminants QUICKLY increases caloric content of the same amount of feed Acetic 2 carbons Propionic 3 carbons Butyric 4 carbons Major sources of energy in ruminants and horses 3 Brain has priority for glucose so body runs most of the time on ketones O Humans get lots of glucose but animals don t no candy 3 Carbs also increase calorie content and energy density 0 O Hemicellulose can be broken down Ligninundigestable 3 ADEK fat soluble vitamins B complex 9 different vitamins and C are water soluble need more to intake because they do not stay in the body excreted in urine etc 3 Vitaminsregulate metabolism and increase immunity 3 Vitamin A eyesightstored in liver for 46 months relatively cheap oversupplementation does not usually hurt them so is highly supplemented in winter months 0 0 During drought can be a problem Deficiency associated with night blindness 3 Vitamin Dacts like hormone needed for calcium absorption very little stored in body increase mobilizationretention of Ca and P 0 Dairy cow milk fevercaused by low mobility of calcium intake calcium is used too quickly and the problem is lack of access to stored calcium keep cows slightly deficient in calcium during 3rd trimester to preserve utility of calcium access pathways 3 Vitamin ETocopherols free radical scavengercan reduce cancer risk prevent oxidation of lipids within membranes associated with Selenium absorptionprevent white muscle disease selenium deficiency also impacts immune system protect cells from phagocytosis 3 Vitamin Kneeded for blood clotting comes from green leafy vegetables and gut bacteria 3 0 Dicumerolworfrinused in rat poison produced in some legumes counteracts vitamin K and prevents blood clotting B vitaminsBl thiamine B2ribo avin B3niacin B5panthothenic acid B6 pyroxidinealamine B7biotin B9folic acid B12 probably don t need to know these 3 Thiaminfound in whole grains and starchy roots coenzyme A needed in Krebs cycle 0 Increase B vitaminsadd B vitamins directly increase roughage intake a bit B complex shot every 34 weeks 3 Minerals 0 Macro V Micro big V small amount needed 0 Ca K P macro o CaP should be 21 0 Coppermicromineral sulfur will bind copper and cause copper de ciency sheep highly sensitive to copper 0 Fe 1 Cu Molybdenumreally binds copper 3 Salt all animals need it provide free choice good way to medicate animals all animals crave salt 3 Ca and P go together in skeletal development 0 Grains high in P o Depends on area where grown as well 0 Corn v Milo I Milo grown here is high in phosphorous but not that grown elsewhere 3 Kosmotic pressure 3 Sdisul de bridges 3 Ithyroid hormones de ciency causes goiter use of iodized salt 3 Ramboullet more resistant to copper


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.