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by: Monty McClure


Monty McClure
Texas A&M
GPA 4.0


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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monty McClure on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 231 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/225862/hlth-231-texas-a-m-university in Health Sciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
HLTH 231 Exam 1 Review Spring 2012 Chapter 1 Health risk refers to the likelihood of having a certain health condition It is usually defined in terms of behaviors and environment Risk factors The situations that contribute to the risk a person faces are called risk factors Some risk factorsare diseasespecific Risk factors considered controllable or modifiable include Alcohol use Blood pressure Drug abuse Hours of sleep Life satisfaction level Miles driven Physical activity level Seat belt use Strength of social ties Tobacco use Risk factors not considered controllable or modifiable include Exposure to environmental pollution Family history of breast cancer Family history of diabetes Family history of heart attack Having had a hysterectomy Abnormal Pap smear result Serious loss or misfortune in the past year Witnessing or involvement in a violent or potentially violent argument Health knowledge Is the accumulation of factual information that in uences health decision making Health records provide far more than a medical history They provide documented evidence of positive and negative health behavior You become healthy through developing healthy behaviors You become healthy through behavior change Often expressed in terms of health literacy health skills and health behavior Medical testsHealth assessment The normal pulse rate which ranges between sixty and eighty beatsper minute women s rates are at the higher end of this range while men s are at the lower end In adults a pulse rate greater than 120 beats per minute taken while resting is cause to check with a physician When a physician examines you and assesses your health he or she looks at three different measures Your health history A personal examination Laboratory tests Is conducted by a medical professional such as a physician and focuses on diagnosing whether you have a certain disease or medical condition The physical examination involves inspection auscultation listening and palpation touching Children under age six and adults over age sixty are more likely to get sick so they should have checkups about once a year even if they do not have any clinical symptoms or other signs of health problems Prevention Prevention means taking healthpromoting action to reduce the risk of disease and injury Prevention is the best strategy for achieving a healthy future Avoid the use of tobacco Get exercise on a routine basis Maintain normal body weight Drink alcohol in moderation if at all Practice safer sex Wear a seat belt Health skills Health skills are abilities that can help you achieve good health They are specific to healthy development or healthy behavior change As with other skills they evolve over time and with practice The better you perform a health skill the more likely you are to use it Motor skills involve some physical movement as in exercising or in brushing and ossing your teeth Intellectual skills include decision making gathering information and using good judgment Emotional skills involve managing stress dealing with feelings and using selfcontrol Social skills include listening helping others and asking for help Health literacy According to the National Health Education Standards health literacymeans being able to get interpret and understand basic health information and to use that information in ways that enhance your health and the health of others Selfdirected learning Using a variety of sources to get current credible and applicable information can help you make sound healthrelated decisions Critical thinking and problem solvingCritical thinking skills can help you gather analyze and apply health information to meet your personal needs Effective communicating There are a wide range of communication approaches from listening to writing to sharing information on the Internet that you can use to learn about health issues With effective communication skills you can create a climate of understanding and support for others to learn about health Being a responsible citizen Given your health knowledge you are in a strong position to help keep yourself your family and friends and your community healthy Health behavior Health behavior is a compleX interlocked set of actions and reactions to a variety of stimuli There are three basic kinds of health behavior preventive behavior illness behavior and sickrole behavior Preventive behavior helps you stay healthy Preventive behaviors enhance health by reducing your risk for diseases or unintentional injuries Illness behavioris what you do when you are not feeling well or have reason to believe you are not well Sickrole behavioris what you do after you have been diagnosed as sick Health style value attitude belief The term health style is a shortened version of the two words healthy and lifestyle A healthy lifestyle is one type of health style An unhealthy lifestyle is another type of health style Health style is best described as the sum of your health values beliefs and actions It is in uenced by l the factors that are involved in becoming healthy health knowledge health skills and health behavior39 2 your healthrelated values39 3 your healthrelated attitudes and beliefs39 4 your social and cultural environment39 and 5 the momentum developed by your health related decisions and actions health value is something related to health that is important A health attitude is your