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by: Ceasar Fritsch


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Biochemistry > BICH 303 > ELEMENTS OF BIOL CHEM
Ceasar Fritsch
Texas A&M
GPA 3.92

Timothy Devarenne

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Timothy Devarenne
Class Notes
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This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ceasar Fritsch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BICH 303 at Texas A&M University taught by Timothy Devarenne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/225849/bich-303-texas-a-m-university in Biochemistry at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Lipid Metabolism Lipid oxidation for energy source Glucose not the only source of energy for an organism used as an energy source Glucose Fatty acids readily available energy source of energy used when energy demands normal 39 used When energy release more energy than glucose quotirlmiwlhuu Thimmm H v x ny L I I I 39 quot Lnlmulnn Boxudation process of L I quot ll ita Imn Illl IIIIlII l f THKHinL39 mi plumhlnuuu Lipid Metabolism Lipid synthesis Ch inn wlnuz Acetyl CoA from TCA cycle used iii Lfg iL i Mm L ubnhyil ms K 39 1 x I my 39 32231 11 13325 1A Llucaucngonuia to PEP I thwmmuu n in mm Citrate from TCA cycle converted to acetylCoA Inn mm i URLkquth m i i l39vnnudiiit Mme TA Uiulnmnlr i i IhlruuinrJnk d mquot i ulrlKiIIln mid aspnmgmu mum V 39 m mum argn lml39 Mnurhandrmu immmmlmmlmi Mil gII umuv Immhmlu Fnrphhim Moos magnum Thurman Lipid Metabolism Cellular localization of lipid metabolism 5oxidation Endoplasmic reticulum E 39 Chain lengthening introduction of double bon itochondria Catabolisxn by B oxidation ome chain lengthening cetylCoA formation Fatty acid chain elongation Nucleus Cell membrane Cytosol Anabolism formation of acyl CoA anus Emnkucah 7 mm Fatty Acids amphipathic lipid carboxyl group polar end hydrophilic hydrocarbon chain nonpolar tail hydrophobic even of carbon atomstk you on 1 n on OK on hydrocarbon chain E 2 2 2 A g unbranched 39 3 saturated no C C lt Puma mu Stand and Ola Ida unsaturated C C quotm Kg m ocorl g bonds Q j r double bonds almost g Q always cis unaltit add IILIDluk lu39d Andddoulc Idd c2096 ammcm mama Triacylglycerols triglycerides Triacylglycerols ester linkage of a fatty acid to each OH of glycerol Generally same FA esterified to all three positions on glycerol Not found in membranes but act to store FA s for metabolic energy source Hg H H2 H22 iH IH3 l I 110 011 ll Glycerol polar lt K r r RI z nonpolar Z a simple n39iacylglycerol cmo aakccwlg m n Phosphoacylglycerols Phosphatidyl esters 0 l39 1 3H2 0 II II U 2H3 H I 2H2 l 1HJI L V zm Phosplmtidylcholinc Z I U 1E 2305 Braokstcme Ynomson NHg Phosphatidylserine phospholipids O 0 P 0 CH2CH2 O NH Phosphatidylethanolamine 2505 Braaks Cale Twumsou O O P O CH2 CH CH2 O OH OH Phosphatidylglycerol Phosphatidylinositol Lipid Metabolism Release of fatty acids from triacylglycerols and phospholipids triacylglycerols breaks bonds between FA ghosgholigids breaks bonds between FA l and OH Ofglycem39 and OH ofglycerol most often not so often I H ll ZHIOLR Hgm R H20 H20 H LIP15393539 Phospholipases t mom RWY HULK v Fu t o Glycerol ylycerylphosphmylcholine ll 1121R quot1quot ZI2 ZHgIl39IZX Il S rumnuhuml I 0 Rrusr thmmim It huh qmzarmsscme Tnamsan m mrhuun Lipid Metabolism Release of fatty acids from triacylglycerols WWW l39hnxpllnhle m5 IE rum ma ma 39noksicnle Humor Epinephrine hormone activates Each FA released from glycerol FA has Why do distance athletes drink coffee before event caffeine induces FA saves carbohydrates for later in the event Lipid Metabolism Oxidation of FA Activation of FA