ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 306
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 306 at Texas A&M University taught by Arnold Leunes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see /class/225872/psyc-306-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
Reviews for ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/21/15
ABNORMAL PSYC REVIEW EXAM IV CHAPTER 8 The moods of people with mood disorders tend to last 0 A long time What are the key emotions in mood disorders 0 Depression and Mania What is depression 0 A low sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges are overwhelming What is Mania 0 The opposite of depression is a state of breathless euphoria or at least frenzied energy in which people may have exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking Most people with mood disorder suffer from only what which is called 0 Depression unipolar depression People with unipolar depression have no history of lifts and return to a normal or nearly normal mood when 0 Maniadepression What is bipolar disorder 0 Periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression What is unipolar mania o Mood disorder that is uncommon in which people experience mania only Name a few famous people who have had severe depressions and mood disorders 0 Saul Moses Queen Victoria of England and Abe Lincoln 0 Ernest Hemingway Eugene O Neill Virginia Woolfand Sylvia Plath Economic costs a year of mood problems 0 80 billion Some downturns in mood can be beneficial because they can lead us to explore 0 Our inner selves our values and our way of life and we often emerge with a sense of greater strength clarity and resolve Approx ofadults in US suffers from severe unipolar pattern of depression in a year 0 7 Approx of adults suffers from mild forms of unipolar depression 0 5 The median age for unipolar depression s onset is years old in the US o 34 People in their s are more likely than those in any other age group to be unipolar o 40 Women are at least times as likely as men to experience episodes of severe UPD with men at and women and o Two1226 Approx the people with UPD recover within six weeks and within a year 0 V2 90 Depression symptoms which often exacerbate one another span five areas of functioning o Emotional motivational behavioral cognitive and physical What are the emotional symptoms of depression 0 Sad dejected miserable empty humiliated lose sense of humor little pleasure anxiety anger agitation crying spells Motivational Symptoms 0 Lose desire to pursue activities lack of drive initiative spontaneity paralysis of will What percentage of adults suffers from mood disorders each year 0 US 96 o FRANCE 85 o JAPAN 31 What represents the ultimate escape from life s challenges 0 suicide What percent of people with severe depression commit suicide 0 615 Behavioral Symptoms 0 Less active time spent alone stay in bed for long periods move and speak lessslowly Cognitive Symptoms 0 Negative views of 39 feel 39 inferior even evil blame are 39 39 39 helplessr 39 39 suicidalthinking confused lossof memories easily distracted unable to solve simple problemsSleep amp appetite lossgain Physical Symptoms o Headaches indigestion constipation dizzy spells and general pain Many 39 r 39 are 39 quot Ias at first 0 Medical problems What is a major depressive episode 0 Period marked by at least five symptoms of depression and lasting for two weeks or more In extreme cases of MD episodes some symptoms are 0 Psychotic I delusions bizarre ideas without foundation I Hallucinations perceptions of things that are not actually present People who experience a MD episode without ANY history of mania receive a diagnosis of 0 Major depressive disorder What is recurrent MDD o If it has been preceded by previous episodes Seasonal 0 Changes with the seasons Postpartum o Occurs within four weeks of giving birth Melancholic o If the person is almost totally unaffected by pleasurable events People who display a longerlasting two years but less disabling pattern of UPD may have 0 Dysthymic disorder When dysthymic disorder leads to MDD the sequence is called 0 Double depression What is a reactive exogenous depression 0 Follows clearcut stressful events Endogenous depression 0 A response to internal factors Clinicians today try to recognize both and aspects in any case of UPD 0 Internal and situational Current explanations of UPD point to 0 Biological psychological and sociocultural factors 0 Biological View 0 Genetic Factors Research 39239 family pedigree o proband person who is the focus of a genetic study 0 20 of relatives are depressed o If predisposition to UPD is inherited a proband s relatives should have a higher rate of depression than the population at large 39239 Twin 0 Monozygotic identical 46 percent both had same disorder 0 Dizygotic fraternal 20 percent of both having same disorder 39239 Adoption 0 Biological parents of adoptees turned out to have higher incidence of severe depression not mild 0 Severe depression more likely than mild to be cause genetically 39239 Molecular biology gene studies 0 Evidence of UPD may be tied to genes on chromosomes 0 Often have an abnormality of SH I39I39 gene on chromosome 17 o 5H l39l39 gene responsible for serotonin transporters proteins that help carry info from one neuron to another 0 Low serotonin levels are closely tied to depression 0 Biochemical Factors Evidence Low activity of Norepinephrine and serotonin linked to UPD Reserpine and other high BP meds cause depression because they lowered Norepinephrine activity and others lowered serotonin Evidence Research suggests that interactions between serotonin and norepinephrine activity rather than one alone may account for UPD Evidence Some researchers believe serotonin is a neuromodulator a chemical whose primary function is to increase or decrease the activity of other key NTs Evidence IV Endocrine system linked with UPD Glands in ES release hormones chemicals that turn spur body organs into action Cortisol released by adrenal glands in times of stress found to be high in people with UPD Melatonin llDracula hormone released only in the dark Also found to be high Evidence V Believe that