ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM BICH 303
Popular in Course
Popular in Biochemistry
verified elite notetaker
This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ceasar Fritsch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BICH 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Timothy Devarenne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/225849/bich-303-texas-a-m-university in Biochemistry at Texas A&M University.
Reviews for ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/21/15
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Pyruvate fates depend on 02 conditions of the cell Where does 02 come into play 02 not required for glycolysis 02 not required for TCA cycle 02 is terminal acceptor of e39 from complete oxidation of glucose How are reducing agents NADH FADH2used to make ATP Alrnliullrlvmmmhm n m 2 ms ammo Thurman Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Production of ATP from reducing agents NADHFADHZ from glycolysis and TCA cycle Electron Transport e39 from NADHFADH2 are passed along chain of enzymes in mitochondrial membrane aerobic process 02 acts as terminal 6 acceptor energy in e transport used to pump H to intermembrane space Oxidative Phosphorylation use of the AG in H electrochemical gradient to produce ATP Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport NADHFADH2 are oxidized to NAD and FAD NADH e39 are transferred through a chain of proteins e39 transport chain it FlViN main enzymes are called FA H2 gtQ cyt 1 cytochromes e39 are ultimately accepted by 02 film Ul39pmmn productng H20 plunpinlg r miplcrl to ATP production completes process for complete Cw oxtdatlon of glucose 09 NAD and FAD can be reused c we Brookslcale Mmquot Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport production of H gradient Outer mitochondrial Inncr mitochondrial Intcrmemln anc Matrix membrane membrane spare 4 Sites of proton pumping coupled to ATP production Electron transport leads to proton pumping across the in ner mitochondrial membrane cytochromes in a transport chain use energy of a transport to pump H across inner membrane to intermembrane space swamch munan AKA H electrochemical gradient pH gradient proton gradient Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation production of ATP ulur Inner mt39mhrnnu pacu mnmbrnnu Matrix h an i Qquot w I I A it 1 r V 1 lmrewd 11 at Sites of proton Ugh pumping coupled 513 V 0 ATP production 6 x ADP H a up 171 11 gt V quot 171 lt39 an L up ATP V If 11 3 v K mmsamwm Imamquot it me 3mm Thom energy stored in H gradient used to produce ATP what other mechanism used energy stored in H gradient Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer 4 enzyme complexes respiratory complexes Complexes I III IV transport H Complex I does not transport H takes e39 from FADH2 and donates to CoQ Inlennexnhmne space Complcxl V ksmplcx IV 4 H 214 3 llll Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex I NADHCoQ oxidoreductase carries out rst step of a transfer transfer of e39 to Coenzyme Q CoQ ubiquinone more than 20 subunits er transfer NADH to avin mononucleotide FMN NADH oxidized to NAD FMN reduced to FMNH2 FMNH2 to FeS protein FMNH2 oxidized to FMN FeSoxidized to FeSreduced FeSreduced to C00 000 reduced to CoQH2 e39sreduced to Ie39soxidized Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex I NADHCoQ oxidoreductase some H moved to intermembrane space originate from NADH e carries can only transfer e not H thus H are pumped to intermembrane space Exam 3 Topics November 16 Topics Metabolism lecture set 12 Glycolysis lecture set 13 no structures or pathway order Carbohydrate Metabolism lecture set 14 TCA Cycle lecture set 15 know structures enzymes pathway order Electron transportoxidative phosphorylation lecture set 16 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Coenzyme Q ubiquinone moves freely in the membrane passes a to complex III n III II 31 211 1410 H 2 1 2 H z 115 I ll 2H3 7 I 11 H3I r 2H2 2H2c 1H21u H Haw 2H IHZ ZH2quot H ll l UH 1quot Cuin ll ilind mumhr lur mu IR IIII ml lmhm39unmm In ml E 2008 Brookstcole Thomson mm H r U lnlcnnnmhranc spatc ll llll ll It Wlllllll 1 1 NADH H 39 9quot 0 ms 2mm mum Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex II SuccinateCOQ oxidoreductase second a entry