behavioral intention concerning health A health belief is something you believe to be true about health Health beliefs are especially important concerning disease prevention Wellness Wellness emphasizes your potential and responsibility for health Wellness is an ongoing process in which you are always moving either toward or away from the most favorable level of health Holistic health In this broad concept health encompasses physical mental emotional social spiritual and environmental aspects of an individual as well as of the community in which he or she lives The word holisticis based on the concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Chapter 2 Mental health professionalsA psychiatrist is a physician who has several years of specialty training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental problems Child psychiatrists specialize in working with children39 geriatric psychiatrists specialize in helping the elderly Of the mental health professionals only psychiatrists can prescribe antianxiety drugs antidepressants and other drugs The field of psychology covers many specialties including clinical treatment testing and research Some of the tasks that social workers are trained to perform involve individual and group therapy diagnosis and referral and consultation for mental health problems A mental health counselor is trained to help with decision making NonREM sleep the body may be active some people sleepwalk during this period but the mind is not In spite of this activity nonREM sleep is the time when the body does its repair and maintenance work including cell regeneration REM sleep the body is quiet but the mind is active even hyperactive REM sleep is the time not only for dreams but also for acceleration of the heart rate and blood flow to the brain At the same time skeletal muscles rarely move Suicide Every year approximately 30000 Americans commit suicide39 an additional 500000 attempt to kill themselves unsuccessfully Roughly 30 to 40 of persons who commit suicide have previously attempted to commit suicide More years of life are lost to suicide than to any other single cause of death except heart disease and cancer About 60 percent of people who commit suicide have had a mood disorder It is the third leading cause of death among people aged fifteen to twentyfour after unintentional injuries and homicide Depression Drop in grades Excessive worrying especially over grade Social isolation or withdrawal Extreme pessimism Substance abuse Change in normal habits Mental health an abstract concept is usually defined according to normal behavior Mental health is the ability to negotiate the daily challenges and social interactions of life without experiencing undue emotional or behavioral incapacity Biological system a psychological system and a social system Mentally well adjusted has a positive selfimage and good selfesteem39 experiences appropriate and stable moods39 maintains control of emotions and has the ability to love feel guilt and accept remorse39 demonstrates exibility and adaptability in social situations39 acknowledges personal strengths and accepts personal limitations39 tolerates ambiguity and understands that con ict is normal and that final solutions to problems may not exist39 and does not distort reality consciously or unconsciously Maslow s Hierarchy of NeedsSelfActualizalion Selffulfillment Full Potentiality Ideal Development Full Power of Self Esteem NeedsRecognition Worthwhileness Being Needed Achievement Competence Belongingness or Love Needs Belonging Acceptance Affiliation Affectionate Relations Identification Safety Needs Security Stability Freedom from Threator D anger N eed to ally one s selfw iih the familiar and secure UnafraidPhysiological NeedsFood Oxygen Water Sleep Self conceptef cacyesteem Selfconcept is how you see yourself It includes a selfassessment of your strengths and weaknesses Selfesteem is how you value yourself High selfesteem means that you respect yourself and consider yourself worthy If you believe that you can get a job done in an appropriate and timely manner you have a good sense of selfefficacy Selfefficacy is more than knowing what to do it also involves integrating that knowledge into your sense of who you are Anxiety Americans experience anxiety more than any other mental health problem Sixteen percent of adults have experienced symptoms of anxiety at some point in a given year Anxiety disorders are generally viewed as cognitive distortions or unsatisfactory ways of reacting to life situations Mental health disordersThe National Institute of Mental Health has estimated that one in four adults 18 or older have been diagnosed with a mental disorder in a given year Affected by numerous factors including 1 genetics39 2 physical abilities disabilities or vulnerabilities39 and 3 social and environmental conditions and stressors Signs of mental health Spirituality and mental health Spirituality a belief or sense that your life is part of a larger unifying force whether that be organized religion or the natural world is emerging as a relevant factor in mental health Spirituality can have a profound effect on mental states Chapter 3 Stress response is a series of events within the body developing immediately or over an extended period of time that involves chemicals hormones and neural impulses Types of stressors Physical stressors strenuous physical activity hunger thirst pain cold lack of sleep illness injury temporary disability Environmental stressors polluted air and water extremes in temperature noise crowding and overpopulation lack of privacy natural disasters Psychological stressors test taking academic failure frustration anger guilt anxiety marriage loss of a friend vacation threats to selfesteem death of a relative extreme joy excitement