MICROBIOLOGY OF FOODS
MICROBIOLOGY OF FOODS FSTC 606
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pietro Buckridge on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSTC 606 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/225846/fstc-606-texas-a-m-university in Food Science & Technology at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Microorganisms Causing Foodborne Disease 0 Camp yobaa er oArcobacter oHeI39cobaa er Campyobader Curved rod Microaerophilic Best growth at 5 02 no growth in air Thermophilic Growth range 316 45 C optimal 42 C Highly motile Highly infective Genus Campyobacterand related genera Thermophilic group optimum temp 42 C 7 c 39eimi C mi C lari Nonthermophilic species 7 2 bag mmsh39nais r c upsaI39ensis r c hyumtesn39nais Genus Amobacber r Formerly aeromlerant Campyabader Genus HeI39Cobacter r Formerly campyabadarpyari Isolation of Cjejunfrom patients with diarrhea in different countries In positive C jejuni isolation bunny Patients with Asimptzomatic diarrhea Australia 74 06 Belgium 59 13 France 90 00 46 00 Bangladesh 255 86 Central A 39ican 561 710 Re ll Thailand 133 110 Clinical features of Campyobacter enteritis Incubation period 110 d average 35 d Diarrhea bloody or watery Abdominal pain Fever Nausea Vomiting Duration 2 5 d No more than 10 d 0 Severe sequelae can occur GuillainBarr syndrome C jejuni infective dose 106 cells ingested caused diarrhea Steele and McDermott 1978 o 500 cells inoculated in milk caused mild diarrhea after drinking Robinson 1981 o 800 cells caused diarrhea in 10 and infection in 50 of volunteers Black et al 1988 Colonization of intestinal mucose Common mechanisms of association with mucose Adhesion Outermembrane protein attaching preferentially to host cell membranes 0 Fauchere et al 1992 Association Chemotagtltis o Hughdahl et al 1988 Mechanisms of virulence o Invasion Bloody and mucoid diarrhea o Enterotoxins Watery diarrhea o RuizPalacios et al 1983 Mechanisms of transmission to humans Ingestion of contaminated foods Drinking contaminated water Contact with animals Pets a major reservoir Contact with infected persons Contact with the organism during childhood Isolation of Cjejunfrom healthy animals No samples 0 Animal Country Tested Positive isolation Wild birds Norway 540 134 284 House flies Norway 315 147 467 Pigs Norway 114 114 1000 Sheep Norway 197 16 81 Cows Norway 254 2 08 Pigeons France 200 106 530 Muskrats U S A 189 90 475 Chickens U S A 60 43 717 Chickens Australia 327 134 410 Infection of chicks by C jejuni 0 Water a major source 0 Pearson et al 1993 o Affects spec c flocks low transmission rate between flocks 0 Pearson et al Prevalence of C jbjUHImI39in fresh poultry No In Hoduct Sample samples isolation Country chicken carcasses 40 450 Australia chicken ozen 88 220 Sweden carcasses chicken Wings 85 611 USA chicken Livers and 124 871 USA Gizzards chicken carcasses 50 620 chicken Pieces 70 328 Turkey Livers 86 00 Turkey Gizzards 86 12 Turk y carcasses 12 920 Turkey Livers and 24 330 Gizzards Prevalence of C jejuni in raw milk No Country sampls Fbsitive isolation USA 210 3 14 USA 108 1 09 USA 237 1 04 USA 200 0 00 Holland 400 0 00 TOTAL 1155 5 04 Outbreaks of Campyabacterenteritis associated with selected foods USA 19881992 oudoraks Bean et al 1997 Relation of Campyabaclzsrenteritis and insuf ciently cooked foods King County Washingmn Exposed Nonexposed Relative Food Cases Controls Cases Controls 39 Chicken 171 325 33 151 24 5 3 33 151 76 chicken Raw milk 14 8 195 515 46 Rare fish 6 5 200 469 40 Harris et al 1986 and Harris et al 1986 Isolation of Campyobacterspp during chicken process at two poultry plants nr positive semis evisceration dereamerrng Isolation of Campyabacterspp In different surfaces and environment at two poultry plants positive samples in plant Source of sample A B Knives 430 500 Defeathering machine NA 500 Water rinses 300 333 Working garments 50 0 NA Airquot 45 50 From reception and defeamering areas positive sarrples Isolation of Campyobacl erspp from water samples at 2 poultry plants d39ng 39nal wash Recycled Competitive exclusion Nurmi Concept 0 Fresh cultures of competitive probiotics reduced signi cantly the ability of C jejunto colonize the intestine of chicks Stern 1994 o Cecal bacteria caused 15 week delay in colonization by C jejunL At slaughter treated chickens showed levels of CampyObaa er 15 20 log10 units lower than those of controls Aho et al 1992 Methods for isolation 0 Needs reduced atmosphere to grow Gas exchange 5 02 10 col 85 N2 Campy packs Oxyrase o Enrichment in brucella broth antibiotics Different mixtures An aerotolerant supplement is usually added FBP 0 Isolation on selective agar plates Added with 5 horse or sheep blood Heicobacter pylori I described H pylori estion of an H pyloriculture resulted in development of mild gastritis which responded to antibiotic treatment and bismuth derivatives Relation of H pylori infection and gastr39c disorders L quotax V quot wquot in World 39 37 m a prevalence a grin opryari quot quotff infection Is H pylori a foodborne pathogen Isolated from feces of animals and patients Prevalence in cattle Very low if any Isolated from foods Not enough data Survives in foods Poorly in ground beef Data on other foods needed Arcobacter spp o Formerly classified as Camp yoba cter s p p 0 Currently 4 species described A butzer A CIyaerophYLs A nitrofryYls A skrrowii Arcobacter spp o Mainly transmitted through contaminated foods and water 0 Causes diarrhea in humans 0 A butzer most frequent o A CIyaerophYLs has only been isolated from patients with bacetremia Arcobacter s p p 0 Isolated om Poultry 20 80 Pork 0 90 Beef 1 30 Isolation of Arcobacl erspp From retail meats in Guadalajara Mexico Type of meat Species A Jutzeri 846 732 909 A skl39rrawii 103 268 191 A cryaerapIYus 51 00 00 From Villarruel et al J Food Prot 2003
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