INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY SOCI 205
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jo Bailey on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 205 at Texas A&M University taught by G. Bracey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/225841/soci-205-texas-a-m-university in Sociology at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
September 30 2008 Sociology Consequences of Socialization o Establishes selfconcepts o how we think of ourselves o Selfesteem How much value you see in yourself is greatly affected by socialization and how your social groups are seen by society 0 A Girl Like Me Structure is how society binds Agency is the personal choices we are able to make Creates the capacity for roletaking o Socialization as re ective we see and react to the expectations of others Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways 0 Tells us the appropriate ways to act and we do it Makes people the bearers of culture 0 Socialization as a twoway process 0 Others gt You gt Others Recipient of Culture Creator of Culture Agents of Socialization Everyone is a socializing agent you too By doing what you consider normal you communicate social expectations o If you don t follow the social norms you are punished Socialization not only happens between individuals it also occurs in the context of institutions which pass on expectations about appropriate social behavior Examples of Socialization Agents family school friends television religion Socialization Agents THE FAMILY o For most the rst source of socialization introducing children to the expectations of society Crucial to the development of child s sense of self What children learn in families is not uniform o Varies by diverse family experiences gender birth order different family structures etc 0 Others socializing influences may contradict family expectations Male Gender and Sexuality Socialization 0 It s apparently never to early to start driving these messages home 0 GI Joe A Real American Hero Socialization Agents THE MEDIA 0 Includes TV Internet movies music video games radio magazines etc o What we think of as beautiful sexy politicallysocially acceptable and materially necessary influenced strongly by media Socialization Agents PEERS 0 Peers those you interact with on equal terms 0 For children peer cultures are an important source of identity 0 Often take the form of cliques friendship circles where members identify with each other and hold a common identity 0 Peers are important sources of social approval disapproval Socialization Agents RELIGION 0 Children tend to develop similar religious beliefs as their parents 0 Religious socialization strongly influences many beliefs that guide adults in how they organize their lives including beliefs about 0 Moral development and behavior Roles of men and women Sexuality including tolerance for gaylesbian sexuality Childrearing practices OOO Socialization Agents Sports Socialization Agents Schools 0 Teachers and other students are a source of expectations 0 Expectations often vary for different groups based on things like 0 Teacher expectations selffulfilling prophecies 0 Parental resources 0 Hidden curriculum 0 Students acquire identities and learn patterns of behavior congruent with the needs of other social institutions Theories of Socialization o Psychological theories 0 Emphasizes unconscious processes ofthe mind human identitypersonality as xed at an early age 0 Sociological theories 0 Emphasizes identity as a learned response that occurs over the life course 0 For every privilege there is an oppression o On exam October 2 2008 Privilege power and difference 0 Johnson s main points throughout the story 0 Anyone who isn t white heterosexual male had to worry about securing a job but since he is privileged he didn t have to worry about it White man doesn t think he is privileged until he is put into the position of being disabled he realizes it You can be privileged and just be in one class Ex just a white male orjust a heterosexual male 0 Gender and Ableism o If you aren t able in one way or another you will lose parts of your freedom Physically or mentally if your lacking one of them these people aren t allowed to be apart of society anymore When we think someone isn t an able body we think they aren t okay mentally 0 Essay for next exam privilege and oppression O O Bureaucracy 0 Benefits Military is an example of bureaucracy Keep structure and organization Steady pay regularizes things Are everywhere because they are ef cient Red tape a barrier to entry things that usually slow us down negative side of a bureaucracy o Meritocracy o The idea that your advance based on your merit o Bureaucracy give us the sense of meritocracy 0 Makes us skillful 0 Democracy o Is impossible without bureaucracy o Gives us as people a way to get our needs met Example education system c Negatives 0 Red tape 0 Not time efficient 0 Some people stay in charge 0 Efficient Grow Resources OOOOO O O O O Meritocracy Doesn t always work