RACE ETHNICITY & HEALTH
RACE ETHNICITY & HEALTH HLTH 236
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monty McClure on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 236 at Texas A&M University taught by Jeffrey Guidry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/225856/hlth-236-texas-a-m-university in Health Sciences at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Health 236 Midterm Exam Review Dr Jeffrey Guidry Covering Chapters 16 in the course textbook and class notes 30 Multiple Choice and 3 True False Review Chapter 4 Worksheet 0 Understand the Historical Background involved with minority health 0 African Americans arrived in America in 1619 slavery that lasted 244 years 0 The Thirteenth Amendment rati ed in 1865 outlawed slaver in the US and all territories 0 Jim Crow period the black codes relegated racial and ethnic minorities to secondclass citizenship o Tuskegee 19321972ica1ried out in Macon County Alabama involved 600 black men 399 with syphilis and 201 without disease The Us Public Health Service in trying to learn more about syphilis and justify treatment programs for blacks withheld adequate treatment from a group of poor black men who had the disease Researchers told the men they were being treated for bad blood They did not receive the proper treatment needed to cure their illness In exchange the men received free medical exams free meals and burial insurance It was originally projected to last 6 months but actually went on for 40 years Summer of 1973 a classaction lawsuit led by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP ended in a settlement that gave more than 9 million to the study participants and the Us government promised to give free medical and burial services to all living participants The Tuskegee Health Bene t Program was established to provide these services It also gave health services for wives widows and children who had been infected because of the study 0 Black people got inferior care because of their race 0 Civil Rights Act 1964 I Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations such as mass transportation restaurants and hotels on the basis of race color religion or national origin shifted government policy away from the support of racially discriminatory social norms 0 Voting Rights Act 1965 I Eliminated discriminatory election practices and suspended literacy tests ans provided for the appointment of federal examiners this and the CRA dismantled the most limiting components of the Jim Crow Laws and ful lled the constitutional guarantees contained in the 14Lh and 15 amendments o The arrival of the European settlers in the New World led to the introduction of diseases not native to the continent as well as war 0 Indian Removal Act O O I Signed by President Andrew Jackson ushered in a period of forcible removal of the five Civilized Tribes and their relocation Trail of Tears to reservations in Oklahoma territory Organization that was in charge of providing health care to Native American Tribes Indian Health Service Health Care organizations 0 Know the importance of studying minority health 0 O O O 0 Two demographic trends I An aging society combined with increasing proportions of minorities that place an increasing demand on a health care system that seems illprepared to handle it thus it s important for minority health to be a central feature of training programs in public health medicine nursing social work pharmaceutical science and other disciplines that relate to health Understand why health disparities exist I Group identity by appearance culture nationality and so on Provide adequate health services for all minorities Prepare for the next generation of health professionals to work with an in minority populations Minorities will eventually make up 50 of population o The definition of race and the race concept 0 O Race biological term used to describe ethnic groups on the basis of physical characteristics Blumenbach s classification of race Caucasian Mongolian Negro m American 0 Understand the problems involved with the race concept 1 E 4 O O O The concept has not been clearly defined nor consistently appliediraces are classified differently depending on the country There is no consensus definition of race Race is often confounded with other relate concepts such as ethnicity and nationality The existence of races has little support from biological or genetic research Two people with the same genetic makeup can receive a different designation depending on the society they are born The same person can have different status depending on when they were born before 1985 in Japan or after 1989 in the US The terms race ethnicity and nationality are 39r 1 o Often concepts such as ethnicity skin color and nationality are captured together in one inclusive term and this results in some degree of measurement error and leaves a great deal of room for erroneous interpretation of research findings as well as other consequences Understand demography and how it deals with minority health 0 Demography study of population 0 Characteristics that affect minority health behavioral environmental cultural Know the racialethnic composition of the United States by percent 0 300 million total US population 0 Racialethnic composition of the US by percent I Whites 751 I Blacks 123 I American IndianAlaska Native 09 I Asian 36 I HispanicLatino 125 0 Us Census every ten years of cial record of the population I Data from the rst census in 1790 was only categorized into four groups free white males free white females all other free persons and slaves I The second census added a clari cation that Indians not taxed were to be excluded in the tabulation of free persons I The 1910 census was the rst to use the term other I The twentieth century also saw the inclusion of additional nationalities including Filipino Mexican and Korean I Beginning in the 2000 census it became permissible for individuals to select as many racialethnic nationality groups as they desired Know statistics on teen childbearing 0 Know who has the highest and lowest I HighestiPuerto Ricans Lowestilapanese Chines and AsianPaci c Islander Understand fertility as it deals with minority health 0 Number of births per thousand females of childbearing age 1544 0 Fertility number of offspring produced by a population 0 Who has the highest and lowest rate I Hispanicsihighest I Whites and American Indiansilowest Understand epidemiology and it s importance within minority health 0 Epidemiology I The study of the distribution and determinants of mortality death