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CHAPTER E B TITCHENER AND STRUCTURALISM The previous chapter noted that nearly a quarter of Wundt39s doctoral students in psychology were from Nort Ameri a These psychologists returned to trans m American psychology from philosophical discourse to an experimental sci g Pennsylvania 1887 University of Nebraska 1889 Columbia University 1890 Catholic University 1891 Cornell University 1891 Harvard University 1891 i 39 e IS 39 I900 Although these new laboratories were founded by Wundt s students 0 used the various scienti c methods they had learned in their study at Leip most psychologists in the United States In the thirty ve years of his profes sional career he wrote more than two hundred articles and books and trained more than fifty doctoral students in his brand of psychology Many of those students would found laboratories of their own for example Margaret FloY STRUCTURALlSM 209 Washburn at Vassar College and Walter B Pillsbury at the University of Mich igan Titchencr would name his system of psychology in39ucluralt39sm because of its emphasis on discovering the elemental structure of consciousness Conce ally that focus of his system was similar to one of the goals of Wundtian psy systems of Wundt and Titchener as if they wer the sa c see Lcahe 1981 often discussing them together in a chapter entitled Structuralismi I itchener may have contributed to that confusion as some authors have suggested by his selective translations of Wundt39s writings Indeed most of the Wundt read by American psychologists in the early part of the twentieth century was the Wundt that was translated by Titchcner and his colleagues Before he went to Leipzig Titchener was schooled Oxford University in the traditions of British associationism His extremely reductionistic approach includes some of Wundt39s 1896 thoughts on these issues The actual contents of psychical experience always consist of various combinations process depends for the most part not on the nature of its elements so much as on their union into a composite psychical compound p 33 Wundt studied psychical elements as part ofhis systematic approach to psy chology but he recognized the importance of higher order processes and wrote as holistic psycholo Do not misread these comments to mean that Wundt was a Gestalt psychologist see Chapter 16 He was not but his 5 stern had more in common with the Gestalt approach than has been traditionally believed As indicated earlier Titchener de ned his psychology in the narrowest of terms He rejected child psychology abnormal psychology and any studies on animals His experimental science was built largely on introspection a tech nique that proved to be of little use in those areas of study It was narrower still in comparison to Wundt because of Titchener s adherence to positivism for he agreed with Auguste Comte that unobservable processes had no place in science Whereas Wundt sought to explain consciousness by invoking some E B TlTCHENEFI AND STRUCTURALISM hypothetical mental processes Titchener avoided the mentalistic dilemma by focusing his efforts on a purely descriptive science But American psychology was not satis ed with description In uenced by the pragmatism of Charles S Peirce and John Dewey and the evolutionary ideas of Charles Darwin many American psychologists were asking questions about the why of consciousness As Rand B Evans 1972 has described it sciousness as contrasted to his emphasis on the structure of consciousness Cornell became the stronghold for this descriptive psychology protecting its purity from the in dels that made up most ofAmerican psychology Titchener s disagreements led him to abandon the American Psychological Association founded in 1892 to which most of his colleagues belonged and to form his own organization in 1904 usually referred to as The Experimentalistsquot or Titchener39s Experimentalists see Boring I967 The annual meetings of this group were essentially by invitation only It was another attempt by Titchener to deal with psychology exclusively on his own terms Few of Titchener s students became disciples although many continued to espouse the appropriate ideas in his presence E r39 a h of c psychology his many research articles so carerIly conceived and executed are no longer cited in the literature Current references to him are almost al ways of a historical nature But these statements are not meant to imply that 39 te train an entire generation of American psychology students not just those 2 Cornell in the methods of this new science Titchener was an excellent scien tist who modeled and communicated the integrity of scienti c investigation bet ter than any psychologist of his day His manua 39 g the most important books in the history of psychology Oswald K lpe a psychol ogist who frequently battled Titchener on theoretical grounds called Titchenclquots Experimental Psycho agy the most erudite psychological work in the EngliSh language Boring I950 p 413 The initial selection in this chapter is from Titchener s Textbook ofPSychOl ogy which he published in 19l0 It begins with a discussion of l39itchener s dis STRUCTURALISM 211 tinetion between mind and consciousness and continues with a discussion of the method of psychology introspection and the scope of psychology The e and 39 39 39 r 115 as we sources Evan uilds a convincing case or Titchener 5 lost system resented both conceptual and methodological changes from his earlier views T re is much int e way of new scholarship in the history of psychology to help us recognize