point carries out a transferfrom FADH2 to C00 4 subunits er transfer FADH2 to FeS protein FADH2 oxidized to FAD FeS FeSreduced to C00 FeSreduced to FeSoxidized 000 to CoQH2 oxidized to Fe39Sred uced itqu if 4393 y quot V352 39 V z 390 s39e39g Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex II SuccinateCOQ oxidoreductase FADH2 comes from TCA cycle step 6 H 39DO complex ll reaction weakly boa x exergonic PumaI19 FADquot T 39quot a quotquotquot quotquotquot Km not enough AG to lac 600 transport H across ch coo membrane Succimu NADH H 0 ms mmme mum Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex Ill CoQH2cytochrome c oxidoreductase cytochrome reductase transfers a from CoQH2 through cytochrome c to complex IV cytochrome heme containing protein dimer of 11 subunit monomers Inlermcmbmnc space Lipid hilaycr Matrix Nlll H G 2006 BIWKSICOIG Thom Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of e39 transfer Cytochrome a heme binding protein heme similar to O2 binding heme in hemoglobin and myoglobin Cyt heme binds Fe but not 02 reduction of Fell to Fel for 939 transfer Imnplcx I Iumplcx Ill 4 H 4 H x FeS FMN 4 H 4 H 391 Iomplcx I39 2 H 2 1 gm go 2 H H21 eznus BmDMChl 7lmnualv Methyl H Li Vinyl group r H Hc Emu CH5 1 H v C I ch N 39 HCH N HC i H A F n 1 2 H N39 39N HLU cm l I 39 C I H CH2 CH CH IHq Propionyl group COO COO Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex III 939 transfer Q cycle CoQH2 releases two e Cyt c can only accepttransfer one e at a time rst 9 will be passed to FeS protein then to Cyt c second e is passed to Cyt b and cycled back to C00 second a is then passed on to Cyt c energy from reactions transports H to intermembrane space Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex IV Cytochrome c oxidase catalyzes last step of e transfer from Cyt c to O2 e transferred through Cyt a Cu ions act as e transfer intermediates between Cyt a 13 subunits energy from reactions transports H to intermembrane space 1 y y mool fit 0 033 quot 39 zoos a mmmmmm mum Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of a transfer Complex IV Cytochrome c oxidase Cty c is loosely bound to outer surface of inner membrane can freely move from complex I to IV transferring e to complex IV O2 acts a final e acceptor producing H20 this is link between 02 and aerobic metabolism nm H V G on I v Wigno onegag l 1 l l 1 LYN 1 aquot Ol l nolg o zoos a mmmmm nmsan Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzyme complexes of 9 transfer Fuummlv Succinzur FAD AD Complex II Sm rinsuo nQ uxitlnrvducluw Fc Sm Irv Sm NADHXE sax mi Pi It lcyumxcwn CM 5 NAD 2413 98 hlegXFeSu vym m Cylami a xl Complex I 39 Complex II NAllH CnQ uxidurmlut39luw 2 Complex IV lyluchrmm39 oxidan IlHyYHK39IIITIIHU t nxlrlx urrrl mum m Bmi ah r Timurquot 9 will only flow in one direction 000 will not donate e to NAD 9 move from high energy to low energy Energy mm aaaaaaaa Thorium Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Proton gradient formation 1 H from NADH in Complex 2 proteins of complexes take up Hfrom matrix during redox reactions these Hare released into intermembrane space lnumwmhmn Spam Complex I Complax m bmplczf 1V 4 m 4 H 2 2006 mammal mannaquot Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation How is the H gradient used to produce ATP How is chemical energy of H gradient converted into chemical energy of ATP ATP synthase enzyme that makes ATP from energy in H gradient complex enzyme that spans the innermembrane portions of enzyme found on matrix and inter membrane space side of innermembrane Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation ATP synthase Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Chemiosmosis generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane oxidative phosphorylation Fo subunit of ATP synthase that acts as an ion channel for H F1 subunit of ATP synthase that produces ATP ATP synthase links the H gradient to the phosphorylation reaction to form ATP Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylatio Oxidative phosphorylation 1 Function of F1 subunit in ATP synthesis three sites for substrate binding exist is 3 states 0 open low binding affinity for substrate L loosebinding of substrate not catalytically active T tightbinding of substrate catalytically active 2 each binding