in anticipation of an event Social stressors racial and religious prejudice sexual harassment underemployment and unemployment public speaking class reunion isolation Personality and stress Type A personalityis described as being excessively hostile competitive aggressive driven and impatient Someone with this personality would find it stressful to be stuck in a traffic jam or to wait in a supermarket or bank line Type B personality in contrast is described as being relatively more relaxed and patient Type C personality which is described as feeling helpless and hopeless Type C s repress their feelings and rarely display anger when something is bothering them hardy personality is described as being resistant to stressinduced illness because he or she adapts positively to stressors and tends to have a low physiological response to it Hardy personalities see change as a challenge not a threat They also have a belief in themselves and what they are doing Endo rphins An increase in the production of the hormone endorphin which is thought to cause a feeling of euphoria Coping strategies Changing perception This involves changing the way you perceive and define a stressful event Managing time By setting personal priorities you can control the stressors in your life rather than allow them to control you Once an emotion is honestly labeled actions can be undertaken to release it Types of stress Distress and Eustress Distress is the type of stress that brings about negative mental or physical responses in your body Cause distress include a major exam a fight with a roommate and major life events such as family celebrations and moving to a new cityBurnout this is the relative term used to describe what happens to people who work hard and do not receive many tangible results Eustress is a healthy part of daily life After experiencing eustress people are able to relax and enjoy a feeling of peacefulness and tranquility Examples of events that cause eustress are OIBIJEa vacation a personal achievement or an exciting classroom or workplace experience Eustress can help channel nervous energy into better performance and productivity GAS 1956 general adaptation syndrome GAS Here are three distinct phases to the body s reaction to stress alarm reaction resistance and exhaustion First stage The body mobilizes its forces to meet the threatening situation similar to a call to arms Second stage At this point calming chemicals are produced and the body relaxes and returns to its normal state after the immediate threat has disappeared Third stage When stress is persistent and chronic the body may not have a chance to restore itself to a state of equilibrium or its baseline pre stressed state When this happens a person enters the exhaustion stage It is in this stage that you are more susceptible to illness and disease Managing emotions Chapter 4 Essential food nutrients carbs ber proteins fats Vitamins minerals and water Carbohydrates are made up of sugars and starches Sugars such as table sugar sucrose honey and com syrup are simple carbohydrates and contain molecules made of only one or two sugar units Starches found in whole grains fruits and vegetables are complex carbohydrates39 chemically they are composed of chains of many sugar units Carbohydrates represent the body s primary source of energy Fiber is a complex carbohydrate Soluble fiber helps to reduce blood cholesterol thereby lowering the risk of coronary heart disease Fiber is an important factor in disease prevention Colon cancer can be largely prevented by adding more fiber to a diet Proteins are the building blocks of the body They provide the structural framework for the skin hair nails cartilage tendons and muscles They provide an important structural part of the bones and are essential for the body s growth as well as maintenance the regulation of body processes and the replacement of body cells In fact proteins are a vital part of every cell Proteins are made up of over twenty amino acids Proteins are not stored Fats are the most concentrated source of energy in your diet They also add avor to foods and are essential for the body s absorption of fatsoluble Vitamins A D E and K Saturated Fats bad Unsaturated Fats good Trans Fat really bad because increase low density lipoproteins LDLs the bad cholesterol and decrease high density lipoproteins HDLs the good cholesterol Plant foods do not contain cholesterol Vitamins are the tools used by the body to process food They do not supply energy but they help release it from carbohydrates proteins and fats Fatsoluble VitaminsA D E and K are stored by the body s fat cells Watersoluble Vitamins the B Vitamins and Vitamin C are not stored by the body and amounts not used by the body are excreted in urine Minerals form healthy bones and teeth regulate body functioning and help nerves and muscles react normally Minerals are diVided into two categories major and trace Maj or minerals are needed in the diet in amounts of 100 milligrams or more per day Trace minerals are essential to healthy liVing but are needed in smaller amounts Often called the forgotten nutrient water is essential to life Without it you could live only about one week About 65 to 70 percent of your body weight is made up of water in the form of blood saliva sweat urine cellular uids and digestive enzymes In all these Various forms water helps transport nutrients remove wastes and regulate body temperature My PyramidFood Guide Pyramid Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition that is characterized by a weakening of the bones In women bones reach their maximum density and strength at around age thirty In men bone mass loss begins approximately twenty years later and proceeds at about half the rate as in women One of the best defenses against osteoporosis