ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM BICH 303
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sylvester Mante on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BICH 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Timothy Devarenne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/225849/bich-303-texas-a-m-university in Biochemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Metabolism wat is metabolism The sum total of all the chemical reactions in an organism Two main process constitute metabolism Catabolism breakdown of oxidative processes loss of e releases Anabolism production of reductive process gain of e requiresuses Metabolism What is metabolism anabolism Some catabolism products and nutrients used to make Catabolism Nutrient large molecules intake is broken utricms nu numutm SUIHC nutrients and products or ctttttiminnt Fam39mirli zinmwantin 39r mmmcids chuut smdmmq ilnrlghccrnl Innnoszu chnridcs ngcnmnrh mgy Plntlucls ornuuimiiun including no 39nsnnd ntttitt Stunu ttutimtim Tn ununniunt of nn H qu viiun Tu tumlmlism Tu mmbulism Sumo cxu rliun zuos Elnokslcnle mmtm Metabolism Redox Reactions Catabolism Anabolism breakdown of iargei moiecuies FDdLiCiiQ oi iargei moiecuies into smaiier out smaiier ones oxidative processes loss of e reductive process gain of e reieaaas energy w requiresMsea energy Oxidationreduction reactions or redox reactions electrontransfer reactions Reduced form of a compound has Oxidized form of a compound has Example the oxidation of Zn by Cu Zn Cu2 Zn2 Cu Metabolism Redox Reactions Redox reaction example oxidation loss of e39 of ethanol to acetaldehyde acetaldehyde ethanol H H H3Z Z5H ch Cno 2 H H 10e e was Blanks Cule rl39numscm e39 must have somewhere to go transferred to e acceptor oxidizing agent Metabolism Redox Reactions Reduced compound A Oxidized compound B Reducing agent has full complement reducing agent oxidizing agent of e 6 substance that loses e As B e onor is oxidized once it loses e A is oxidized B is reduced losing electrons gaining Electrons Oxidizing agent has less 5 substance that gains 539 6 e acce t r 5 is reduced once it gains Oxidized 6 Reduced 639 compound A compound B Metabolism Redox Reactions e39 acceptors reduction Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD oxidation NADH NAD oxidizing agent NADH reducing agent Oxidation of NADH to NAD involves loss of e39 in form of Hydride ion H and 2 e39 Nicotinamide IOSt Nicotinamide oxidized ionu reduced form Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide K H C iiiiiiiififim f phosphate 3 5 lg J NH W C NI Ie NADP oxidized form MN 2 NAD t I NADH NADPH reduced form i E 0 0 H2 Migration to double bond act as coenzymes a non I ii H protein substance that takes o 0 0H 0H KHz part in enzymatic reactions lO ii and is regenerated at end 0 0 rHe 0 N N of reaction 2 M H H H H OH OH NAler Coniuim n on this 139 liyl1 nx 1 o 2025 BrchS Coig mmsnn Metabolism Redox Reactions NADH as a coenzyme Can NADH act as an oxidizing agent 9 acceptor to reduce ethanol to acetaldehyde This reaction requires that the e39 be moved to an e39 acceptor oxidizing agent ethanol acetaldehyde NADH NAD quot oxidation N HC COH 39 ch Cn 2H H a New SlvuksiCuie ri39hamsun Metabolism Redox Reactions NADH as a coenzyme Can NAD act as an oxidizing agent 9 acceptor to reduce ethanol to acetaldehyde This reaction requires that the e39 be moved to an e39 acceptor oxidizing agent Oxidation of EtOH would require NAD as e acceptor ethanol acetaldehyde NAD NADH quot oxidation N HC COH 39 HXC Cn 2H H a New SNukleule rl39hamsun Metabolism Redox Reactions NADH as a coenzyme Can NADH act as an reducing agent 9 donor to oxidize acetaldehyde to ethanol This reaction requires that the e39 be donated by an e donor reducing agent to reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol ethanol H3C C H H b New SNukleule rl39hamsun reduction 2H 2539 NAD acetaldehyde ch c quot Reaction also NADH Thus NADH Metabolism Redox Reactions FAD electron acceptor Flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD oxidizing agent FADHZ reducing agent Fm vi I ranquot FAD B redured I39mm muuwmwm m rest of molecule similar to NADH Metabolism Redox Reactions NADH and FADH2 are used in metabolism to Oxidation of nutrients catabolism to provide energy can not take Anaboljsm lixrrcl in m Catabolism Nun icxm u I m glm nu39l u NADP39 NAD ADP NADH and FADH2 are recycled throughout metabolism Am39 not used and then lost N334 cyclic 39 NADI I I Nrll IV l39l 2M x mun by Nulriunh In anabolism NADH used as reducing agent e acceptor to mums phosplmnminn ms ammcm Yhunsnn Metabolism ATP What is the connection between ATP production and ATP use Nutrients The main purpose of catabolism Ch Sgluwse CO2 H20 9 is to release the Catabolism O XidatiYC Why not use the xel golllc energy from 39 nutrients directly to The energy stored in ATP is then power anabolism used in anabolism to ADP Pi ATP The ADP produced from ATP is then rephosphorylated Anabolism Reductive ATPADP Cycling shunts endergoujc energy from prOdUCtion to Products Precursors Its uses of anabolism ems Emuksicnie vmnmsun Metabolism ATP While the carboncarbon double bonds in nutrients carbohydrates are high energy they are not Phosphate ester bonds can be ATP has high amount ofenergy in its N 7Ngt phosphate ester bonds 1 if it KN w 071quot 707CHy0 OH OH o Ii 2 4 o i A o i 0 P6 O CHu o 7 F 0 i i Metabolism ATP Other phosphate containing compounds have higher free energies than ATP and can be used in metabolism to produce ATP from ADP Compound kJ mol 1 kcal mol 1 Phosphoenolpyruvate 619 148 Carbamoyl phosphate 514 123 Creatine phosphate 431 103 Acetyl phosphate 7422 i 101 ATP to ADP 305 7gt Glucose l phosphate i209 50 Glucoseiphosphate 125 30 Glycerol S phosphate 97 23 m zoos Ewaksicuier Hansen Metabolism ATP The complete oxidation of glucose to 002 and H20 yields 32 ATP Glucose 6 02 32 ADP 32 Pi gt 6 002 6HZO 32 ATP AG 1891 kJmol Glycolysis Metabolism Coenzyme A Activation a metabolite metabolic intermediate is bound to this new bond formation has a AG the next reaction in the pathway become thermodynamically Coenzyme A CoA is a common activator metabolite is bonded to S of sulfhydryl group Thiocthanolmninc A A From pnmmhtnic add 339P 5 ADP w N113 Functional sul lyrhyl N group 17111111 S rilaninu H gt f ii i i TH i ll N N HS 71ng IHgNicclIECHEN i 7 7 717120 i 1 1 07 1gt 7 0ng H 0 H CHI 0 O H H O OH Coenzyme A I CoASH o 0 Catabolism Ninthnix m n l gnuMu mics mum Thuman Metabolism Anabolian lixrrcl inn NAB Alllquot Nll l l Nll L 39l l Xunmm We are next going to put all this together in relation to catabolism glucose Oxidation use of e39 acceptersdonors use of 00A how is it all linked to ATP production Three steps involved in complete oxidation of glucose to produce ATP Glycolysisbreak down of glucose into Citric Acid Cycleoxidation of 3 carbon intermediates oxidative phosphorylation use of NADH and FADH2 generated from citric acid cycle to
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