ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM BICH 303
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ceasar Fritsch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BICH 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Timothy Devarenne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/225849/bich-303-texas-a-m-university in Biochemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Enzymes are connected in pathways to carry out process Calvin cycle conversion of CO2 into sugars in plants Pathways of high energy costs use of ATP Calvin cycle CO2 fixation gt CTP synthesis Due to high energy costs Enzymes Mechanisms of Control How to achieve regulation of enzyme activity Types of enzymatic regulation Phosphorylation Feed back regulation Zymogen activation zymogen is an inactive enzyme precursor zymogen is cleaved changing conformation and giving activity Cofactors small molecules required for enzyme activity metal ions Mg2 organic compounds such as vitamins Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Allosteric regulation of hemoglobin Allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or protein by binding an effector molecule to cause a conformational change Conformational change each possible shape of a protein is called conformation A change between these shapes is called a conformational change 02 bound 02 not bound oxyhemoglobin Conformation Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Feedback Regulation Inhibition A schcxuaiic representation of a pathway showing feedback inhibition Original pl39L39L m sm m mme I i Fvcdlmck Iniuinunni i 1 The series 01 rm udm blufks 1 mm 3 m in fa an umiymamnn on im musmum and shuts dawn 2 a pathway 39mlo sciit39s i i mmva a i i 3 i l ummui i i i 4 1 i muma i i r 1 i cnnlln39ii i i a 1 i cnunc 7 u l n iulpruriurt g 2015 anu39cnia Thurman Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Biosynthesis of cytidine triphosphate CTP 002 glutamate CTP iS CarbamoyIphosphate synthase Aspartate carbamoyl phosphate Aspartate transcarbamoylase ATCase Ureidosuccinate Dihydroorotate synthase Dihydroorotate High levels of CTP Dihydroorotate oxidase orotate L OMP PRtransferase OMP l OMP decarboxylase UMP UMP kinase UDP i UDP kinase UTP l CTP synthase CTP Enzymes Mechanisms of Control CTP feedback control of ATCase Reaction ch Ci Ky V SI gt j NIL N x J I T T T N u lt K gt N x H H H oP 07P07P0CHE 0 07 H H u r u 391 H H H H on m a 2006 Bmokleole Thomson Enzymes Mechanisms of Control CTP feedback control of ATCase ATCase is a multimer of 12 subunits CTP regulation ATP regulation ems amalgam mmn Why would ATP stimulate ATCase activity Enzymes Mechanisms of Control ATP control of ATCase Both ATP and CTP are required for RNA and DNA synthesis Low CTP levels RNA and DNA synthesis will be slowed ATCase will not be inhibited by CTP pathway activated ATP binding will increase rate of CTP production Thus CTP levels rise for RNA and DNA synthesis as CTP needs are met CTP levels rise pathway shut down Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Phosphorylation as allosteric regulation Phosphorylation Amino acids that can be phosphorylated Serine Threonine R6 or Promin ATP 4 Re Of PrOtCin ADP Rest 01 protein ATP 7 Rest ut39protciu l i l 0 CH2 0113 H 7 014 H 1 0 r IDH C 190 I H I H 0 0 quot quot O O Serine residue Phosphorylated serine residue 39Hu cuuino residue l39wsphnrylnlcd lhrcnnim residue memes iiiiiii an Rostnlprmciu I l leul pi39nlviu lP Tyrosine H I 0 y r mum I39csitluc l39husplmrylulrd unann residue Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Phosphorylation as allosteric regulation Phosphorylation Kinase ATP gt ADP P 1 N a l i E i KN Ngt y phosphate terminal is transferred jifO Qf Fir C39 0 O H J H Enzymes Mechanisms of Control Phosphorylation as allosteric regulation Na2K pump ATP ADP K v j gtNa Na gt OED T K l 03A inside cell outside cell