bonding of FA carboxyl group general term of exact name depends energy by hydrolysis of two phosphate bonds takes place in cytoplasm 0 ll Step 1 Rcoo ATP 4 RC 7AMP Acyl ildcuylnlc intermediate 0 0 H H Step 2 RC AMI CoA SH RC S COA AIVIP 39I39hiuesler activated acyl group 0 n k ACyl CoA wm mutton S lmemse Rum II39 MASH yl v Rl s n MI39 e Lipid Metabolism Soxidation acylCoA moved from cytoplasm to H 1 U R nrlrngjli d units removed from FA In Jr 1 4 rxn cycle I K anyacyeroA Fm t U l 39 quot Zenir t R39m39w n l carbons removed from H I yi 7 391 Fairlyyzlc rCaAI quot39M 39 W o o Vivrumt upqu whimquot i 5 carbon becomes carboxyl l Sm nNu t u Iu carbon l l t 11 t H l H ll lllgit ilift7sitvul I I 4K2mwylC0A t cycle repeats until FA fully oxidized in successive WIFE lt 139 m gt H30 2 carbon acetylCoA removals produced acetylCoA put into TCA cycle LB HydrnxyncylCDA mans Ermkglcole Thamsnn Lipid Metabolism Soxidation Step 1 oxidation of Ca Cr5 bond to n 1 u i i H R Lllgit nyiCisi A i i it It u i Ut nwmwm m acyICoA niciriixinu i H Hymn Ri li r L x m t HUM 39 39 FAD reduced to FADH 39 o gimnvnmlin marathons 2 0 quot39quotMizk 3 madamquot i double bond in trans configuration Sutnmw t iilu t 11 t 11 0 ii i ii l H Ilg 7Tftisih Rikli KiTthixitm n product transAZEnoyICoA Kemmilcm mm imnycoA O qu 11 t xidzumn Hulmiiuu quot3 Hm mum mu Ht w bBHydruxyncylCDA mans Ermkgicuie maniacquot Lipid Metabolism Boxidation Step 2 Ca Cr5 double bond hydrated enoyICoA V m uses H20 product BhydroxyacyICOA i l n 0 iii K 7gt7u Ac ylCnA y 39 Fai gum o immmlm Inunulmna hum u IOWL LIL hm mum Sun mqu u Im R7 lilyiK H mm irnuyICoA xidzumn bBHydruxyncylCDA Mani Ermkgicuie Thurman Lipid Metabolism Boxidation Step 3 Cf5 H I I nnv acveroA ll 0 39 39 u Hiciriixinn AcelylCnA hydroxyacyICoA Rim 7 7 quot20A li reduces NAD to NADH 39 i auync o ghom nmlhi i up w product BketoacyICOA sin ew set up for Cr5 to become carboxyl group Mduimn r m y Iu m bBHydruxyncylCDA Mani Ermkgicuie mamasquot Lipid Metabolism Soxidation Step 4 Ca Cr5 H 1 I kiuigit tf f isimt i i I i n o F 39warcw Fm product acetyICoA Kit 7 L x m t quot i auynqmaa k Iquot 39 W o m vvwmu requtres CoA added to remaining F A Hiciriisinu AcerICnA li LJLMtlgr ULLIHUH in i Ca goes with acetyICoA t H H R7uniniufnisitm n Cr5 becomes 4K2mm39ylCOA mm iFnuylCOA to 9 with 45 H30 2 C shortened acyICoA undergoes a new round of Boxidation um 11 E minim acetyICoA enters TCA cycle b HydrnxyzcylCDA mans Ermkgicuie mmsm Lipid Metabolism Soxidation Soxidation of even FA gives 018 stearic acid requires of Evoxidation I111 Sill 71h ll vlii 111 i u39ri 2114 M H A FM A PM H PM Im awn x R R mi 7m um am In am am 1x Sim i l4 itmmm emm imp um Lipid Metabolism oxidation energy production Table 211 Reaction NADH Molzmles FAD 2 Molecules ATP Molemles I Snurir an id a SIran lLuA an inn mp 1 2 SIrurvIl 10A 9 nu39h IIUA X t la n Bnx39irlzuiun 8 8 I Art H 20A 4 Ih39 I Kill il I 1 INLHDI39 4 iTl U mullt HIL39H 2 9 4 Rruxixluliuu ol39NADH l39unu B4 Lilian l0 39w an iliuu nl XADII lrnm ilrk uitl q39tlc 27 Ii Rvuxitlulinn nl RUSH 1mm Buxid Il 39 7 Run rimiun RU mm ilrii u id nu h u u MP eld pet Glucose IMP FADE 61m rol Mum Hmsphaie kpanam Pathway silqu Shmie Glycolysis glumse m pyruvale yKasal l39hmphnnluiiun quotI glm N 7 1 I llmplmnhuinn quotI m Imx4ipllmplmlr 7 7 1hplmphnmmuu quot2 munmin of L39Lmu 02 2 Ucplmipluvu ldllull 1 2 ulnlvlulrx 1 l39LI39 2 2 mm 1 muhx min I nmIhhhukK phtuplmh i39iphh 2 nH 2 Pyruvate unvelsinn Io atelyICnA mitodlandvia 2 MDH prmlmrd 2 ink add cyde miuxhnndlia xiuuilcs xl39Tl39 hum 2 mnluulu ul smumlIUA 2 2 Xiddlil nl 2 inUlK39CIIk Audi u ism imilr ukcmglmmincumll mu vh ld ii DH 5 xidni mn u 2 mnlcfull s nl u rinml v Iris 3 FADquot 2 2 NAB lmm glwnlwis hold I 3 ATI39 h if