PRINCIPLES OF NUC ENGR
PRINCIPLES OF NUC ENGR NUEN 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Alycia Marvin on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUEN 101 at Texas A&M University taught by Kenneth Peddicord in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see /class/225847/nuen-101-texas-a-m-university in Engineering Chemical at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Nuclear Power Plants History 0 Fissioning atoms to electricity 0 Fission discovered 1939 0 Dec 2 1942 first reactor 0 Dec 20 1951 first electricity produced from nuclear energy 0 Feb 1958 first commercial operating reactor 0 1970gas shortage Pressurized Water Reactor PWR o Reactor vessel heats control rods and put through the pressurizer 0 Steam generator is moved by steam from water which move turbine then steam is cooled to the condenser o The turbine turns the generator to create electricity fission o Neutron incident on fissionable nucleus 0 Neutron is absorbed and a compound nucleus is formed 0 Distortion of the compound nucleus 0 Splits and selfsustaining fission Reactor requirements 0 Fuel U235 o Coolant Hydrogen 0 Moderator graphite 0 Control Material poisons liquid material control rods all absorb neutrons making them unavailable for fission Nuclear Furl 0 Natural uranium Boiling Water ReactorBWR o No steam generator 0 Steam directly to turbine Fuel Consumption o Fission fragments are result of fission 0 Some fragments are neutron absorber 0 Must be replaced if there are more fragments then fuel RBMK CANDU Sodium Cooled Fat reactor Packed Bed Modular Reactor Bioeffects of radiation Radiation capable of producing ionization in the material through which it passes o Directlyionizing o Indirectly ionizing radiation Where 0 Naturally Air water cosmic our bodies 0 Anthropogenic sources Nuclear industry consumer products 0 Medical treatments ndirectly ionizing 0 Most deadly 0 Must interact o Gamma x rays and neutrons Photoelectric effect 0 Electronsexpelled o Maybeionize Compton Scattering Pair Production 1 rad10quot2 Jkgquot1 Time Frame for radiation effects 0 Body has 7085 water 0 Proteins carbs lipids 0 Up to years Acute does short periods of time chronic dose 00 Radiation Detectors Ernest Ruther coined alpha and beta 1899 1908 Geiger counter Pasive Active Film Cloudbubble chambers Personnel monitoring Store information Results in an integrated dose over time Difficult to determine rate information Thermoluminescent detector Track Etch Detector Ionization in Gasas Scintillation Semiconductors Neutron Detection Charge collection Bias Convert to electronscollects charge Nuclear Weapons The Weapons J Robert Oppenheimer Physicist at Berkeley Maj Gen Leslie R Groves US Army Corps of Engineers Construction of pentagon Critical Mass 0 Enough material to sustain the chain reaction Yeild o How big the explosion The material 0 U235 o Pu239 Enrichment o How pure is the material Strategic versus tactical Weapon typle Gun type Implosion Test Shots have 2 names First name is the operation Last name is the shot Crossroads Baker 0 O Effects of a nuclear reaction 0 Blast and shock thermal radiation Nuclear Explosion Initial nuclear radiation residual nuclear radiation Castle Bravo 0 Oops Nuclear Engineering space Possible Space Power Applicability 0 Duration 0 ElectricPower Level 0 Cost 0 Solar curvy 0 Mass 0 Duration of use Energy type 0 Solar 300kgkW 30 tonnes for solar panels Multiple shuttle launches n ordit assembly Large array size1000 mquot2 Transport to GEO only 6 tonner capability 0 Batteries needed for quotdarkquot periods 0 Nuclear30kgkW o 3tonnes for nuclear o Smaller o Selfsustaining 0000 Generic space nuclear system 0 Product of nuclear processes 0 Nuclear energy heat source 0 Thermal energy 0 1 Thermal energy to electrical energy conversion 0 2 Direct thermal energy utilization for heating cooling or in high thrust propulsion 0 Electrical energy output Nuclear Propulsion