GENERAL ANIMAL SCIENCE
GENERAL ANIMAL SCIENCE ANSC 108
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reagan Okuneva on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 108 at Texas A&M University taught by Chris Skaggs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/225818/ansc-108-texas-a-m-university in Animal Science at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
SWINE MANAGEMENT Top Five Countries 1 China 2 EU 3 US 4 Brazil 5 Russia Top 5 States 1 Iowa 2 N Carolina 3 Minnesota 4 Illinois 5 Indiana Reasons Moved to TX Panhandle 1 Environmental soundness 2 Water 3 Feedstuffs 4 Remote location 5 Trainable workforce Types of operations 0 Farrowtofinish all stages from breeding to market select for maternal traits o Farrowing to Nursery Feeder pig marketed at 4060 lbs nursery 21 days minimize feed demands 0 Farrow to wean sell 1015 lb pigs at 21 days to NurserytoGrow o GrowerFinisher purchase 4060 lb feeder pigs and feed to market weight 0 NurseryGrowFinish purchase 1015 lb pigs and put in nursery on high protein diet before moved to finishing program 0 Seedstock producers provide for farrowtofinish and farrowtofeeder ops want genetic superiority reproductive performance growth performance and carcass composition Allin Allout higher level of management disinfect entire bam more efficient Crossbreeding 0 Hybrid VigorHeterosis o Rotational system 2 or 3 breeds rotated in crisscross market hogs and replacement gilts are produced Disadvantages include lower heterosis reduction in grth potential and carcass merit 0 Terminal system all offspring are marketed simple or complex replacement females must be purchased 0 Rotaterminal system 20 of herd uses rotational crossing of breeds excelling in maternal characteristics replacement gilts are produced Nutrition and feeding 0 Feed accounts for 6570 of costs 0 270 pounds in 180190 days 0 Soybean meal is the main source of protein Baby Pig Processing 1 Clip Needle teeth 2 Iron Shot 3 Dock Tail 4 Notch Ears 5 Castrate 6 Cut Navel cord Ear notching right ear is litter left ear is pig Reproductive traits underlines very important 6 teats side Age at puberty 58 months Estrous cycle 21 days 2 day estrus Gestation lengthl 14 days DAIRY CATTLE 86 lbsl gallon ofmilk Increase in milk production decrease in cow numbers Top states CA and WI Consumption trends 0 Decrease in high fat products 0 Increase in cheese 0 Increase in whole milk equivalents Dairy products rank 4111 in TX agriculture sales Reasons for moving from East to West 1 Humidity and climate 2 Land prices population 3 Government regulations 4 Change from traditional familytype ops to businesstype farms Top 2 Counties Erath and Deaf Smith Holstein large milk volume low milk solids Jersey most milk solids higher heathumidity tolerance Avg cow in the US produces twice the milk of her 1955 counterpart due to management nutrition and genetics EPDs st used in dairy cattle BST used to increase persistency of lactation Record milk production was 19 gallons per day Use AI because produces superior genetics dairy bulls are meanaggressive Negative energy balance Days 4560peak lactation 60 days dry Mastitis in ammation of udder number one money loser in dairy industry Five major traits 1 Frame 2 Dairy Character 3 Body Capacity 4 Udder most emphasis 5 Feet and Legs Calf hutch where dairy calves are tied at 13 days reduce disease spread and calfcalf contact Milk machine uses vacuum Herringbone Parlor Parallel Parlor Rotary Parlor newest BEEF CATTLE One steer produces 540 servings of beef Cowcalf production Stocker cheap gain Feedlot production high concentrate nishing Checkoff funding lhead each time sold goes to researchadvertisementmarketing TX is Number One in 0 Total cattle 14 mil 143 o Ranches l33000l63 0 Beef cows 55 mil166 o Cattle on feed 26 mil202 o Fed cattle marketed 62 mil256 o Feedlots over 5000 head 25 Global Production 1 India 2 Brazil 3 China 4 US 5 EU Top 5 US Beef cowcalf ops by number of cows Deseret Cattle amp Citrus Florida JR Simplot ID King Ranch Lykes Bros FL Parker Ranch HA 959P Purposes for Castration o More docile less restless Finer lean more marbling Finish in less time Can be mixed with females Inferior bulls can39t breed cows Purposes for Dehoming Look more uniform Less shedfeeding space Reduce bruises Sell for higher prices Reduces injuries to workers Implanting cattle steroids in ear 0 Increase weaning weight 510 0 Stockers gain 1015 more 0 Feeders gain 1015 more 810 more efficient VAC45 program to precondition cattle reduce health issues ease transition to feed Injection site in neck Frame score based on hip height gender and age Minimum scrotal circumference of 30 cm Adjustment for weaning weight weaning age of calf age of dam gender of calf Dystocia birth weight sex of calf pelVic size of cow maturity Estrous cycle 21 days estrus 18 hours Gestation Length 283 days REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY Female Stages of Follicle Growth 1 Primary microscopic amp 1 layer of cells 2 Secondary microscopic and 2 layers of cells 3 TertiaryAntral antrum uidfllled caVity 4 Graafian Looks like blister 5 Corpus Hemorrhagicumblood body 6 Corpus Luteum prod progesterone maintain pregnancy 7 Corpus Albicans white body regression of CL OViduct Infundibulum Ampulla Isthmus fertilization occurs at AIJ Ampullaryisthmic junction Cervix thickwalled and inelastic l Annular rings ruminants 2 Corkscrew sow 3 Longitudinal folds mare Male Seminiferous Tubules l Sertoli cells nurture sperm cells 2 Leydig cells produce testosterone Temperature control 0 Sperm kept about 4 degrees C below body temp o Scrotum tunica dartis contract when cold 0 Cremaster pulls testes closer o Pampiniform plexus blood vessels that cool blood before entering testes Epididymus Caput Corpus Cauda 1 Transport sperm 2 Concentrate sperm 3 Store sperm 4 Maturation of sperm Accessory Glands l Vesicular nutrients and buffering in semen 2 Prostate cleanse urethra 3 BulbourethralCowper s Glands gel portion of semen GnRH controls release of F SH and LH from anterior pituitary FSH stimulates follicle growth estradiol prod sperm cell production LH stimulate ovulation formation of CL secretion of progesterone or testosterone OT milk letdown uterine contractions Estrogen sexual behavior during estrous secondary sex characteristics Progesterone quothormone of pregnancyquot released from CL Artificial Insemination Advantages 0 Genetic improvement 0 Disease control 0 Record Keeping o Eliminates need for bulls o More economical Disadvantages 0 Time for estrous detection 0 Percent of cows in estrus during breeding season 0 Trained personnel required 0 Overuse of inferior sires Methods Rectocervicalcattle Speculumsheep Cervicalswine Vaginocervicalmare bE Nf
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