activity by key NTs or hormones ultimately leads to proteinchemical deficiencies within neurons particularly to deficiencies of BDNF Brainderived neurotrophic factor a chemical that promotes growth and survival of neurons Issues with these theories Some relied on analogue studies create depressionlike symptoms in lab animals Researchers can t be certain that these symptoms reflect humans PET and MRI scans are helping to eliminate such uncertainties 0 Brain Anatomy and Brain Circuits Brain circuits networks of brain structures that work together triggering each into action and producing a particular kind of emotional reaction Brain circuits associated with UPD prefrontal cortex hippocampus amygdala and brodmann area 25 under the cingulated cortex Prefrontal cortex associated with mood attention and immune functioning Low activity and blood flowdepression and some areas in PC have high activity depression also Hippocampus helps control the body s and brain s reaction to stress and plays role in formation and recall of emo memories Produces new neurons throughout adulthood called neurogenesis lt decreases dramatically when a person becomes depressed When person is treated by Antidepressant drugs neurogenesis returns to normal Some studies show a reduction in size of HC among depressed people I Amygdala involved in expression of neg emotions and memories Key area linked to GAD panic disorder and PTSD also now in depression Activity and blood flow in the amygdala is 50 greater in depressed people I Brodmann Area 25 tends to be smaller in depressed people but is more active When depression in person subsides BA25 s activity decreases Called the lldepression switchquot a junction box whose malfunction might be necessary for depression to occur This area is filled with 5HTl39s smaller and more active BA25 39 Views r 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 cognitive models 0 Psychodynamic view I Freud and Abraham a series of unconscious processes is set in motion when a loved one dies Unable to accept loss mourners at first regress to oral stage of Dev the period of total dependency when infants cannot distinguish self from parents Mourner loses own identity and merges with that of the person they have lost regaining the lost person Introection directs all their feelings for the loved one including sadness and anger toward themselves I Two people likely to become depressed in face of loss 0 v Those whose parents failed to nurture them during oral stage 39239 Those whose parents gratified those needs excessively I Symbolicimagined loss persons equate other kinds of events with loss of a loved one I Object relations theorists psychodynamic theorists who emphasize relationships propose that depression results when people s relationships leave them feeling unsafe and insecure I Analytic depression found among very young children that is caused by separation from one s mother I Losses suffered early in life may set the stage for later depression I Depression bonding instrument indicates how much care and protection people feel they received as children most depressed people identified their parents style as llaffectionless controlquot mixture of low care and high protection I PROBLEMS WITH THIS VIEW I Losses and inadequate parenting sometimes relate to depression but are not typically responsible for the disorder I Findings are inconsistent I Findings are impossible to test unconscious level Behavioral View I Believe UPD results from changes in the number of rewards and punishments people receive in their lives I Social rewards are important in the downward spiral of depression Mood improves social rewards increase Vice versa I PROBLEMS self reportsbiased and inaccurate Cognitive View believe that people with UPD persistently view events in negative ways and that such perceptions lead to their disorder I Theory of Negative Thinking Aaron Beck Z Maladaptive attitudes quotgeneral worth tied to task I perform The attitudes result from their own experiences their family relationships and the judgments of others around them 0 00 Cognitive triad individuals repeatedly interpret their experiences futures and themselves in negative ways that lead to depression 0 00 Errors in thinking arbitrary inferences negative conclusions based on little evidence they minimize significance of experiences and magnify that of negative ones 0 00 Automatic thought steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to them that they are inadequate and situation is hopeless This happens as if by reflex o Ruminative responses repeatedly dwell mentally on their mood without acting to change it o 00 PROBLEMS fail to show that these patterns are the cause and core of UPD I Theory of Learned Helplessness Seligman I People become depressed when they think 1 they no longer have control over the reinforcements in their lives and 2 they are responsible for this helpless state I Experiment Dogs learn to escape or avoid shocks that are administered on one side of a shuttle box by jumping to the other Result laid down and quietly whined and accepted the shock dogs had learned they had no control over unpleasant events I Revised attribution helplessness theory when people view events beyond their control they ask themselves why this is so If they attribute their present lack of control to some internal cause that is both global and stable they may well feel helpless to prevent future neg outcomesdepression If they make other attributions depressionless likely I PROBLEMS lab helplessness does not human depression because lab help is accompanied by anxiety with the shocks and human depression is not always Secondly much of the LH theory relies on animal subjects Thirdly can animals make attributions We don t know because they can t tell us 0 Sociocultural Views familysocial and multicultural O O O O O O O O FamilySocial Outside stressors cause depression The symptoms of depressed people lack social skills dependency monotonedness etc may make people to feel uncomfortable and make them avoid depressed people causing social contacts and rewards of the depressed to decrease causing the depressed to have lower ambitions and expectations Also