the similarities and differences in the systems of Titchener and Wundt This chapter and the previous one are intended to portray this new knowledge REFERENCES Boring E G 0950 A hislory ofexpcrimentalpsychology 2d ed New York Appleton CenturyCrofts Boring E G 1967 Titehener39s experimentallsls Journal 17 the History of h He haviaml Sciencrs 3 315 325 Evans R B 1972 E E Titchener and his lost system Journal oflhe llismry oflhe Behavioral Sciences 8 168 180 Leahey T H 1981 The mistaken mirror 0n Wundt39s and Titchener s psychologies Journal oft10 History oflhe Behavioral Srienca 7 273 282 Wundl w 1896 Ouxzim 7fpsychology New York Gustav Sechen 212 The Method and Scope of Psychology Edward Bradford Tltehener 9 5 MENTAL PROCESS CONSCIOUSNESS ND MIND The most striking fact about the world of human still everything goes Th 1 ose 5 heat the eternal hills are little by little breaking up and wearing aw rences of the mental world to be manifestations of mind Such an hypothesis may be of value a certain stage of human thought but every hy sooner or later be given up Physicists are there fore giving up the mind Stable objects and substantial things be long not to the world ofscience physical or psy chological but only to the world of common sense We have de ned mind as the sumtotal of hu meansthe living body the organised individual and we L L i r h t living body may be reduced to the nervous sys tem and its attachments Mind thus becomes the sumtotal of human experience considered as de pendent upon a nervous system And since hu From Tltchener E a 1910 A Iexrbnak ofpiyihalagy ew rk Macmillan pp 15 30 Copyri ht e 1910 by Macmillan Publishing Company Reprinted by permission of the publisher E B TchHENEH AND sTRuCTuRALIsM plies that our subjectmatter is a stream erpetual ux and not a collection of unchanging objects it is not easy even with the best will possible to shift from the commonsense to the scientific view 0 39nd the change cannot be made all in a mo ment We are to regard mind as a stream of process es But mind is personal my mind and my person person is only the bodily organism But again ex rience is personal the experience of a permanent se Mind is spatial just as matter is But mind is invisible intangible it is not here or there square or round These objections cannot be nally met until we have gone some distance 39 see how ienti c vie s t E en l however the en a 0 at them Face that question of personality Is your life as a matt fac a ays pers Do u e f t 1w not time and again forget your disregard yourself n yourself in a ver literal sense Surely the mental quot 39 39 per uiiai An is yourper sonality when it is realised unchanging Are you the same self in Childhood and manhood in your working and in your playing moods when you are 0 o r est 3 io t als lmes of very different factors As to the other 39 39s of course invisible because question mind l sight is mind and mind is intangible because touch THE METHOD AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY 213 i mmri 39 F 39 dependent upon the experiencing person But com mon sense itself bears witness against its own be lief to the fact that mind is spatial we speak and spea correctly of an idea in our head a pain in our foot And if the idea is the idea of a circle seen in the mind39s eye it is round and ifit is the Visual idea of a square it is square Consciousness as reference to any dictionary will show is a term that ha many meanings Here it is perhaps enough to distinguish two principal uses of the word In its rst sense consciousness means the mind s awareness ofits own processes Just as from the common sense oint of view mind is that inner self which thinks remembers choos ness is thus something more than mind it is the perception of what passes in a man s own mindquot1 it is the immediate knowledge which the mind has of its sensations and thoughtsquot2 In its second sense consciousness is identi ed with mind and conscious with mental So Mr rmn ness is present as soon as mental processes are in abeyance unconsciousness sets in To say am conscious ofa feeling is merely to say that I feel it To have a feeling is to be conscious and to be conscious is to have a feeling To be con scious of the prick of the pin is merely to have the sensation And though I have these various modes of naming my sensation by saying I feel the prick ofa pin I feel the pain ofa prick I have the sensation of a prick I have the feeling of a prick I am conscious of the feeling the thing named in all these various ways is one and the same 3 The rst of these de nitions we must reject It is not only unnecessary but it is also mislead ing to speak of consciousness as the mind s 39 P 39 he cause as we shall see later this awareness is a matter of observation of the same general kind any given prescnt39 time Consciousness will thus be a section a division of the mindvstream This distinction is indeed already made in common 5 e h n we say that a man has lost con sciousness we mean that the lapse is tempo rary that the mental life will shortly be resumed when we say that a man has lost his mind we meannot it is true that mind has altogether disappeared but certainly that the derangement is permanent and chronic Wh39le therefore the subject matter of psychol ogy is mind the direct object of psychological study is always a consciousness In strictness we can never observe the same consciousness twice L mind nw nri noverto return Practically we can observe a particular conscious ness as often as we wish since mental processes group themselves in the same way show the