and if its not working then nothing can happen Who is going to promote you and not promote you You have no loyalty to your fellow workers only work for the people above them and that s who they look up to and try to impress Creates an inequality Since the person above me can promote me l have no loyalty to the spirit ofthe bureaucracy my loyalty is primarily to the person in charge Skillful Bad because we have no idea what they are doing we don t have the skills he does Keeps the bureaucracy going but can never move up because we don t have the skills that the person in charge does Can not have bureaucracy without democracy Bureaucracy ends up killing off the democracy because the bureaucrats don t know what the democrats are doing You can not know what to cut because you don t have the skills they do Bureaucracy stays in charge for life but the democrats are only there for certain times People have no control oftheir own government anymore and even if they try they don t have the skills to run the government anymore The bureaucratic is becoming the tyrant of the world October 7 2008 Bureaucracy o Weber as the original bureaucrat Bureaucracy o Re gion Benefits Efficient Meritocracy Skillfultechnical Democracy Hierarchal One man one vote Disadvantages People can t know what 0 they are doing 0 People have no control and no way of controlling Religion 0 Durkheim o Collective Effervescence o Tarenga o Differentiates between religion and magic Religion needs a group EX sororities and fraternities are looked at like a religion cult like symbols rituals ceremonies o Totem pole o Religions that have images they gather around is the totem sometimes after a period oftime they don t need the image in order to have the same feeling People think they are worshipping a God but they are really worshipping society confused that they are worshipping a totem aka a God This is why religious heads or gods often take the forms ofa family 0 EX ln Christianity we have the father son mother family 0 EX Greek Mythology they had Zeus offspring 0 Mother Earth and Father of Time Durkheim say all religions have this because they are worshipping society which leads to the family Durkheim said religion was based on society who or what do they worship and you answer God the father the son the holy spirit Durkheim would trace back the origin of God doesn t believe all the power so finds were it comes from and he finds God is like a totem and you fill like this thing has ability and power because the people around you are feeling the same thing 0 You are saying you worship this totem or God because God has this power but the power you feel is only felt is because of the result of other people you are around collective effervescence society so the only feeling your getting is from society because that s where the power is coming from that your worshipping When you re a brand new religion how do you get collective effervescence o All religions were new and were criticized at some point 0 Durkheim answer 1 Persecution 0 Us against the world can build even more collective effervescence 2 When building a new religion its about what you believe in with that religion 0 You believe in God B instead of God A you think you will be criticized if you do not worship God B so you worship God B so you will be blessed 0 Meet in a group to continue thinking your God has power you have others supporting the same idea you are ie God B 0 Need of society to have collective effervescence Durkheim 0 Family was orthodox 0 Almost became a Rabbi but didn t always was interested in religion 0 Wants to nd the essence of religion 0 Wants to nd out what religion is really about 0 Find oldest and simplest religion around then he could find were religion begun o Collective Effervescence 0 Feel of being around other people 0 The only feeling you can have when your around other people you don t get it alone 0 Doesn t just happen because around the people it happens because of the people Desire of human beings all humans respond positively We like collective effervescence and want more Durkheim doesn t explain why we feel collective effervescence Not worshipping the exact society your worshipping the property or a particular part of society power of group o Necessarily happens individualism doesn t have the property to generate collective effervescence like a group does An innate property 0000 o Tarenga o Helps clan identify with themselves 0 Like a totem fish guide for my clan The sacred and the profane o The profane is known as the common 0 Everyday life 0 Only move from profane to sacred through a ritual o The sacred 0 Ex Fish camp would be like a ritual into another group from one group into another group 0 You go to fish camp as a profane and you go the rituals and become an Aggie that is sacred October 9 2008 0 Groups have needs 0 Bureaucracy is the most important ways to satisfy group needs 0 Groups have properties Sexual Assault on College Campuses Article 17 0 Can t ever really get rid of because no one would want to be at the