INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 107
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 107 at Texas A&M University taught by Steven Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/225870/psyc-107-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
PSYC 107 Exam 1 Belief Systems 1 Authority 2 Intuition 3 Personal Experience 4 Logic 5 Science a Selfcorrecting All of the belief systems can be wrong but science is selfcorrecting Research Methods for Behavioral Science 1 Naturalistic observation a Observing subjects in their natural state 2 Case Study a Long term observation Indepth c Looking for patterns 57 3 Survey a Asking people b Questionnaire Impersonal c Interview Inperson i More reactive d Factors affecting accuracy i Sampling 1 Good sample representative sample characteristics similar to the population it came from N Bad sample biased sample not representative 5 Random sample every member in pop has equal chance of being chosen for the sample e No conclusion about causeeffect 4 Correlation a Relation between two variables i Dependent one that you measure ii Independent like age b No conclusion about causeeffect i 10 lt r lt10 r is a statistical measure of correlation 5 Experiment a Manipulate independent variable b Control all other variables c Observe effects on dependent variable d Scientific method is used to construct models for representation of the world e Operational Definition is a clear concise detailed definition of a measure Must be i Valid does it measure what it is supposed to measure ii Reliable results should be the same when done different people and times f Validity i lnternal validity 1 does the variable cause the phenomenon are you actually testing what you want ii External validity 1 Generalizing to other studies 2 Generalizing to the real world ecological validity Biopsychology 1 Neuropsychology what part of the nervous system does what 2 Psychophysiology measure psychical signs heart rate etc to make psychological inferences 3 Genetics comparativeevolutionary The Neuron ow Dendrite receives neural messages into soma cell body receives neurotransmitters Soma the body of the cell where information is processed Axon tail messages are sent from here as neurotransmitters a Axon terminals end of the axon that forms synapse with another neuron A human has about 100200 billion neurons Synaptic knob contains synaptic vesicles that contain neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters chemicals that are relay amplify and modulate signals a b c d e f g Acetylcholine PNS activates muscles CNS excitement Serotonin anger aggression body temperature mood sleep human sexuality appetite and metabolism stimulating vomiting GABA gammaaminobutyric acid acts at inhibitory synapses excitation Glutamate metabolism food additive and flavor Norepinephrine waking up antidepressant Dopamine pleasure rewarding motivation Endorphin analgesia and a sense of wellbeing excitement pain orgasm Receptor sites sites on dendrites that receive neurotransmitters Reuptake reabsorption of a neurotransmitter lnhibitory neurotransmitter NO signal STOP OFF O Excitatory neurotransmitter YES signal GO ON 1 Other brain cells 1 Glial cells a Grey fatty nonneuron cells b Support and nutrition c Form myein d Schwann cells i Provide myein insulation to axons ii Myelin sheath 1 surrounds axon 2 electrically insulating dielectric material 3 speeds up transmission of electrical impulses Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System 1 Autonomic nervous system involuntary a Sympathetic i Speeds up body ii Prepares for stress b Parasympathetic i Calms body down c Afferent neurons sensory 9 sensory pathways d Efferent neurons motor 9 motor pathways 2 Somatic nervous system voluntary Feb 3 2009 Central Nervous System 1 Spinal Cord bundle of nerves a Functions i Receive signals from sensory neurons ii Send signals to motor neurons iii Transfer information to and from the brain b Reflex arc hardwired sensory 9 interneuron 9 motor fast 2 Brain a Parts in order of formation hind mid fore i Hindbrain 1 Reticular formation when it is activated you are awake 2 Medulla oblongata essential body functions heartbeat breathing etc 3 Pons receives information from visual areas to control eye and body movements relays information to cerebellum 4 Cerebellum coordinates fl muscle movement ii Midbrain general arousal and motivation production of neurotransmitters 1 Tegmentum floor 2 Tectum roof iii Forebrain 1 Cerebrum cerebral cortex covering of cerebrum a Left hemisphere verbal writing b Right hemisphere nonverbal tasks spatial motor c Connected by corpus callosum d Four sections lobes divided by convolutions i Frontal 1 Motor cortex signal body to move 2 Thinking decision making 3 Longterm memory ii Parietal 1 Receives sensory signals from the body iii Temporal 1 Speech 2 Memory 3 Hearing iv Occipital 1 Vision 2 Dreams 3 Mental images 2 Limbic system subcortical structures a Hypothalamus i Regulatory processes temperature thirst hunger ii Four F s Fleeing Feeding Fighting Mating b Pituitary gland i Master of endocrine system hormones messengers c Amygdala i Feelings of intense emotion rage embarrassment ii Hangs off the end of the hippocampus d Brain stem e Hippocampus i Logical ii Putting stuff emotions together iii Binding process iv Putting shortterm memory into longterm f Thalamus it is kind of eggshaped i Receives sensory signals 39i Routing them to the right place iii Emotion iv Some aspects of sleep g Basal Ganglia i Sends activationarousal to the part of the brain that activates motor functions action ii Dopamine is manufactured b Folds in the brain are called convulsions Brain Imaging Techniques 1 