same pattem of arrangement whenever the organism is of psychology as we have a science of oceanog raphy 6 THE METHOD OF PSYCHOLOGV Scienti c method maybe summed up in the sin gle word observation39 the only way to work in science is to observe those phenomena which form the subjectmatter of science And obser vation implies two things attention to the phe nomena and record of the phenomena that is clear and vivid experience and an account of the experience in words or formu as In order to secure clear experience and accu E at TITCHENER AND sTRUCTURALtsM vary the observations by working to equality of the violets rst from a twocolour disc that is dis tinctly too blue and secondly from a disc that is distinctly too red 2 Suppose again that the chord ceg is struck and that you are asked to rate report science has An experiment is an observation that can be re peated isolated and varied The more frequently u can repeat an observation the more likely are you to see clearly what is there and to de vary an observation the more clearly will the uni formity of experience stand out and the better mental appliances all laboratories and instru ments are provided and devised with this one end in view that the student shall be able to re peat isolate and vary his observations ness of the methods Let us take some typical instances We may begin with two very simple cases 1 Suppose that you are shown two paper discs the dy IUW umuy ay repeat this observation you may isolate it by working in a quiet room it by having the chord struck at different parts of the scale in dif ferent octaves Itis clearthat in these instances there is prac tically no difference between introspection and inspection You are using the same method that you would use for counting the swings of a pen es but the method is essentially the same Now let us take some cases in which the ma terial of introspection is more complex 1 Sup silent room free from disturbances and it may be varied different words may be called out of a chemical reaction or the movements of 39 39 39 down from one ofan uniform violet the other composed half ofred and halfofblue lfthi quot4 dis 39 rap idly rotated the red and blue will mix as we say and you will see a certain bluered that is a kind the resulting violet exactly matches the violet of the rst disc You may repeat this set of obser vations as often as you like you may isolate the observations by working in a room that is free from other 39L quot you may moment to moment the different phases of the observed phenomenon But if you try to report I you are observing a feeling or an emotion afeel 39 39 annoyance an emotion THE METHOD AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGV of anger or chagrin Experimental control is still possible situations may e arrange in the psy amination The rule is no doubt a good one for lion may be repeated T ere is then no reason wny iiie ouci ci 1 n n LII quot quot quot or in whom the emotion is setup should not re port at once upon the rst stage of his experi ence upon the immediate effect oft e word upon the beginnings ofthe emotive process It is true that this report interrupts the observation described so that pre ently a co lete re ort up nt wholeexperienceisobt ined l39hcreis in theor y some danger that the stages become arti cially separated cons ousness is a ow a process and if we divide it up we run the risk of ingrained in his system so that it is possible for 215 him not only to take mental notes while the ob servation is in progress without interfering with consciousness but even to jot down writ en notes as the histologist does while his eye is still held to the ocular of the microscope in principle then introspection is very like 39ects of observation are differ e psychology is much the same as the method of physics It must not be forgotten that while the method of the physical and the psychological sciences is sub Mullinity quot L39 L 39 ences is as different as it can well be Ultimately as we have seen the subjectmatter ofall the sci ences is the world of human experience but We that the aspect ofexperience treated physiology contains paragraphs on usions judgment but this confusion ofsubject matter must the sciences are conce an experience it is natural that scientific meth od to Whatever aspect of experience it is applied should be in principle the same On the other hand when we have decided to examine some particular aspect of experience it is necessary that we hold fast to that aspect and do not shift our point of view a tage that we ave the two terms introspection and inspection to denote observation taken from the different standpoints ofpsychology and ofphysics minder that we are working in psychologyv that we are observing the dependent aspect ofthe world of experience Observation as we said above implies two things attention to the phenomena and record of the phenomena The attention must be held at the highest possible degree ofconcentration the record ust ep otographically accurate Observation is therefore both dif cult and fatiguing and intro s ection is on the who 3 more dif cult and more fatiguing than inspection To secure reliable results L h 39 o Icau they are not trying to t them to any preconceived theory and we must w rk only when our general disposition is favourable when we are fresh and in good health at ea 0 r39 nged in such a way that the observation may be repeated that the process to be observed may stand out clearly upon the background of con sciousness and that the factors in the process ma be separately varied But all this care is