KAIquot i oxirhlrrl hm hu rnlrl lnspllulr 3 5 1 Ilulllv39 quot a a n I q Jumlr nx Luiw nlumhux u nu m 2 puumu u 2mm 0A ADH plnrluu 3 3 1 huh quot nun1 i mm mm mm um mu pmth 1 ATP czu39h 5 72 DH rmquot mm and mic pnulme 23411 mi 15 391 nm i no u n azuosamum Lipid Metabolism Soxidation energy production quot CHEOH H H H HO OH H OH AO H OH Slamk Add Humm 3 Glucose 18 carbons 1 stearic acid 18 carbons Why the difference in ATP production A more reduced fuel can donate more e for ATP production Lipid Metabolism oxidation H20 production Metabolic H20 H20 from O2 terminal e acceptor in aerobic metabolism Large amount of water from 3oxidation can be used Kangaroo rats Camels hump contains stored lipids diet of seeds high in lipids live indefinitely with out external H20 Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid Biosynthesis AcetyICoA is transported to the cytoplasm via citrate Cylml Mitochondt inl mt mlllanv Once in cytoplasm converted to acetylCoA I lcxmm MASI l l 1 umrc mum m 1mm Elam l l f I Oulnaocme Oxaluncctnk Snmc Lipids Haida Mitntlmndxinn zuns Bmmmav mam Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid Biosynthesis 2 Priming events 1 Acetate transferred to 2 Acetate transferred to BketoacylS ACPsynthase HSKase Mier IoA SH CH H5445 CH acetyKSase combined 3 with forming CH3 A 3 cl 0 LL o IO acetoacetyIACP Acvt 8 710A Iralnsl crust s Ksase Acetyl COA 39039 III can c a g c s m AcetoncerlACP 700 00 CoASH l malonyl CH2 CH2 malony lost I carboxylated C O O acetate i I s CoA s MalonylCOA Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid Biosynthesis WPLCHFLWKQP next three steps are exact V v W t reduces ketone from acetate gtmquot 0H 1 l i V cng c cut c 7 s VAgn 1L dehydration to double bond oilHyqubunrylACI39 reduction to 50 produces butyrIACP I39 H 4 process requires 3 enzymes lrumnylALP lr39NADI H H uses 2 I V Smutquot i CH3 Hgi air 7 39 715311 numch i a 2m Blanks coia T39mmson Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid Biosynthesis rm ca era c s m butyrIACP added malonyIACP BHWACP Mal 10A 4 H 1 0 same 3 reactions take place to Hrw iHgimrlli im Mal 2m 4 H If H iltIHgiul izicHgicHgiHyitzHgitz i gim process repeated until mica 4H 11 required length achieved LZHSiLZHQiLIlgiIHziCHziCIlgi lljilHinHziviSi m MuliCnA 4 H 4 F 0 Niui zmerin Jrir U iHxi lei LzH inng ZHgi Hr Hg 7 LIHgiCl lz tIll iczngi grif n 127 1 i s i Mal iCnA 4 H 4 p HqicHg icHgi H27 IHinHg 72H2 Hgi cHgi IHg CHgicl lg 72H27H27H2717 s 7 160 palmitate 36 In animals mLSH Hjiu Hzmi 7 0 Palmitate 5200s ankslcale Tmnvsmt Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid Biosynthesis m alrlrmnixiw FA synthesis takes Niki lt urn zl f m n Fatty acid synthase large protein complex containing all the double bonds introduced by enzymes As with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis floxidation and FA synthesis are not direct opposites a 2005 Bicv u cnle Tlmmnw Lipid Metabolism Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Generally free FA do not exist in cells FA added to OH groups of glycerol HEC ZH IHg H22 ZH Il l3 I l 110 011 011 0 0 0 Glyceml 0ng g0 10 lt39 lt f y KI lt lt lt k I lt lt K gt v lt K 2 gt I 139 239 l gt a simple n39iacylglycerol wmmmm mmquot Lipid Metabolism Phospholipid Biosynthesis 2 FA added to glycerol3phosphate polar head group FA1 0 FA2 II O P O CH2CH2 NH O Phosphatidylethanolamine is me a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa u Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis essential part of used to make steroid hormones major contributor Cholesterol synthesized through I u r use of to produce 5 carbon compounds CH3 soprene A CH H20 2 soprene units can be condensed to form intermediates with