college 0 The idea ofthe stupid rape victim 0 Between 15 and 14 get sexually assaulted or raped on large college campuses 0 Things that continue to women getting raped or men raping women 0 Alcohol and situations 0 The way they dress can seem as if they are asking for it dressing in provocative ways More opportunity if girls are walking by themselves Male desire being in control and feel powerful Socialized norms play out in college campuses 0 Very real impact on women s lives 0 How do we know the value of a commodity 0 Looking glass self The idea that we get a sense of value for ourselves from other people And others will tell you we will come to understand our selfthrough ourselves o 3 general frameworks that contribute sexual assault 0 Individual traits White women are more often to be a victim of sexual assault Race class status Male controlled space their fraternity house purposely pull women away from their friends and comfort zone give alcohol generously control the music booty music keep alcohol in their room the distance ofthe house 0 American culture Women should be grateful for men s hospitality o Context ofa frat party 0 All 3 come together to create sexual assault 0 Happen through low level coercion produces big effects in peoples lives 0 Sexual assault against women do not happen unless men force women 000 Groups and how they operate 0 Milgrim study is to show the authority we can have in groups 0 When there is an authority you can make groups 65 do whatever you want just because an authority figure told you to October 14 2008 o Objects that are common are called profane o Objects that are related with religion and have a signi cance is sacred 0 Karl Marx 0 Conflict theory Power Working class Economy Class struggle o Communism Marxist Critique of capitalism 0 Historical materialism It is not the consciousness of men that determines there social existence but on the contrary their social existence of men determines their consciousness The ruling ideas of any epic are those ofthe ruling class 0 Ruling class is the only one that matters The ruling class gets to write the history they have the nal say and determine how we look at other situations 0 We take on the ideas and judgments of the ruling class Generally when we tell the history of the world we tell about the ideas people had Marx is saying it doesn t matter history moves because ofthe material reality 0 Class antagonism Mode of production has internal and fundamental contradictions 0 Protection 0 Fatalism Capitalism 0 Each contradiction when applied to capitalism has a capital crisis 0 Impossible without exploitation necessary for capitalist class Ownership of the means of production 0 Capitalist class owns mean of production own whatever you need to produce goods The capitalist only makes pro ts if they produce more than what they pay the workers PRC Proletarian o Owns their labor owns the capitalist class o Are the workers We sell our labor to someone who can pay us 0 False consciousness When a laborer thinks and works against their working class interests when a supervisor starts to exploit the workers he is in charge of he is operating a false consciousness 0 Crisis of capitalism lf everybody in a capitalist system is making a wise decision then it leads to a monopoly and one company becomes more ef cient Take money from healthy companies and giving it to unhealthy companies 0 Eventually what you do is make fewer and fewer unhealthy companies causing depressions and recessions Doomed to fail October 16 2008 Exam 2 0 Know de nition of terms and examples 0 How to apply the terms 0 No essay short answers based on the lectures that were outside the book 0 Democracy 0 Durkheim on religion 0 Marx on capitalism class antagonism o Privilege and oppression Don t worry about born rich Ch 4 Socialization not Ch 14 Extra credit journal is due after Thanksgiving email it Discussion Karl Marx 0 Class antagonism o The exploitation of lower classes part of the reason why we have class antagonism o Capitalist are fueling class antagonism because the laborers will always have conflict with the owner 0 The owner wants more work for less pay and the worker wants less work and more pay 0 PRC Capitalist relate to this by having high revenue and low cost so that profit will increase because they keep the profit Laborers interest is in the cost higher cost means higher wages for their labor The higher the profit the worse of labors are The working class and capitalist are never equal their ideas are always different 0 Class relation to means of production how you know what your class is o Capitalist own the means of production and laborers are parts of the means of production 0 Relate class and class antagonism to the Johnson articles privilege power and difference 0 Relation to structure Allows you to get your privileges o Relating the privileged and the oppressed to the laborers 0 White males would be the capitalist because they have every opportunity given to them just like the capitalist because they own the means