of no avail unless the observer himself comes to the Work in an even frame of mind gives it his full attention and is able adequately to39 translate his experience into words 7 THE SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY Ifmind is the sumtotal of human experience con lar thing possessed by a particularindividual ln strictness therefore it is only his own mind the E E TITCHENER AND STRUCTURALISM tern that each ofus knows at rsthand it is only to this limited and individual subjectmatter that chology possible How can psycholo y be any thing more than a body of personal beliefs and individual opinions The dif culty is more apparent than real We have every reason to believe not only in general that our neighbours have minds like our own thati quot i y i u J A u man minds resemble one another precisely as hu man bodies do Within a given race there is much apparent diversity of outward form differences t rese a n damental than the differen If we ave re course to exact meas rements we nd that there is in every case a certain standard or type to which the individual more or less clos ly con forms and about which all the individuals are w fect strangers see family likenesses which the members ofthe family cannot themselves detect39 and the units in a crowd of aliens Chinese or Ne groes look bewilderineg alike Now all of our main social institutions rest upon the assumption that the individuals of grounded Would a der to talk to himself Language implies that there are more minds t an one And would the use f a ommon speech be possible if minds were not essentially alike Men differ in their THE METHOD AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY command of language as they differ in complex ion or in liability to disease but the general use oflanguage testifies to a fundamental likeness of mental constitution in us all Hence the psychologist is fullyjustified in be lieving that other men have minds of the same the introspective reports furnished by a number to show a fundamental agreement and a great variety of detail 39h 439 ing themselves as We have seen that physical dif ferences group themselves about a central type If however we attribute minds to other hu man being 39 aceans show a fairly high de gree of nervous development Indeed it is dif t 1 a rudimentary nervous system for the creatures range of mind thus appears to be as wide as the range of animal life The plants on the other hand appear to be mindv less Many oft mare endowed With what we may term senseorgans that is organs differentiated to receive eertai forms ofstimulus pressure impact light etc These organs are analogous quot1 structure tn Ik 39 39 thus plant quoteyesquot have been found which closely 217 resemble rudimentary animal eyes and which if they belonged to animals might m 39 that have been at work in the animal kingdom But we have no evidence ofa plantconsciousness Just as the scope of psychology extends be yond man to the animals so does it extend from the individual man to groups of men to societ ies The subjectmatter of psychology is human 39 quot 39 unan the inA dividual But since the individuals of the same race and epoch are organised in much the same way and since they live together in a society where their conduct affects and is affected by the an 1 corn n View is embodied in those so cial institutions to w I e have referred ove in 1 age religion law and cust of the collective mind gives us a psychology of language a psychology of myth a psychology f u nm Ptr 39 39 39 chology of the Latin mind of the AngloSaxon mind of the Oriental min etc And this is not all the scope of psychology extends still further from the normal to the ab normal mind Life as we know need not be ei ther complete or completely healthy life The liv ing organism may show defect the lack ofa limb or ofa senseorgan and it may show disorder and disease a temporary or a permanent lapse from health So it is with mind The consciousnesses of those who are born deaf or blind are defecv L t u utcy are normally present In dreaming and the hyp 21B notic state during intoxication after prolonged sleeplessness or severe strain k39nd we have illustrations of tempora ment And the various forms ofi ity mania melancholia dementia are forms ofpermanent mental disorder Derangement of the social mind may be stud ied in the various panics fads epidemics ofspec ulation of false belief etc which oc time to time even in the most highly civilised so cieties The mob consciousness stands to a healthy social consciousness very much as dreaming to the waking life Permanent disorder of the social mind means the downfall of society All these various elds of psychology may be cul tivated for their own sake on account of their in trinsic interest and value they must indeed be so mm amt 39 L 39 39 Atthp an E B TlTCHENER AND STRUCTURALiSM their direction and of their size and shape instruc se forms of mental unsoundness 0 E 9 a phobophobia the nervous dread of being afraid are only exaggerated forms of shall show our nervousness Similarly the self importance of paranoia is merely an exaggeration of the pleased Selfconsciousness the selfcom placency that we often observe in others and if we or on st must often detect in ourselves Inall these instances the strong lines of the caricature may help s time their facts and laws often throw light upon the problems of normal human psychology Sup is rendered able to see by a surgical operation He must learn to use his eyes as achild learns to walk And the gradual perfecting of his vision the mis takes and confusions