INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 107
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 107 at Texas A&M University taught by Jack Bodden in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/225869/psyc-107-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
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xtrexx the importance oi the llnltllnxltillllx mind extenxire interpretation by the lhuapixl and the role ol early childhood experientex iii the develllpmellt ol en individual x prohleiiii the goal of psychodynamic therapies is to help individuals gain insight into the unconscious con icts that are the source of th eir problems Psychodynamic Therapies 0 Psychoanalysis insight therapies Freud s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual s unconscious thoughts the psychoanalysis s goal is to bring unconscious con icts into conscious awareness individual thus giving the client insight into his or her core problems and freeing the from unconscious influences Technique includes free association interpretation dream analysis analysis of transference and analysis of resistance Free association involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Interpretation the therapist searches for symbolic meanings in what the individual says and does Dream Analysis interpreting dreams Transference a client s relating to the psychoanalysis in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual s life Resistance term for the client s unconscious defense strategies that prevent the analyst from understanding the person s problems it occurs because it is painful for the client to bring conflicts into conscious awareness o Humanistic Therapies insight therapies emphasize on people s selfhealing capacities that encourage I 0 Behavior Therapies clients to understand themselves and to grow personally ClientCentered Therapy roger s therapy a form of humanistic therapy in which the therapist provides a warm supportive atmosphere to improve the client s selfconcept and to encourage the client to gain insight to the problem places far more emphasis on client s selfre ection o Re ective Speech a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client s own feelings back to the client 0 Rogers believed that humans require three essential elements to grow unconditional positive regard empathy and genuineness based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior 0 Cognitive Behavior therapists strive to eliminate known symptoms or behaviors rather than trying to get individuals to gain insight into or awareness of Therapies emphasize that cognitions or thoughts are the main source of psychological problems and they attempt to change the individual s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions Cognitive Restructuring a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion is central to cognitive therapies Cognitive therapies emphasize that cognitions or thoughts are the main source of psychological problems and they attempt to change the individual s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions They focus more on overt symptoms that on deepseated unconscious thoughts by providing more structure to the individual s thoughts and by being less concerned about the origin of the problem What makes faces attractive Symmetry amp Youthfulness Selfserving bias the tendency to take credit for out successes and to deny responsibility for our failures If you fail a test you ll blame situational factors such as the test was nothing like the review but if you pass an exam you ll take credit by making internal attributions such as I studied hard Fundamental attritional error when observers overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor s behavior for example new coverage of Hurricane Katrina conveyed grim images of individual s who had not evacuated and were left homeless and helpless in the storms aftermath An observer might have concluded they were foolish not to get out in time In fact situational factors including lacking financial resources or a means of transportation may have prevented them from leaving Cognitive dissonance a concept developed by Festinger an individual s psychological discomfort caused by two inconsistent thoughts We feel uneasy when we notice an inconsistency between what we believe and what we do Festinger did a study involving college students soring spools then were paid to persuade another student to participate in the study because the task was enjoyable Altruism unselfish interest in helping another person EmpathyI key social emotion involved in altruism a feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person The key to altruism is the extent to which we can put ourselves in another39s shoes Bystander effectzlhe tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when then observer is aloneDiffusion of responsibility among witnesses and the tendency to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do Violence and Video games Children and adolescents who play violent video games extensively are more aggressive less sensitive to reallife violence more likely to engage in delinquent acts and more likely to get lower grades Milgram s researchElectric shock experiment Majority about 23 of participants obeyed experimenter Disobedience more common whenothers disobeyed authority figure not legitimate or not close by victim made to seem more human Obedience Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority Deindividualism the reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is a part of a group Group Polarization Effect The solidification and further strengthening of an individual39s position as a consequence of a group discussion May occur bc of hearing new more persuasive arguments or bc of social comparison Groupthink the impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decision is less important than maintaining group harmony 0 To avoid groupthink avoid isolation allow all sides of an argument be aired have impartial leaders include outside experts Social Ioafing each person s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort Normative Social Influences the in uences others have on us because we want them to like us Informational Social In uence the in uence other people have on us because we want to be right Mere Exposure Effectthe more we encounter someone or something a person a word an image the more likely we are to start liking the person or thing even if we don t realize we have seen it before Abnormal Behavior behavior that is deviant maladaptive or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time 0 Deviant unusual o Maladaptive interferes with ones ability to function effectively in the world 0 Personal Distresszyaaa Diagnostic an Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was introduced in I994 and revised in 2000 the major classification of psychological disorders in the United States includes 374 disorders Anxiety Disorders involve fears that are uncontrollable disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in and disruptive of ordinary life They feature motor tension jumpiness trembling hyperactivity dizziness a racing heart and apprehensive expectations and thoughts 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorder psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and in which the individual is unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety caused by defiency in GABA and respiratory system abnormalities or having harsh self standards overly strict and critical parents automatic negative thoughts when feeling stressed and a history of uncontrollable traumas or stressors o PanicDisorder anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent sudden onsets of intense warning and with no specific cause individuals may have a genetic predisposition o Phobic Disorder anxiety disorder characterized by irrational overwhelming persistent fear of a particular object or situation phobias begin in childhoods when people go at crazy lengths to avoid a particular situation I Social Phobiazan intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in d situations 0 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxietyprovoking thoughts that will not go away andor urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation I Obsessive recurrent thoughts I Compulsive recurrent behaviors o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event a severely oppressive situation or a natural or an unnatural disaster Mood Disorders psychological disorders in which there is a primary disturbance of mood prolonged emotion that colors the individual s entire emotional state 0 Depressive Disorders mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life I Major Depressive Disordeninvolves a significant depressive episode and depressed characteristics such as lethargy and hopelessness for at least two weeks MDD impairs daily functioning and it has been called the leading cause of disability in the US Dysthymic Disorder a mood disorder that is generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than MDD The individual is in a depressed mood for most days for at least two years as an adult or at least one year as a child or adolescent Hallucinations sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli Delusions False unusual and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual s culture Obsessive Compulsive Disorder anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away andor urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation Bipolar disordEr extreme mood swing including more than one episode of mania Suicide is associated with low levels of serotonin Health Psychology emphasizes psychology39s role in 0 Establishing and maintaining health 0 Preventing and treating illness 0 Focus on behavioral and cognitive factors Behavioral Medicine 0 Interdisciplinary field to 0 Promote health 0 Reduce iness Focus on behavioral and biomedical knowledge Dissociative Disorders involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the dissociation of the individuals conscious awareness from previous memories or thoughts 0 Dissociative amnesia extreme memory loss caused by extreme psychological stress 0 Dissociative Fugue amnesia and traveling aaway from home 0 Schizophrenia characterized by highly disordered thought processes referred to as psychotic because they are so far removed from reality I Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia o Hallucinations o Delusions 0 Thought disorder 0 Disorders of movement I Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia 0 Social withdrawal 0 Behavioral deficits o Lossdecrease of normal functions Antisocial Personality Disorder characterized by guiltlessness Iaw breaking exploitation of others irresponsibility and deceit Psychopaths remorselessness predators who engage in violence Borderline Personality Disorder characterized by pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships self image and emotions and marked impulsivity