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by: Friedrich McLaughlin DVM


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Animal Science > ANSC 303 > PRIN OF ANIM NUTRITION
Friedrich McLaughlin DVM
Texas A&M
GPA 3.53

Josie Coverdale

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Josie Coverdale
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Friedrich McLaughlin DVM on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Josie Coverdale in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/225817/ansc-303-texas-a-m-university in Animal Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
ANSC 303H Exam 5 Nutrient Analysis Water Electrolytes Intake Nutrient Analysis Removal of Water Removal of Ash identify minerals by Atomic Absorption Energy Content Protein Carbohydrate Lipids Vitamins Purpose Predict performance and balance rations Pricing feeds and knowing how much to pay for a given feed Nutritive quality how a feed makes an animal perform Nutritive value the chemical or analytical makeup of a feedstuff used to predict nutritive quality based on historical observations Measuring Energy Content Bomb calorimeter n Burns feedstuff to determine gross energy Protein D Kjeldahl Nitrogen boil in acid determine amount of ammonla n Dumas Combustion nitrogen released by burning and detected digitally Lipids n Extract in ether lipids are lost in solution Carbohydrates n Starch mix with amylase and test glucose concentration 0 Crude fiber amount of structural CHO not counting hemicellulose underpredicts Measuring CHOs Van Soest Method Neutral Detergent Fiber Removes starch glucose Structural CHOs left in solution Acid Detergent Fiber Removes hem icellulose Cellulose and lignin in solution Acid Detergent Lignin Removes cellulose Lignin left over Water 98 of the body s molecules are water Water is 45 85 of body weight Increasing maturity leads to increased adiposity and therefore decreased water content a Protein has a higher water content than fat a No new protein is deposited after maturity o 40 of body water is intracellular 33 is extracellular the rest is in the digestive tract Water Functions o Dehydration 9 Death water is required more often than any other nutrient Solvent for chemical reactions 0 Metabolic water formed Thermoregulation 0 High specific heat can absorb a lot of energy 0 High thermoconductiVity 0 High latent heat of vaporization Water Sources Water Feed Metabolic water produced in respiration Condensation reactions Digestion Water is absorbed throughout the gut In ux in abomasum stomach and duodenum Electrolytes Sodium Na n Extracellular cation Potassium K n Intracellular cation Calcium Ca amp Magnesium Mg Chlorine Cl n Extracellular anion Bicarbonate Other anions n Intracellular anions Functions of Electrolytes Osmotic pressure and water balance Nerve impulse conduction Muscle contraction Acid base balance Enzymatic reactions a Component u Activation Salt Homeostasis Angiotensin II it Hypothalamus Adrenals Antidiuretic Hormone Thirst response Respiratory pH control Increased CO2 leads to lower pH due to formation of bicarbonate Acidosis increases respiratory rate Alkalosis decreases respiratory rate Thermoregulation overrules pH n Example heat stress with respiratory alkalosis in dairy calves high temperature and increased respiratory rate Intake in Ruminants Regulated by CNS hypothalamus which integrates endocrine metabolic and nervous signals Factors that in uence intake n Animal a Diet a Management a Environment Ruminant Animal Factors Increased weight increases intake 0 Animals with low BCS eat more Breed inherent size growth and milk d b1 Kgday pro uction capa 1 1t1es KgMBW Sex heifer lt steer lt bull 0 o BW 0 Milk production pregnancy MCD4gtCHOOOO H Ruminant Dietary Factors Chemical composition D Crude Protein content lt 7 restricts intake because there isn t enough GP for microbes to utilize forage Dry matter content a Feeds with low DM content reduce intake because the gut fills with water Physical structure Palatability Ruminant Management and Environmental factors Feed additives n Ionophores decrease intake n Anabolic agents increase intake Protein supplementation n Increases intake if the animal was deficient Water a Decreased water composition decreases intake Stocking rate a Increased number of animals decreases intake Temperature Intake in Monogastrics Balance diets based on intake Intake control n Learned behavior a Supply of energy to the body a Capacity of GI tract B Energy deposits a All of these link peripheral tissues with the CNS Feedback Inhibition All occurs through the CNS vagotomy cutting the nerves blocks signals Body energy content determines intake ushing GI tract with glucose decreases intake Mechanoreceptors determine fill of the digestive tract Chemoreceptors detect concentration gradients across the lumen Metabolic and Hormonal Signals Metabolites D Glucose amino acids free fatty acids Hormones n Insulin glucagon adrenaline Gut peptides u CCK slows digestive rate ghrelin increases intake Adipose n Leptin decreases intake Voluntary Intake Physiological factors a Breed line sex sensory properties of the diet Environmental factors a Temperature thermoneutral zone stocking rate Dietary factors a Amount of feed consumed depends on energy density n Pelleting increases intake n Ractopamine increases efficiency


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