to whic he is liable all the details of his visual education form a storehouse of facts upon which the psychologist can draw when he seeks to illustrate the development of the perception of space in the normal mind4he man ner in which we come to judge of the distance of objects from ourselves and from one another of ness NOTES 1 John Locke Ari Emily Concerning Human Under standing 1690 Bk 11 Ch it i 2 Dugald Stewart Outlines nf Mam Philosophy 1793 Pt 1 Section i 7 3 James Mill Anulyrix anhe Phenomena ofthe Hu mun Mind 1829 Vol 1 Ch v Mill uses the word feeling to denote what we have called mental process W12 ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY The next chapter considers behaviorism probably the most important school of thought in the histor f American psychology In starting its conceptual 39 a the context necessary to un e stand its contributions to behavn r1 Once Darwin had removed humans from their lofty perch and placed them a 39 a new meaning In 1882 the y ar of Darwin s death Geor e Romanes 1848 1894 an English biologist published his Animal Intelligence a book that is s ectian by analo That means that in observing animals he would tl39 0 understand their behavior by asking himself what he would do in a similar sit uation Not surprisingly his book was considerably anthropomorphic C Lloyd Morgan 852 1936 another of the English biologists in uenced by Darwin objected to the practice of Romanes and others of attributing hu mental process Although Morgan insisted on parsimonious explanations f0 NTAL PSYCHOLOGY 359 animal behavior he did not object to introspection by analogy and used the method himself However he also pe ormed experiments with animals in their natural settings an important step f rward for animal psyc olugy W r 39 the actions of lower organisms can be explained without reference to mental events why cannot human behavior be explained in the same wayquot Kendler 53 ln opposition to Loeb an American psychologist Edward L 1874 1949 sought to show the relationship betweenmental processes in lower animals and those in humans Thorndike whose interests in animal behavior baby chicks in mazes set up in the basement of William James s home He later moved from Harvard University to Columbia University where he continued his animal research in Cattell s laboratories taking his doctorate in psychology there in 1898 His dissertation entitled Animal Intelligencequot described his maze studies with chicks and his nowclassic puzzlebox experiments with cats and dogs Thorndike constructed fteen puzzle boxes in which the animals were placed see Burnham 1972 Each box required a different response for escape Once the animal had made the correct response and had escaped from the box it was rewarded with food Thorndike found that his animal subjects learned to escape the boxes in a trialanderror fashion which he took as evidence against W t 4 the Clicnunc Amuu whereas those responses that did not lead to escape were gradually eliminated from the animal39s behavior in the box From this he formulated his law of feel which is today recognized as the forerunner of the law ofrcinfarcemcnt e H Any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction becomes associated with that situation so that when the situation recurs the act is more likely than before to ur 0 Conversely any act which in a given situation produces discomfort be comes disassociated from the situation so that when the situation recurs the act is less likely than before to recur Thorndike 1905 p 203 The rst part of that law describes the effects of what has come to be called reinforcement and t e second part the effects of punishment Much later 39 n rt this subsequent version is called the trumrated law of fart Th n w a bus a proli c writer throughout his career publishing more than ve hundred works a number of those books But his m m a w n m n n a t a ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL FSVOHOLOGV animal research was con ned to the early years of his career and was largely among his most important work both methodologically and theoretically It would play a very in uential role in the rise of learning research and the dom inance of learning theory throughout the reign of behaviorism see Chapters 13 and 14 Further Thorndike was among the rst scientists some historians say the rst to conduct research with animals in a laboratory setting His proce dures served as models for much of the early animal psychology in the United States Gottlieb 1979 Some histories of psychology label Thorndike a functionalist others see him as a behaviorist He denied membership in either His placement in this chap ter is meant to show his work as intermediate between the two While Thorndike was watching his animals escape from the puzzle boxes a Russian physiologist was beginning to explore what he termed a gsychic r g the salivation that could be elicited in an animal upon ringing a bell when the bell had been previously paired with food Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 spent conditioning Once 15 work ecame known to American psychologists around 1909itproved39 b 39 39 394 in uence for thn r quot a away from mentalism to a more objective study of observ ble behavior Unlike Romanes who had attributed much consciousness to animals J Itquot k tud ies Consistent with that view was Loeb39s emphasis on animal tropisms which discarded any need for assuming animal eonsci V v s or added weight to this view as well He rejected the mentalism of psychology indeedY he rejected all of psychology until the last