and morbidity disease in human populations 0 Difference between age adjusted crude and other rates Age adjusted must be adjusted for age which minimizes the effects of differing age distributions when comparing different populations Unadjusted are limited because they do not account for differences in the age distribution of the comparison population I Crude everything 0 What is infant mortality used as a marker of general health status of a population calculated as a total number of infant deaths divided by the total number of live births times 1000 0 Life expectancy Number of years a given individual can expect to live assuming that mortality conditions at the person s birth remain the same Know the importance of studying the survival curve 0 Shows the proportion of a birth cohort group projected to be alive as the population ages The curve begins at 100 and the percent living declines as the population ages Understand the mortality crossover as it pertains to minority health 0 After a certain age 80 blacks live longer compared to white population Know the leading causes of death for minorities 0 Heart disease cancer stroke asthma and injuries Understand the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee such as date length of study etc 0 19321972 I Aim of study was to see if blacks reacted differently were untreated 0 Bad blood Understand the role of mental health as it deals with the minority population page 9495 0 Mental health the successful performance of mental function resulting in productive activities fulfilling relationships with other people and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity 0 Mental health problems signs and symptoms of insufficient intensity or duration to meet the criteria for any mental disorder 0 Mental illness the term that refers collectively to all mental disorders which are health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking mood or behavior associated with distress and or impaired functioning Stress how immigrants adapted to a new location Asians had a lower rate of mental illness because of social support families 0 Black population women are more susceptible to mental illness than men maybe generalizable across whole population Mood Disorders 00 o 00 lt Major Depressive Disorder a combination of symptoms that interfere with one s ability to work study sleep eat and enjoy pleasurable activities Dysthymic Disorder longterm chronic symptoms that do not disable but keep one from functioning well or from feeling good Bipolar Disorder cycling mood changes that include one or more manic episodes and one or more major depressive episodes Suicidal Disorder organized attempts to harm or kill oneself 39239 Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia brain disorder characterized by delusions hallucinations disorganized speech and behavior and so oni more prevalent in men but they get it at the same rate but men have more severe effects and are less responsive to medication 39239 Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder panic attacks or discrete periods of intense terror or discomfort in the absence of real threat or danger ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD intrusive anxious thoughts and impulses and engagement in ritualized or repetitive behaviors Posttraumatic Stress Disorder intense fear hopelessness and horror following an extreme traumatic event Social Phobia excessive or unreasonable fear about social or performance situations Specific Phobias intense and persistent fear of objects and situations that pose little or no actual danger Generalized Anxiety Disorder chronic persistent and exaggerated worry and tension that are difficult to control 39239 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa the restriction of food and the refusal to maintain a normal body weight Bulimia Nervosa recurrent episodes of binge eating excessive eating and purging 39239 Childhood Disorders AttentionDeficitHyperactivity Disorder developmental disorder of selfcontrol characterized by a pattern of inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity Autistic Disorder developmental disorder that affects a person s ability to communicate form relationships and respond appropriately to the environment 39239 Cognitive Disorders Alzheimer s Disease agerelated irreversible brain disorder manifested by memory loss decline in thinking and personality changes lt lt lt lt lt lt lt 0 Chapter 6 0 Health Care disparities differences in quality of care that are not due to clinically appropriate treatment decisions or patient preferencesi treatment equality and quality of care looking at treatment quality and outcome Health Status disparities differences among racial or ethnic groups in health status including morbidity mortality quotdifferences in statistics of morbidity mortality disability etc looking at the status of health among a group or population Health Care dissimilarities issues that are not caused by underlying inequities differences are by patient cultural preferences or patient choiceinatural differences that just happen because people are different and people s cultures are different patient preference looks at individual I Understand what the layman s terms is for the definitions Role of Institute of Medicine 198920027major research arm of federal government that looks at policy and programing regarding health care disparities Racial and ethnic variations and access and use of health care insurance trust of system and mistrust location transportation know where to get it and how to get it having knowledge Constructs of the Behavioral Model I Enabling factors relate to structural or material resources that can be barriers or facilitators in seeking care Exampleihaving health insurance the ability to take sick time off from work having access to transportation or having a preexisting relationship with a health care provider Predisposing factors measure the patient s inclination to use health services this includes the patient s attitudes toward using care which are in uenced by cultural beliefs prior experiences and perceptions Need for healthcare refers to the patient s perceived need for health care services this includes the individual s health status and the severity and duration of their symptoms 0 Population amp situations relating to cultural competence roles of health related and cultural values disease in most cases racial and ethnic minorities aren t seen by providers who aren t the same race as them 0 O O O O
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