tied to unavailability to social support like a happy marriage People who are divorced display three times the depression rate of marriedwidowed people and double the rate of those never been married In some cases the depression can cause marital discord creating more depression 13 of MDD could be prevented if marital stress were eliminated Multicultural Gender and depression Women Ztimes as likely as men to receive a diagnosis of UPD Women also appear to be younger when depression hits more frequent and longer and respond less successfully to treatment Postpartum in new mothers can last up to and have a O O O O O O O O Artifact theory holds that women and men are equally prone to depression but that clinicians often fail to detect depression in men 0 Hormone explanation holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women 0 Life stress theory women in our society experience more stress than men They face more poverty menial jobs less adequate housing and more discrimination than men 0 Body dissatisfaction explanation females in Western society are taught from birth to seek a low body weight and slender body shape goals that are unreasonable unhealthy and often unattainable 0 Lack ofcontrol theory women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over their lives Self blame explanation women are more likely than men to blame their failures on lack of ability and attribute their successes to luck an attribution style that has been linked to depression by the attributionhelplessness theorists Rumination theory women are more likely than men to ruminate or keep focusing on one s feelings when depressed and consider repeatedly the causes and consequences that depression when their moods darken perhaps making them more vulnerable to the onset of clinical depression Cultural and ethnic background and depression Depressed people in nonwestern countries eg china and Nigeria more likely to be troubled by physical symptoms such as fatigue weakness sleep disturbances and weight loss Less marked by cognitive symptoms As countries become more westernized they take on more cognitive symptoms of depression Depression is more common among Hispanic Americans than African Americans than immigrants percent of new mothers weeks and months after childbirth have clinical depression 1030 Percent experience baby blues 80 chance of dev it again with another birth 0 A yea r2550 in pregnant women rise up to times above normal of 0 have proved extremely helpful for most women with PPD o Selfhelp support groups 0 Circadian rhythms 0 Internal clock consisting of recurrent biological fluctuations which must be coordinated with one another and with changes in the environment I Strong and consistent rhythm controls body temp hormone secretions and REM I Flexible rhythm controls sleepwake cycle and activityrest cycle 0 Melatonin 0 Plays major role in operation of circadian rhythms and is released by pineal gland when surroundings are only dark 0 An effective treatment for SAD would be 0 Light therapy or phototherapy exposure to extra amounts of artificial light throughout winter Also morning walks outside 0 People with bipolar disorder often describe their lives as an o Emotionalrollercoaster 0 Behavior of people with mania is usually very 0 active 0 They can show emotions of 0 Power euphoric joy and wellbeing that is out of proportion to the actual events show no fear to anyone or thing and remarkably energetic Some instead become very irritable and angry 0 Full manic episode is diagnosed when 0 For at least one week they display an abnormally high or irritable mood along with at least three other symptoms of mania Some may have delusionshallucinations 0 When symptoms of mania are less severe the person is said to be experiencing a o Hypomanic episode 0 Bipolar disorder 0 Have full manic and MD episodes 0 alternation of episodes weeks of mania then wellness then depression 0 mixed episodes switch from mania to depression in the same day 0 Bipolar disorder o Hypomanic alternating with MD episodes over the course of time o Accomplish huge amounts of work during mild manic periods Rapid Cycling 0 Four or more bipolar episodes within one year National Mental Health Association estimates that percent of ppl with BPD may be misdiagnosed or not diagnosed at all 0 80 People with BPD tend to experience rather than over the years 0 Depressionmania Most cases depressive episodes occur x more often as manic ones and they last longer 0 3x Bipolar disorder is more common that bipolar disorder 0 Bipolar disorder The disorders appear to be equally common among what groups 0 Men and women all socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups Cyclothymic disorder 0 Numerous periodsofl39 39 and mild 39 r 0 Continue for 2 years Interrupted by normal moods that may last for only days or weeks 0 o Milder symptoms eventually blossom into BP or BP research has shown some insights from research into NT activity on activity brain structure and genetic factors 0 Biological Neurotransmitters 0 Over activity of norepinephrine related to mania o No relationship between mania and high serotonin activity has been found 0 Mania like depression may be linked to low serotonin activity 0 Low norep low serotonin may lead to depression while low serotonin high norep may lead to mania on Activity 0 Play a critical role in relating messages within a neuron o Neuron at rest more Na ions sit outside membrane o Neuron that is active pores open allowing Na to enter membrane increasing charge Irregularities in transport of ions may cause neurons to fire to easily mania or to O stubbornly resist firing depression 0 Also have found membrane defects in neurons of BP ppl and have observed ab functioning in proteins that help transport ions across a neuron s membrane 0 Brain Structure 0 Basal ganglia and cerebellum of BP individuals tend to be smaller 0 Structural problems may be the result of NT or ion abnormalities or of the BP meds 0 Genetic Factors 0 BP linked to genes on the X chromosome 0 Use molecular biology to examine genetic patterns in large families 0 Hypergraphia o Compulsive need to write
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'