few years of his life and called for a total explanation of the higher mental processes in terms 0 physiological pro cesses Perhaps as the behaviorists would soon sert psychology could dis card the mind and provide a wholly scientific account based on observable be havior and physiology The first selection in this chapter is on the psychology of learning written by Edward L Thorndike In it he discusses his laws ofeffect e ercise and readi ness in the context of his animal studies It is an elegant statement of this clas sic early work in learning The second selection is on Pavlov s work but it was not written by Pavlov Instead it is the article published in the Psychological Bulletin in 1909 that rst introduced American psychologists to the work of Pavlov The authors are Robert M Yerkes 1876 1956 a pioneer researcher in animal behavior and a Russian student Sergius Mot gulis In spite of Pavlov39s negative views toward psychology it was a paper that would generate considerable interest rAL PSYCHOLOGY 361 particularly for behaviorist John B Watson whose use of it is described in the next c a er The third selection is by Philip J Pauly a historian of science and concerns ebate on animal tropisms between Jacques Loeb and another American bi ologist Herbert Spencer Jennings 18684947 The paper discusses the signif icance of the debate for the science of animal behavior and concludes with a brief section considering the in uence of Loeb and Jennings on the work of John B Watson The last selection by another historian of science Deborah J Coon focuses on the dissertation research on the kneejerk re ex by the University of Penn 5 o 539 a E O u 2 C a D 39U i n m m x m m I39 2 W a a m 39u O 1 m m a 39U O m s O m m n m a a at a 1904 meeting of the American Psychological Association and published them in Psychological Buttein the following year a year betore Pavlov39s ini response as some historians claim or did the conditioned response discover him see Mi5ceo amp Samelson 1983 Coon discusses the various hypotheses that have been offered to explain why thtm er s tex n in the rst chapter of this boo Whatever the ver let the Coon al tic e pro vides an interesting look at a litt eknown episode in the history of the condi tioned reflex REFERENCES Burnham J C 1972 Thorndike39s puzzle boxes Jnm39mll nflhe Hislury oflhe Behav iam Sciences 8 59467 Gottlieb G 1979 Comparative psychology and ethology In E Hearst Ed Thyier century ufexperimenalpsychalogy Hillsdale NJ Lawrence Erlbaum pp 147 173 Kendler H H I987 Hixlorimlfmmdminns of madam psychology Chicago Dorsey Press Mtsceo 0 amp Samelson F 983 History of psychology XXXIll On textbook les sons from history or how the conditioned re ex discovered Twitmyer Psycholog iml Repom 52 447454 Morgan C L 1894 An introduction to mmpamlivc psychology London Walter Scott O39Donnell J M 1985 The origin nfbehaviuritm American pxyrlmlogy 1370 1920 New York New York University Press Thorndike E L I905 The elements ofpsyrrholngy New York A G Seiler 362 The Laws of Learning in Animals Edward L Thorndike SAMPLES OF ANIMAL LEARNING The complexities of human learning will in the end be best understood if at first we avoid them m s l a c a 1 o n Equot n 5 m m lt E gtlt 5 E l lt as m lt 1 old be kept in a yard YY of Figure I adjoining i u essence Coq m ng walls and the ab 39enre oftre a w 9 u 5 3 m 2 E a 5i 1 a lt q l l m T cribed when it runs to E it gets out and has the satisfaction of being with the otherchicks ofeat ing and of being in its usual habitat If it is re peatedly put in again at A one nds that itjumps and runs to B or C less and less often until f nally its only act is to run to D E and out It has formed an association or connection or bondbetween the situation due to its removal to A and the response of going to E In common language it has learned to go to E when put at A TL L ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY FIGURE 1 rst ve trials but came nally to escape invali ably within ve or six seconds The following schemes represent the animal s behavior 1 during an early trial and 2 after the association has been fully formed after it has learned the way out perfectly A graphic repre sentation of the progress from an early trial to a I BEHAVIOR IN AN EARLY TRIAL Resultlng states Sltuatlon Responses oi malts Uul useless running and jumping and standing still nds a representative in the decreasing amount of time taken by the chick to escape The two chicks that formed this particular associationfor example averaged three and a halfminutes one about three and the other about four for their Adapted from Thorndike E L 1913 Edul mmnalpxy 7 hepvythnlogyleurnirlg Volume 2 New York Teachers College Press pp 516 upynghl 9 I913 by Teachers College Press Adapted and reprlnled by permisr sion unite publisher 3 s a g c As described above in the text To chlrp etc Annoying summation of the sltuation and thwaning ol the may tendencies To urnp at varlous places quot quot un to 8 quot quot quot To run to Cl quot quot To run IO U quot quot To run to E Sattsiylng company load and Surroundings THE Laws OF LEARNING IN ANIMALS 2 BEHAVIOR IN A TRIAL AFTER LEARNING Resultan States sltu atl on Responses of Aflalrs Same as in 1 To run to E Satisfying as above trial after the association has been fully formed v I L L L A m e of expe individuals in different situations by r R Ml Yerkes to whom I am indebted for permission to use these gures Let us next examine a somewhat more ambi twenty by fteen by twelve inches replace its cover and front side by bars an inch apart and E 2 The path taken