of production 00 The oppressed are always second to the privilege You nd yourself into the privileged or oppressed because it is an ascribed trait born with it 0 Difference between privileged and oppressed For every privilege you have an oppression you can t have one without the other just like you can t have a capitalist class without a working class 0 False consciousness 0 When you operate against your class interest 0 Most of us grow up thinking taxes are bad and if we have healthy corporations that s good for everyone because they employ more people 0 Our wellness is linked to the capitalist class When you begin to think about your class without your best interest 0 Stockholders vs Laborers Stockholders someone who owns a share of a company they buy a piece ofthe company and they get their money return with a piece ofthe company put money in the company and get money back without doing any labor 0 A capitalist because they own a part ofthe means of production Laborers get paid from the company but don t own any of the means of production 0 An example of taking it out of full class Communism If a woman was about to have a baby water breaks go to the hospital gets checked in lays in the bed on her back goes into labor that s how we think women should be giving birth 0 Only after you have sufficient capitalist needs to where you make the whole class happy 0 Need full blown capitalism to have communism 0 Efficient needs of production all factories are running as ef cient as possible and you always have maximized exploitation we the workers know we are being exploited Nickel and Dime Article 56 Welfare mothers 0 Character tired unpleasant frustrated could careless about life hardworking stressed out because they are fighting depression Majority of people on welfare are white typically have 2 children single mothers little over 12 don t have high school diplomas Personal Work and Responsibility Act of 1996 O O 0 Before 1996 Beginning of the Nickel and Dime article forced people to go get a job immediately no matter what the pay was orthe hours most jobs don t have health care or insurance Child care typically isn t provided and most women can t have a job because they don t have the money to take care oftheir kids Women fills out applications but she doesn t have any education so she has to apply for very lowwage jobs paying 7 an hour barely minimum wage Didn t get the job because they weren t actually hiring they are just always taking applications to keep the wages low The want ads don t mean actual jobs Average woman has 2 kids and the average income was 350 a month We have the idea when you go to work poverty goes away if women are working and they have kids but can t afford to have a place to live women end up homeless o TANF vs PWORA Under TANF there was no time limit on welfare or work requirement if you had a child the government thought it was necessary to help the child Under PWORA you have a 5 year lifetime limit can t be on it for longer than a 2 year stretch and if you have a child while you are on it the government acts as if that baby never existed Watch video link 0 Gods and Clods 0 South park clip Question on the test Look for the ideas where the ruling class is placed who is challenging the ruling class and how functionalism is placed 0 Where the ruling class is placed 0 Who is challenging the ruling class 0 How functionalism is placed SOCI 205 Fall 2008 Texas AampM University Glenn Bracey Exam 1 Review Sheet Exam Format 3540 multiple choice 1 essay choice of options SOCIETYamp THE SOCI OLOGI CAL PERSPECTIVE Readings Covered Textbook pages 123 112131 Understanding Society readings 1 2 19 amp 57 What is sociology as a discipline Sociological Perspective 0 Sociology compared to other disciplines p 34 0 Sociology as an empirical discipline that uses a scientific method ie What does it mean to say that sociology rests on an empirical foundation Sociological explanations vs commonsense naturalistic explanations Empirical Foundation aninlnoinal Fvnlnnn nnq vs C nun Naturalistic Explanations o Sociological imagination Mills re the relationship between biography amp history and troubles amp issues how sociology reveals everyday life debunking The Relationship Between Biography and Histogy Troubles and Issues 6 Reveals eve day life Debunking Sociology s Origins 0 In uence of the Enlightenment 0n Sociology particularly emphasis on human reason positivism and humanitarianism F 39 39 on Human Reason Emphasis on Positivism 0 Key classical sociologists Durkheim Marx Weber Durkheim Marx Weber 0 Development of American Sociology basic origins of sociology in the US and ideas that emerged Origins of Sociology in the US Ideas that Emerged Key Sociological Concepts 0 Society characteristics of a society p 112 concept of society as a system as something sui generis Johnson s metaphor of forest and trees Characteristics of a Society Concept of Society as a System Sui generis Metaphor of Forest and Trees 0 Social Structure how does social structure relate to individuals and