beginning in early adulthood present in a variety of contexts enaeamnnxx payxnaanieni Biwrdl Evrydy Anxi ms ty Ind Anxiety DMr u Anuaanty mugs Inhdcylnmmdmm anmnnny Maud Disorder unwille dinedquot rn yene drugs MAO lenzyghnw Readout lnhibllars mitt SSRi emprovummll thug Iipulnrdllnm ininnm i go twenty xkaw Sdiixophmnk cumin 3953 en xnnyxsyennne Irwmvcmnm mndrmlium vasiinlial lmpruulmum nutnannnayaangx Maximum AntlMiely sing Mann nnn anew immvummx rneyene manna meaty m we inhlhmm impmmmlnl Anlizi uimy my vamy man malanliai impvoumenl unyiaiepnex nlyvl39mi Mllmrryshow Mini Sid E acu mime awning ww ui tn Ibvigrr men taxn anv may tan n didivn Mtidlpmhnnl drug 00 bIuw 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xeintnnin anl nnrepinephrine I Iiiur interiere with reahxnrptinn iii xerntnnin in brain anti deprmlm nit ling dininixh agitated behavior redute tenxillll deaeaxe hallutillalillllx improve mill Ml behavior and pmdllt letter xleep pattern in inliyilnaix with xevere pqdlulugial limiter expedal x in renia Hui Iiiilu lalanoe lllat xllmethin AliDwain drug that regulat Aniamy m and Ian excitable i dug Premntemplatinn nteni latiiin PreparationDetermination innWill leer Maintenance IEGA39I39IE EIU OI SI39IEI MI IIEIIJ39II till S l nnntnly known ax tnannnilixeix drugs the milk anxiety lty making inliyilnalx all POSITIVE EMOTIONS SOCIAL SUPPORT AND HEALTH ch4 Selfefficacy in uences development of healthy habits persistence in face of obstacles and experience of stress the belief that one can set a goal and achieve it E TYPE A PERSONALITY Development refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life Brain 0 O 0 Cognitive Development refers to how thought intelligence and language processes change as people change I Piaget s Theory children actively construct their cognitive world as they go through a series of stages Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Assimilation occurs when individuals incorporate new information into existing knowledge the first time a child realizes that she might suck her thumb she is assimilating the category thumb into the schema of sucking Accommodation occurs when individuals adjust their schemas to new information Rather than sucking on a teddy bear the accommodates into a new schema snuggling Sensorimotor Stage infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor actions Preoperational Stage the child begins to represent the world with words and images These words and images re ect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action Concrete Operational Stage the child can reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different seats Formal Operational Stage the adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways Personality Development I Erik Erikson proposed 8 psychological stages of development from infancy through old age 0 Trust vs I listmst o Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 0 Initiative vs Guilt 0 Industry vs Inferiority Cereme Cortex part of the forebrain and is the most recently developed part of the brain in the evolutionary scheme I Lobes 0 Occipital Lobes located at the back of the head respond to visual stimuli process visual info like color shape and motion 0 Temporal Lobes involved in hearing language processing and memory O 0 Learning 0 O O 0 Frontal Lobesinvolved in personality intelligence and control of voluntary muscle 0 Parietal Lobe involved in registering spatial location attention and motor control Neocorteic the outermost part of the cerebral cortex Neurons Cell body dendrites and an agtlton I Cell Body the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance Dendrites treelike fibers projecting form a neuron which receive information and orient it toward the neuron s cell body Axon the part of the neuron that caries information away from the cell body toward other cells Operant Conditioning a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior s occurrence I Skinner s study of pigeonguided missile I SkinnerBox pressing the lever released a food pellet Classical Conditioning learning processes in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response Pavlov used a study involving dogs I Unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning I Unconditioned Response an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the I Conditioned Stimulus a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus I Conditioned Response the learned response to the conditioned stimulus after the UCSCS pairing Observational Learning Learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates another s behavior I Attention I Retention I Motor Reproduction I Reinforcement or incentive Conditions Health Psychology 0 CopingwithStress I Problem focused coping cognitive strategy of squarely facing one s troubles and trying to solve them Emotionfocused coping involves responding to the stress that you are feeling trying to manage your emotional reaction rather than confronting the root problem Hardiness characterized by a sense of commitment and of control and a perception of problems as challenges Psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes 0 It s a science because it uses methods Correlational Research research that examines the relationships between variables whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together Observational Research watching Experimental Research involves establishing causal relationships between variables Causation 77
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