is a lifelong history of weightbearing exercise Eating Styles Fast Food Eating out Eating while watching tv etc Vegetarianism The vegetarian diet has gained popularity in recent years particularly among women True Vegetarians also called vegans eat no meat chicken fish eggs or any milk products in their diet Lactovegetarians eat dairy products but no other animal products Ovolactovegetarians who eat eggs as well as dairy products Chapter 5 Obesity Obesity refers to adiposity a surplus of body fat more than 30 percent for women and 25 percent for men Dietitians described obesity in terms of percentage of Ideal body weight If a person is 120 of their Ideal body weight or more there are considered morbidly obese Overweight Overweight on the other hand refers to a simple excess of body weight relative to a specified standard for height Underweight Anyone who is more than 10 percent lighter than average for his or her height and build may be at an increased health risk In general thin people have higher mortality rates than individuals of average weight Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental condition characterized by starvation behavior It primarily affects women fewer than 1 percent of all women most particularly adolescent girls but also occurs in men Bulimia is another eating disorder that affects between 1 and 3 percent of young women It is characterized by the extreme behavior of binge eating and purging Binge eating disorder which is found in about 2 percent of the population resembles bulimia because it involves periods of uncontrolled eating People with this disorder consume enormous quantities of food and stop eating only when they are uncomfortably full Assessing weightW eight Management No matter what the time period cultural norms greatly in uence a person s perception of what is overweight and underweight Proper weight varies from person to person and even in one person throughout his or her life Accurately assessing your body weight is a health skill that you will use in your entire life It is not as simple as stepping on a bathroom scale and reading from the dial but must be considered in relation to other factors such as age height body type and level of exercise Childhood obesity factors Childhood obesity is in uenced by a number of factors including parents weight age marital status socioeconomic class and race Fad Diets Highprotein lowcarbohydrate diets These are based on the theory that when in the absence of carbohydrates the body burns fat as its major energy source acidic products called ketones develop and these are supposed to induce weight loss Lowprotein highcarbohydrate diets These consist of a lot of cereal pasta fruit and vegetables Protein sparing diets These are nearstarvation diets They involve a caloric intake of 300 to 500 calories in a liquid protein formula BMI he body mass index BMI is a measure of weight in relation to height In general if your BMI is in the 19 24 range consider yourself healthy if it is in the 25 29 range 20 to 30 pounds above the norm for your height you may be considered overweight and if it is 30 and above roughly 30 or more pounds overweight you are considered obese Chapter 6 Strength Strength is the extent to which you are capable of exerting force as neededAbsolute strength refers to the total force exerted in one effort for example lifting a lOOpound weight Relative strength is determined by dividing absolute strength by body weight About 45 percent of men s body weight is muscle whereas women s bodies are about 36 percent muscle Flexibility Flexibility is the range of movement an individual can achieve around a joint or group of joints It is usually determined by muscle elasticity Good muscular elasticity can increase your agility and your speed but more importantly it can reduce your chance of injury to muscles tendons and ligaments Endurance Endurance is a term for the ability to exercise vigorously at a sustained level for a period of time A fit person can maintain vigorous activity for at least 20 minutes without taking a break Three phases of exercise Isokinetic exercise involves slow moving contractions throughout a full range of movement against a constant resistance This form of exercise requires special heavy equipment in a gym Isotonic exercise involves contracting muscles against a movable resistance as in lifting weights Isometric exerciseinvolves muscle contractions performed against an immovable object such as a wall No special equipment is needed for isometric exercise Bene ts of physical activity Reduces the risk of dying prematurely Reduces the risk of dying from heart disease Reduces the risk of developing diabetes Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer Reduces feelings of depression stress and anxiety Helps control weight Helps build and maintain healthy bones muscles and joints Helps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling Promotes psychological wellbeing Maintaining a tness program There are two important reasons for measuring fitness before beginning a new fitness program Unknown physical problems can be detected in order to design a modified program that will reduce risk And baseline data can be established so that progress can be measured Warm up Conditioning and Cool Down are the three steps to a work out Levels of physical activity More importantly the warmup period is a means of avoiding unnecessary injury and may be related to a reduction in muscle soreness The conditioning period varies greatly from individual to individual Cooldown period this involves reducing the intensity of exercise to allow the body to recover partially from the conditioning period SMART goals S Specific M Measureable A Attainable R Realistic T Timely


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