by a turtle in iinding hls way mm A to his nest in hls 5th ttial 7 383 make in this front side a door arranged so as to six months old if put in this box when hungry a bit of sh being left outside reacts as follows It tries to squeeze through between the bars claws at the bars and at loose things in and out of the I a hm nri bites at its confining wallsi Some one ofall these promiscuous clawings squeezings and bitings n t the nose which has resulted successfully It turns the button around without elay whenever ming a butt n o t e unini tiated observer the behavior of the six kittens that FIGURE 3 The path taken by a turtle in tlndlng hls way irorn A to hls nest In hls 50m trial A Pquot 364 thus freed themselves from such a box We Id seem wond rfu instead of running to E and is selected from a far greater number of useless acts In the examples so far given there is a certain 7 congruity between the set associated with the situation and the learning The act which lets the cat out is hit upon by the cat while as we say trying to get out and is so to speak a likely means ofrelease But there need be no such con s response as that of scratch ing or licking or in the case of chicks pecking r at the wing to dress it as truly as with a response which original nature or previous habit has put c L J h such an unlike1 release food and company The examples chosen so far show the animal forming a single association but such may be combined into series Forinstance achick learns to get out of a pen by climbing up an inclined plane A second pen is then so arranged that the chick can say by walking up a slat and through a hole in the wall get from it into pen Not 1 At ter a number oftrials the chick will when put in pen No 2 go at once to pen No I and thence out A third pen is then so arranged that the ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL PSVCHOLOGV chick by forming another association can get from it to pen No 2 and so on such a series ofassociations the response ofone brings the an imal into the situation of the next thus arousing n39nth without mistakes the learning represent ing twentythree associations The learning of the chick turtle and kitten in the cases quoted is characterized negatively by the absence of inferential ratiocinative thinking and indeed by the absence of effective use of ideas of any sort Were the reader con ned in a maze or cage or left at some distance from home his responses to these situations would al most certainly include many ideas judgments or thoughts about the situation and his acts would probably in large measure be led up to or mediated39 by such sequences of ideas as are counted for as the strengthening and weakening of bonds between a situation present to sense and L and there in movement The lower animals do occasionally show signs of ideas and of their in uence on behavior but the great bulk of their learning has been found explainable by such di rect binding of acts to situations unmediated by ideas CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL LEARNING These cases and the hundreds of which they are typical shew the laws ofreadiness exercise and THE LAWS OF LEARNING w ANIMALS effect uncomplicated by any pseudoaid from imitation ideomotor action or superior facul thing or another until relieved from them 0fthe bonds which the animal s behavior makes be if a 1 quot3 m 1 m m a E E m a g a w 7 m 1 w u39 o II A i o u Thcse cases exemplify also ve characteris tics of learning which are secondary in scope and 39 rtance only to the laws of readiness exer cise and effectr The rst is the fact ofmulti39ple response to th 39 be sponses which by original nature or previous learning are produced by the con ning walls plus the failure of the useless chirpings jumpings and runnings are ma e This principle of Multiple Response or Var ied Reaction will be found to pervade at least ninetenths Ul 39 A or dinarily interpreted it is not universal since 39 39 made the animal ter a longer interval of disuse or by weakening 365 the connection so as to be more likely to do noth ing at all in that situation inactivity being a va riety of response which is always a possible al doing the principle of varied response is univer sal in learning The second ofthe ve subsidiary principles is try so hard to get out or care so mu h ut be ng out As Woodworth says in commenting upon similar cases of animal learning I adj determination of the 1 physical mechanism toward a certain end The an imal desires as we like to say to get out and to reach the food Whatever be his consciousness his behavior shows t at e is as an organism set in that direction This adjustment persists till the mo tor reaction I onsummated it is t e n the first place we must assume in the animal an ustment or ous features of the cage Each single reaction tends to L 39 quot with the adjustment Ladd and Woodworth 191 p 551 The principle that in any external situation the responses made are the product of the set or attitude39 of the animal that the satisfyingness or annoyingness produced by a response is con 368 ditioned by that attitude and that the success ful response is by the law of effect connected ui39h39hm 39 J weua with 39 uation per se is general Any process oflearn ing is conditioned by the mind s set at the time learned to get out ofa dozen boxes in each case by pulling some loop turning some bar depress ing a platform or the like will in a new box he as we say 39more attentive to small objects on the sides of the box than it was before The connections made may then be not absolutely with the gross