human agency how do we see social structure birdcage metaphor Relate to Individuals and Human Agency See Social Structure Birdcage Metaphor 0 Social Institutions What are they What are some examples functionalist amp con ict theory takes on institutions reminder social institutions are not places per 52 so an example would be the institution of religion not your personal church the military not the US army etc What are Social Institutions Examples Functionalist and Institutions Con ict Theory and Institutions 0 Social Change how does each major framework con ict functionalism symbolic interactionism believe social change occurs Con ict Functionalism smbolic Interactionism 0 Social Interaction social construction amp objective reality vs subjective meaning Goffman impression management and dramaturgy Interaction in cyberspace Social Construction and Obiective Realitv vs anier39tive quot 39 Goffman Impression Management and Dramaturgy Interaction in Cyberspace Theoretical Frameworks o MicroanalysisMicrosociology and MacroanalysisMacrosociology focus subject matter of each Mibl I 39 I Micrnenninlnov Mat139 I 39 lMacrnsnrinlnov o Functionalism basic principles key emphases view on social institutions manifest vs latent functions Durkheim s key ideas from our class discussion on The Functions of Crime Basic Principles View on Social Institutions Manifest vs Latent Functions Durkheim The Functions of Crime 0 Con ict theOIy basic principles key emphases particularly inequality and how it emerges View on social institutions key ideas from Mills39 quotThe Power Elitequot Basic Principles View on Social Institutions Mills The Power Elite 0 Symbolic Interaction basic principles key emphases and stuff on social interaction above Basic Principles View on Social Institutions o The three theoretical frameworks on sociology s big questions from table on p 23 and our class discussion 0 Basic criticisms of each theory Functionalism Con ict theog smbolic interaction Groups including characteristics of groups Statuses status inconsistency and achieved status vs ascribed status Status Inconsistency Achieved Status vs Ascribed Status Roles and role sets role con ict and role strain also note how roles and statuses are related CULTURE Readings covered Chapter 3 Understanding Society reading 5 7 13 15 Body Ritual ofthe Nacirema Miner remember you are not responsible for Habitats ofthe Heart What is Culture including culture as both concrete and abstract Concrete Culture Abstract Culture Material vs Nonmaterial culture How we see study culture particularly think about the Body Rituals of the Nacirema article Characteristics of culture shared learned taken for granted symbolic varies across time and space you should understand What is meant by each of these characteristics and might want to review the examples we gave in class and that are in the book Shared Culture Learned Culture Taken for Granted Culture smbolic Culture Varies Across Time and Space Elements of Culture 0 Language necessary to belong to a group evolves in response to change re ects the values of a culture affects people s perception of reality re ects the assumptions of a culture social status amp perceptions of groups etc Social Status and Perceptions of Groups 0 Norms specific expectations for how to behave allow for consistent predictable interactions implicit vs explicit social sanctions What are they how do they help enforce norms how do they vary depending on strictness of norms Social Sanctions Beliefs shared ideas often basis for norms and values 0 Values cultural standards for What is ideal e g with respect to beauty morality etc o Dominant Culture Subcultures and Countercultures emphasis on really understanding the first two and how they relate to one another Dominant Culture Subcultures Globalization of Culture including our discussion on September 11 2001 article Ethnocentricism vs Cultural Relativity The relationship between culture and social structure I Remember this review sheet and the subsequent list ofterms are not exhaustive The exam will cover assigned readings lectures and classroom discussions TERMS Sociology Social institutions Social systems see also Johnson s article Sociological imagination Troubles Issues Power elite Empirical discipline Debunking Marginal people p 8 Dominant culture Subculture Counter culture Individualistic thinking Sociological thinking Functionalism Con ict theory Symbolic Interaction Manifest Latent functions Power Inequality Necessary Inevitable Dramaturgydramaturgical model Culture define Nonmaterial Material culture Characteristics of Culture Symbols Meaning Norms Values Ethnocentrism p 67 Sources of cultural change p 76 77 Group Status ascribed achieved Role Social construction of reality Impression management Self I Me The Forest and the Trees Individualism definition problems The One Thing Social system Crime definition Article 19 p175 Presentation of self Symbolic violence Cultural relativism Consumerism McDonaldization
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