Electrode implants in the brain 2 EEG electroencephalogram a Less intrusive doesn t go in the brain b Reads brain waves magnetic 3 PET Scan Positron Emission Tomography positron emitting radionuclide injected 4 TMS Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain weak electric currents are induced in the tissue by rapidly changing magnetic fields wand 5 fMRl Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging measures brains response to activity 6 NIRS Near Infrared Spectroscopy Sensation and Perception Feb 5 2009 Sensation 1 Detection of stimuli something out in the environment 2 The senses U1 0 a Vision visual detects light electromagnetic radiation 39 Cornea covering of eye Pupil hole that light goes through iquot lris pigmented part that can expand or contract to let more light iv Lens can expand or contract to focus v Retina neurons in the back of the eyes detect brightness wavelength etc 1 Blind spot where neurons bind together optic nerve insensitive to light Fovea sharpest images highly concentrated neurons high res Cones need more light can see color don t function in dim light Rods cannot see color Photoreceptor layer cones rods DUIwale Bipolar cell layer transfer info from photoreceptor to ganglion 7 Ganglion cell layer carry stimulus to thalamus optic nerve vi Visual field what you can see at any given movement Hearing auditory detects sound waves Touch haptic detects pressure temperature etc Taste gustatory detects chemicals Smell olfactory detects chemicals Balance vestibular detects gravity Kinesthesia detects movement anhmapzy Proprioception detects limbs position Bottomup process a Environment 9Stimulus energy 9 Sensory receptors 9 Neural impulses 9 Brain b Reflects psychical stimuli veridically accurately Absolute threshold the minimum amount of energy our senses can consciously detect 50 of the time a Vision candle flame at 30 miles b Hearing ticking watch 20 ft c Taste 1 tsp of sugar in 1 gal of water d Smell 1 drop of perfume through three rooms Difference threshold aka Just noticeable difference JND a The smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 of the time Adaptation amp Habituation a Sensory adaptation tendency of sensory receptors to fatigue and stop responding to an unchanging stimulus i This is a psychical bottomup process b Habituation tendency of the brain to stop noticing constant unchanging information 7 Psychophysics a Study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them b Light brightness c Sound volume d Pressure weight e Taste sweetness Perception 1 Interpretation identification and organization of sensory information 2 Perception a Perceptual cues are used b Perception is active constructive c Perceptual interpretation can be wrong d Perception is affected by experience 3 Topdown processing a Information process guided by higherlevel mental process b When we construct perceptions by drawing on our experience and expectations c Often imposes meaning that does not exist in the psychical stimulus d Not veridical e Top down processing starts with an expectation perceptual set i The tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations 4 Perceptualorganization a Individualized by experience b How your brain makes sense of the world which includes quothiding I from your certain changes in stimuli so that the stimuli continue to appear constant to you constancies 5 Brightness constancy a The tendency to see objects as continuing to have the same brightness even though light may change their immediate sensory properties 6 Size constancy a The tendency to interpret a familiar object as always being the same actual size regardless of its distance from the eyes retinal size 7 Shape constancy a Perceiving the quotrealquot shapes of objects regardless of their retinal projections 8 Gestalt principles a Simplicity b Closure c Continuity d Similarity e Proximity f Common fate g Figureground tendency to perceive objects figures as standing out from their surroundings ground 9 Depth Perception a Images on retina are 2D b How do we perceive 3D depth CUE approach we learn the connection between cues and depth through experience yielding 3D perceptions Binocular cues cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes 1 Retinal disparity a Images from the two eyes differ b Closer the object the larger the disparity 2 Convergence a Neuromuscular cue iquot Monocular cues 1 Cues for perceiving depth based on one eye a Linear perspective The tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge as distance increases Objects close to convergence are perceived as being farther away b Shading c Relative size d lnterposition overlap i Assumption that an object appearing to block part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer e Texture gradient f Motion parallax i Perception of objects in motion where closer objects appear to move faster than farther objects 10 Vision a Ventral stream occipital to temporal i What Trying to recognize the object b Dorsal stream occipital to parietal i Where Trying to recognize where the object is located in the environment Learning relatively permanent change in behavior and brain new neural pathway is formed Operant conditioning 1 Shaping a A type of operant conditioning for complex behavior that involves breaking it down into steps called approximated behaviors b Successive approximations to goal behavior 2 Schedules of reinforcement a Continuous i Rewarded every time action is complete Learning is faster Partial reinforcement schedules ii b Rewarded some of the time irregularity Resistance to extinction is greater compared to continuous schedules Ratio byjob vs lnterval by time Fixed vs variable more resistant to extinction