ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM BICH 303
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sylvester Mante on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BICH 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Timothy Devarenne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/225849/bich-303-texas-a-m-university in Biochemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
RNA Transcription and Translation mKNA no IIiRNA i i Au dt hml ammo Acid Groh ing Impritlu linin V rumin g was anutbi Thurman 8 Translation Izmomuw qg W How is information in DNA used to make protein RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and protein synthesis machinery Transcription copying of DNA sequence into RNA complementary Translation production of protein based on RNA sequence Whole process gene expression DNA gene gtRNA gtProtein RNA Ribonucleic Acid HO HZ 0 0H dAMP DNA uses deoxyrlbose sugar 4 1 RNA uses ribose sugar H H H H o 0 Dnnm atlruaiim 539nmnonhnsplmm Ribose OH H Deoxyribose In RNA uracil is used instead of thymine as a pyrimidine base NH i H i i H gtII 11 L i T 39 1 J 39yu J H 47 i i oil UH an 0H moumim 539mmm7hiuphill mm mmmmphmpmm TH 1i II2 GMP H HI UH i i 1 cummiue 5 mmpinpii WK39W 39 quotquot iquot quotlquot quotl a ma Ernksrcaie 1mm ms 39uaksicaiu Thurman RNA Ribonucleic Acid Formation of sugarphosphate backbone As with DNA Individual nucleotides are connected Single Strand of polynucleotides through linking the 3 OH ribose w group with the phosphate group 0 fx on the 5 OH of adjacent ribose 01235 x N AM RNA has directionality 5 3 0H J N 39 539 A c G U 339 O 5 end start of gene 0 it 7 H 3 end end of gene 1 0 flk Ultimately 5 end of RNA gene Nterminus of protein 1 O V x 0 mg 3 end of RNA gene Cterminus of protein 3 W k vn Diva CA I quot12 O U Uracil Unlike DNA RNA is single stranded no complementary 011 polynucleotide strand U 33951 ei39minus RNA Bibogucleic Acid UCGA I I I III singlestrandedRNA can fold and AU and 60 will Hbond forming base pairs Hbonding RNA Ribonucleic Acid Six kinds of RNA transfer RNA tRNA carries individual amino acids during protein synthesis ribosomal RNA rRNA messenger RNA mRNA is complement of DNA encodes protein sequence small nuclear RNA snRNA micro RNA miRNA small interfering RNA siRNA Transcription Central dogma of molecular biology DNA gene gtRNA gtProtein Transcription the synthesis of RNA based on DNA sequence Translation mum 39 39vv l39v i l T39l T lquotquot s Amcnul ammo lCid Gm lug Implirlu Chain V bumin a me an ch Thurman Transcription RNA polymerase reads DNA template and makes RNA reads template strand of DNA in 3 5 direction resulting RNA is complement of template strand resulting RNA is same as coding strand A to U RNA transcript Transcription mRNA messenger RNA the RNA produced from DNA template is used for producing protein is capped at 5 end is capped at 3 end with poyladenylate multiple adenine bases polyA tail both caps help reduce degradation of mRNA 5 3 JLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLIAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Translation Central dogma of molecular biology DNA gene gtRNA gtProtein Transcription the synthesis of RNA based on DNA sequence A gt Translation Synthesis of protein from RNA template Translation l IIiRNA 33533 Players in translation Gl oning WW ribosome I tR NA amino acids V rumin a me anutbl Thurman Translation Steps oftranslation initiation elongation termination How to read the sequence of mRNA How does the sequence of mRNA translate into protein sequence Amino acid activation Chain initiation Chain elongation ewefowe 5 E Chain termination e ms amnu an Thurman Translation The genetic code I I a L Il1lPlllgl lIL Genetic code is triplet of nucleic acids 3 nucleic acids E code for one amino aCId my r VXGIVXQIIXJUCLL non overlapping V I I l 2 3 7 r H H H H continuous not interrupted QOOQOW39QOQQQ by commas h lunliiiuuuxrmlt universal conserved among all 1 f aquot l Nucleic known me as o oooooeoo l lllirllldlml mlL39 l lllllnlllug HHIIIHQS Ulunlil39zl 513 coco osooeoeo mans aimw Thurman First letter Translation Codon triplet of nucleotide bases that speci es a single amino acid Since 4 different nucleotide bases A T G C there are 43 64 possible codons There are 20 different amino acids multiple codons encode for a single amino acid Second letter DNA sequence ATG TTT TCT CCG AAT AGC GGT TGA ltranscription mRNA sequence AUG UUU UCU CCG AAU AGC GGU UGA ltranslation lanai mm Met Phe Ser Pro Asn Ser Gly stop QgtOC QgtOC QgtOC QgtOC Cracking the genetic code MaSha Warren Nirenberg American born biochemist Worked at National Institutes of Health NIH Genetic code experiments in early 1960 s Definitive experiment in 1964 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine 1968 Har Gobind Khorana quot born in what is now Pakistan biochemist worked at Univ Wisconsin Madison Nobel prize in physiology or medicine 1968 with Nirenberg Translation How to convert mRNA sequence into protein Process requires many different proteins and other factors Two main players Ribosome a cellular structure that catalyses the assembly of protein based on the mRNA sequence transferRNA tRNA small RNA which binds to and carries single amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis Translation 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 mRNAmdon 1 Initiation Ribosome binds to mRNA and moves along until it recognizes 39olbLquot 39 39 base an limdun GY 2 tRNA with bound amino acid binds to mRNA codon anticodon nucleotide bases in the tRNA the complement of mRNA codon 3 Elonation Next tRNA binds to 4 Ribosome moves on to next codon process repeats Met Phe 7637 Pro 9 Gly 5 Termination polypeptide chain is terminated when AG 1 3 CCG AAU AGC GGU UGA AAAAAAAAAAAAA tRNA Discovery Robert W Holley American born biochemist worked at Cornell University finalized the structure of tRNA in 1964 awarded Nobel prize in physiology or medicine 1968 along With Nirenberg and Khorana Translation movie YT Translation VC Translation The Big Picture what have we studied so far 039 NA structure replication Historically this is the path of determining the central dogma of biological chemistry Transcription RNA polymerase How to go from mRNA production DNA base pair sequence to protein amino iRXAx Rl quot0 0quotquot 9 g Translation Ribosome aCIdS sequence eats tRNA mmhm aa s linked to make amino acid protein Proteins 1 2 3 4 structure fibrous proteins globular proteins Ammo aCld33 purificationanalysis techniques 0 u structure enzyme kinetics Mi 0 Z acidbase properties mechanisms of enzyme control peptide bond 6 me ankslcnle Thurman
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