INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 107
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MAKEUP EXAM REVIEW Chap 1 pp 4 to 28 Psychology 7 not in common use before the 19th century wasn t an independent science until the middle of the 19th century the scienti c study of behavior and mind Comes from Greek psyche soul or breath and logos study of Behavior 7 observable actions such as moving about talking gesturing and so on behaviors can also refer to the activities of cells and to thoughts and feelings Can be measured and observed in a systematic way Empiricism 7the idea that knowledge comes directly from experience Wundt 7 Structuralism Wundt was convinced that the focus of psychology should be the study of immediate conscious experience by which he meant the things people sense and perceive when they re ect inward on their own minds Was a medical doctor by training and established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig Fatherfounder of modern psychology Chap 2 Hypothesis 7 essentially a prediction about the characteristics of the behavior under study normally expressed in an ifthen statement Operational Definition 7 definitions that specify how concepts can be observed amp measured Reactivity 7 when behavior changes as a result of the observation process Population A group being tested the people that are targeted for a surveyexperiment Dependent variable the behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment Control group 7the group that remains the same in an experiment Mean of a dataset 7the arithmetic average of a set of scores Correlation 7 a statistic that indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way correlation coefficients vary from 100 to l00 A positive correlation means that the two variables vary in the same direction negative is the opposite like the more time you play video games the better you get is and the more video games you play the less homework you get done is because they vary in opposite directions Scatterplot 7 Each point in a scatterplot shows an individual s scores on each of the two variables A positive correlation would mean the scores move in the same direction where as a negative correlation would mean they move in opposite directions Independent variable 7 the aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment It must consist of at least two conditions Ex A kid watching violent TV is observed the dependent variable is the amount of aggression he expresses after watching violent programs and the independent is the level of violence he is shown in the TV programs he watches which is what can be controlled by the observers in order to observe whether or not an increase in the programs violence means an increase in the dependent variable the amount of aggression expressed by the subject after watching the TV programs experimental group 7the group in an experiment that experiences the change or what is considered the change to the independent variable Chap 3 Sensory neurons 7 make the initial contact with the environment and are responsible for carrying the message inward toward the spinal cord and brain Motor Neurons 7 cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavior Dendrites 7 the bers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons Soma 7 the cell body of a neuron Axon 7 the long taillike part of a neuron that serves as the cell s transmitter Terminal Buttons 7 the tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals important to neural transmission Synapse 7 the small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron Excitatory message the membrane of the contacted neuron changes and sodium ions begin to ow into the cell this process is depolarization and moves the electrical potential of the cell from negative toward zero and increases the chances of an action potential EEG 7 a device used to monitor the gross electricity level of the brain Useful as a research tool for a diagnostic purpose Hindbrain 7 a primitive part of the brain that sits at the juncture point where the brain and spinal cord merge Structure in the hindbrain including the medulla pons and reticular information acts as the basic life support system for the body Cerebellum 7 a hindbrain structure at the base of the brain that is involved in the coordination of complex motor skills the little brain involved in preparation selection and coordination of movements such as hitting a gold ball playing the piano or learning how to use and manipulate tools Midbrain 7 midbrain structures serve as neural relay stations and may help coordinate reactions to sensory events Thalamus 7 a relay station in the forebrain thought to be an important gathering point for input from the senses Frontal Lobe 7 at top front of brain it contains the motor cortex and may be involved in higher level thought processes Temporal lobes 7 one of four regions of the cerebral cortex located roughly on the sides of the brain its involved in certain aspects of speech and language perception Parietal lobe 7 contains the somatosensory cortex which controls the sense of touch Occipital lobe 7 located on the back of the brain visual processing is controlled here Corpus callosum 7the collection of nerve bers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and allows information to pass from one side to the other spinal re ex In a spinal re ex the spine moves the muscles in response as soon as the sensory information reaches the spine while usually the impulse must reach the brain before a response central nervous system 7 the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system 7 acts as the communication link between the central nervous system and the