situation as a total but predomi nantly with some element or elements ofit Thus it makes little or no difference whether the box from which a cat has learned to escape by turn ing a button is faced North South East or West and not much difference if it is painted ten per cent blacker or enlarged by a fth The cat will operate the mechanism substantially as well as it did before It is of course the case that the39 animals do not as a thoughtful man might do connect the response with perfect strictnessjust L 39 in iruariun They can be much more easily confused by variations in the element39s concomitants and in certain cases many of the irrelevant concomitants have to be supplied to enable them to give the right response nd that the action of a situation is more or less separable into the action of the elements that com pose it that even they illustrate the general Law ofPartiaIActivity that a part or element or as ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL FSVCHDLOGV pect of a situation may be prepotent in causing response and may h ve responses oun more r s In quotI 1 to it regardless of some or all of its accompani t Ifa cat which has never been con ned in a box to this arti cial situation as it would by original nature to con nement as in a thicket If a cat which has learned to escape from a number of such boxes by manipulating various mechanical contrivances is con ned in a new box it re sponds to it by a mixture of the responses orig inally bound to con ning obstacles and of those which it has learned to make to boxes like the new one In both cases it illustrates the Law ofArsim ilaiian orAmzlogy that to any situations which have no special original or acquired response of their own the response made will be that which by original or acquired nature is connected with some situation which they resemble For S to resemble Sl means for it to arouse more or less of the sensory neurones which Sl would arouse and in more or less the same fashion The last important principle which stands out clearly in the learning ofthe lower animals is that which I shall call Associative Shifting The or dinary animal tricks39 in response to verbal sig 39 39 39 exam ple holds up before a cat a bit of sh saying Stand up The cat if hungry enough and not of fixed contrary habit will stand up in response to the sh The respons however contracts bonds also with the total situation and hence to the human being in that position giving that sig nal as well as to the sh After enough trials by proper arrangement the fish can be omitted the the res onse Association may later shifted to the oral signal alone With certain lim THE METHOD OF PAVLOV lN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGV 367 itations due to the necessity ot getting an element ofa situation attended to a response to the total situation A B C D E may thus be shifted to B C D E to C D E to D E to E Moreover by adding to the situation new element F G H etc we disturbing the response to it which animal man learning such as the acquisition of skill with J the violin or ofknowledge of the calculus or of inventiveness in engineering But it is impossi ble to understand the subtler and more planful learning of cultivated men without clear ideas of the forces which make learning possible in its rst form of directly connecting some gross situation immediately with any Jitualiorl in which he is sensitive Thus what was at the start utterly without power to evoke a certain response may come to do so to perfection lndeed the situation may be which at the start would have aroused an exactly opposite response So a monkey can be taught to go to the top of his cage whenever you hold a piece of banana at the bottom of it These simple 39 39 multiple response the cooperation of the animal39s set or attitude with the external situa learning one has to explain these simple facts quot 39 quot P 39 L use and satisfac tion and their elimination by disuse and annoy ance multiple reaction the mind39s set as a condi tion piecemeal activity of a situation with pre potency of certain elements in determining the response response by analogy and shifting of bonds will as a matter offact still be the main and perhaps the only facts needed to explain it tions as to the situations most like them and the shifting of a response from one situation to an other by gradually changing a situation without The Method of Pavlov in Animal Psychology Robert M Yerkes and Sergius Morgulis About eight years ago Professor P Pawlow Director of the physiological department of the Institute ofExperimental Medicine in St Peters burg devised and introduced into his great re 39 39 cently it h ical Institute of Berlin by Nicolai a former stu dent of Pawlow It consists in the quantitative study of these modi cations of the salivary re ex which are conditioned by complex receptive and elaborative processes psychic reactions in the central nervous system Inasmuch as practically all of the results of the method have been published in Russia it h s seemed to us important that a general descrip aluaulc no method ofinvestigating the physiology ofthe ner vous system in its relations to the socalled psyr Adapted min Yerkes R M amp Morgulis s 1909 Tile method ofPawloW in animal Sychology Psyrhultlgit39alliul Min 5 257 273 Copyright 1909 b t e America chological Association Adapted and reprinted by permisslon or the publisher J P Pawlow la ofcourse Ivan P Pavlov The spelling is due to the differences between the Russian and English alphabets Ed note
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