site can be in one of the states movement of H through F0 causes conformational change in F1 substrate binding sites 3 1 ATP bound to T ADP PWil bind L 2 H movement T will change to O releasing ATP L changes to T producing ATP 3 T forms ATP i m a L onus ammonia Thnmm Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation How is conformational change in F0 accomplished c y 3 subunits of F0 and F1 act as rotor H movement turns rotor rotor causes conformational change in binding sites of F1 ATP Synthase o ms Bloomim 7hnmn Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Glycerolphosphate shuttle NADH can not cross the mitochondrial membranes NADH e39 from glycolysis must be carried N into mitochondria by a carrier liu H39l mum humli ml Iminlu in l39 DHAP reduced to glycerol phosphate by NADH vwm HU C H 0 moved to matrix oxidized to DHAP reducing FAD to FADH2 r mwmmmmm MW Wm dwwMMNMM Mmmwwm llll 11 gm I FADH2 can be used for H gradient formation ngOH pczo 0 H l l uo 0 ll IIIQ lquot 15 ATP from FADH2 lMWmmwm mme occurs in muscle and brain Iitmhnnrlriun 4 ans maksicale Tnnmsmv Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation MalateAspartate shuttle More complex but more efficient 25 ATP from NADH Oxaloacetate reduced to malate in cytosol uses NADH to NAD quot 39quot quot transport to matrix mt39mhmm magma 0Xidation to oxaloacetate 5 quot produces NADH a ipilhln 5 quot mtwynu V urlhimgimzimic r a Rciogimumlv a x iYi mumquotlab conversion to aspartate i rttwiit Liliriuhumuzne i y 4 x i transport to cytoplasm iquot Mim immhm nmlaw 1 t L T IH o H p lvhulmpciuw 1 i n i I y 39 equot conversion oxaloacetate i1l iL w Quinnu mo Glutamate 270 Malina IIHE 390 r Imo occurs in kidney liver heart Iundmmh u m wmsawmcuie mumsun Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Citric acid Matflx cyely Soulna39ra Fummam Intermembrane space 39 mmlmmmmlmmmmmmm mmu mmmlmmwmn Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation m Vleld pu Glnum mum mm Glycernl Phasphm Aspartah Pathway Shuttle Shuttle Glytolysis glumse m pymuaxe ymsul l lxupmlxunn ul gluu 1 1 Ivlmpnunlumm m I39urmu 1 7 mphmplmnlmmn m 2 Inulm39nlus m I 9 2 2 lcphuspluvnldlmn m 2 mull39kulm m l l l 2 2 Uxxrlul mn m 2 mulcmlr n1 glncmklclmle gtphuphmc mm 2 N1H 2 Pyyuvate mnvelsiun tn azerICBA mitothnndria 2 1H pnuluLcll 2 Cllric acid cycle mimchondria 2 nmluulo quot1 TI hum 2 mnlu ule I mimma 2 2 u A r k r uhwn u x139r1l 39lH 5 rlliuun1 2nmlm39ulmnlxuui lzl 2 FAD u 2 Oxidative phnsphurylation mitudwndvia 2 ADH I10 gl romw m If m39 mm in Ann is mquot um kw Iralnlrplqulmlc 3 a 2 m hmllx lnu h 39 h mm my 0qu quulmx hlinu112pHHnm39lu2lu ll 2 ATI39 mch 39HA 2 NAUH pmmu r 5 5 2 t IAIYH2 mm ude mm unl u39dc pnnhku 13 A39l39l 011 I 3 3 2 ti AlH hum Lhm and LLll plurluw 2 39x A 1 cud 39x 1 quotV A WM m 3 4 H nmusemumcah Thurman Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Evolution of mitochondria in Eukaryotic cells Mitochondria have many similarities to prokaryotic cells bacteria their own circular genome many of the same genes as bacteria divide separately from rest of eukaryotic cell direct their own division have their own protein synthesis machinery Endosymbiosis early eukaryotic cell form symbiosis with bacteria that could carry out aerobic metabolism Krebs cycle 9 transport oxidative phos Mitochondria were at one time a bacteria that has evolved over time to become mitochondria Chloroplasts in plant cells also Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation History Herman Moritz Kalckar Dutch born biochemist worked at University of Copenhagen in early 194039s established link between sugar oxidation and ATP produc ion Peter D Mitchell 192D r 1992 British biochemist worked at Edinburgh University 1n 1961 discovered chemiosmosis as mechanism for ATP production 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation History American born biochemist Paul D Boyer 1918 worked atUCLA in 1973 discovered conformation binding change in ATP synthase in 1982 proposed rotational catalysis of ATP synthase John E Walker 1941 British born chemist worked at Laboratory ofMolecular Biology ofthe Medical Research Council Cambridge UK determined structure of enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation Both awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'