carbons Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis lsoprenoid pathway involved in synthesis of ubiquinone coenzyme Q 939 transport vitamins chlorophyll H30 CH3 Chlorophyll a Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis Plants make many isoprenoids gt 20000 H capsidiol HO pigments Bcarotene in tomatoes J l cu EH W m an carotenoids UK quot0 Lulan tnn wphyll H0 Cnpmmthln 0quot 73mm Bcarotene used by body to make vitamin A H30 CH3 H3C H3C Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis General scheme acetate gt mevalonate gt gt gt cholesterol C2 CG CS 030 C27 Methyl m carbon N 7 I H Ilg ill I 113 1 l gt in z Jh gt llgZ Illllgl 391 quotWmquot m m m m y 39 L L C Carbonyl 39I 393 n I I carbon C Nahum quot 1 In rl39lv39l vm C C nl C m I l I 41 ll 11 3 l n m 1 l l m C Hfl H l12 1l2 7 32i HE l HEQ jlIE IHZ 39 3 c c C Squash1w I I m m 11 AY C C l Imlvsllrul JD 2008 BVDDKSCUE 7hamsuri Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis E chz H HgC C S COA X 3 00s J CH2OH AcetyICOA CHU CH Mevalonate 3 acetate from acetyICoA condensed 0 lmalmmlu kiuuw ADP Phnsphummlmmlu 39 kinuw MVA phosphorylated tWIce ADP HI H 0 I CHE W 1H2 CHL 5Pyrophosphomevalonate zun Emnhlcule Truman Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis 5pyrophosphomevalonate is decarboxylated to isopentenyl pyrophosphate IPP isomerized to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate Successive IPP added to DMAPP to Make C5 C10 C15 C20 C15farnesyl pyrophosphatel used for cholesterol 5 I I Hx n4 LI Am o v gum ll 112 H I lsopenlenyl pyrophosplmlc v W nltW Dimclhylallyl pyrophospllale Ilt I ilLi l punplmplmu lmpvmnml punylllwplmh39 W ltll 7 m Farncsyl pyrnphospllalt 6 2m amnion Yawngar Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Biosynthesis two C15 FPP condensed to make condensed tail head 0 O HO HO 0 77137l l7011 Hoi ioi il OH OH 0 0 W NADI H H MIquot 2 Squalene 1E 2005 Bmokslcmo Thomson WV lletabolism quotiljnTL ol Biosynlhesis i lt ne is cyclized to D l 39 w u 0 4 m 39 m 19 reactions by 19 enzymes convert MI Can lanosterol to 027 cholesterol mr 2 carbons lost of liver cells r i r m 39 Dualva Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Metabolism Steroid hormone production cholesterol converted to pregnenolone pregnenolone to progesterone sex hormones glucocorticoids cortisone carbohydrate protein FA metabolism mineralcorticoids aldosterone Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Metabolism Atherosclerosis condition of blocked artery by Cholesterol is transported in the blood in the form of Unesteri ed Apoprotein B100 cholesterol 39 ChOIeSteFOI phospholipids proteins LDL lipoprotein HDL lipoprotein Density determined by amount of protein omarmycnig Thurman An mnw If Y J g Jill1m un lipmm um swim of LI nuylnn l mum nf cluImrml m iilffuizt p I In mm s x I I x im Anle m Ova wk of 39 O 39 39 mu mmuhm g and a nlxu lmml awnX Imrum g r I lelmnul Wand l 3 Ml mmu A T J I 5 1 magma a me EmuGala gtT umn Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Metabolism LDL internalized to a cell by binding LDL broken down into cholesterol used in membranes oversupply of cholesterol turns off What type of regulation is this also stop production LDL can not be internalized builds up in arteries clogged arteries Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Metabolism Familial hypercholesterolemia genetic defect in genes that produce LDL never internalized to cell extremely high almost always lethal die before 20 years old reported heat attacks in 2 year olds Lipid Metabolism Cholesterol Metabolism HDL good cholesterol transports cholesterol from blood Ideal blood levels LDL HDL HDL can be increased by HDL is reduce by


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