rest of the body Chap 5 Sensation a pattern of light and dark a bitter taste a change in temperature 7 the fundamental elementary components of an experience Perception the collection of processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations Transduction 7the process by which external messages are translated into the intemal language of the brain Top down r 39 7 r 39 that is quot J by one s beliefs and expectations about how the world is organized Bottom up I 39 7 I that is quot J by the physical message delivered to the senses Both top down and bottom up processing work together to create or perception Cornea 7 The transparent and protective outer covering of the eye also accomplishes the process of focusing Lens 7the exible piece of tissue that helps focus light toward the back of the eye and also works with the cornea to focus It does so by focusing light onto the sensory receptors which are at the back of the eye Focusing is done by changing the size of the lens itself accommodation Pupil 7 the hole in the center of the eye that allows light to enter muscles around the pupil tighten or relax allowing certain amounts of light in and change the size of the pupil Iris 7the ring of colored tissue surrounding the pupil Retina 7 the thin layer of tissue that covers the back of the eye and contains the lightsensitive receptor cells for vision Rods 7 receptor cells in the retina located mainly around the sides that transduce light energy into neural messages these visual receptors are highly sensitive and are active in dim light Cones 7 receptor cells in the central portion of the retina that transduce light energy into neural messages they operate best when light levels are high and they are primarily responsible for the ability to sense color F ovea 7 the central pi area in the retina where the cone receptors are located Visual Activity 7 the ability to process fine detail in vision Receptive field 7 in vision the portion of the retina that when stimulated causes activity in higher order neurons to change Blind Spot 7 the point where the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye which means there are no receptor cells to transduce a visual message Prosopagnosia 7 the ability to recognize faces is lost You fail to recognize acquaintances family members and even your own re ections visual cortex 7 more components of a message are picked out and identified Visual processing ends at the visual cortex highly specialized processing takes place here Opponentprocess theory 7 proposes that there are receptors in the visual system that respond positively to one color type such as red and negatively to another such as green Which is why it proposes that it is hard to see a yellowishblue because yellow is accompanied by a decreased activation of blue for example Trichromatic theory 7 proposes that color information is identi ed by comparing the activations of these three cone types red blue and green sensitive cones which all respond to different wavelengths after reaching the retina and activating cones in the fovea red 7 long wavelengths green 7 medium blue short Chap 7 pp 213 thru 231 Schedules of Reinforcement will not be on the test Orienting response 7 an inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events Habituation 7the decline in tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure Sensitization 7 increased responsiveness or sensitivity to an event that has been repeated Classical conditioning 7 a set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling properties of events Classical conditioning involves learning relations between events 7 conditioned and unconditioned stimuli 7that occur outside of one s control Unconditioned stimulus 7 a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to training Unconditioned response 7 a response that is produced automatically prior to training on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus 7 the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response 7 the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning Blocking 7 occurs because something provides no new information EX Teach rats that a tone means shocking then present a light with the tone The tone already tells the rats that a shock is coming the light does nothing Chap 8 Memory 7 the capacity to preserve and recover information Encoding 7 the processes that determine and control how memories are formed Storage 7the processes that determine and control how memories are stored and kept over time Retrieval 7 the processes that determine and control how memories are recovered and translated into performance Sensory Memory 7 an exact replica of an environmental message which usually only lasts for a second or less Short term memory 7 a limited capacity also known as working memory system that we use to hold information after it has been analyzed for periods lasting less than a minute or two Working memory controls memory over the short term It consists of the phonological loop temporary storage of acoustic and verbal information the visuospatial sketchpad short term retention and processing of visual and spatial information is controlled by this system and the central executive controls and allocates how processing is divided across the loop and the sketchpad Rehearsal 7 a strategic process that helps to maintain short term memories indefinitely through the use of internal repetition Episodic memory 7 a memory for a particular event or episode that happened to you personally such as remembering what you are for breakfast this morning or where you went to vacation last year Semantic memory 7 knowledge about the world stored as facts that make little or no reference to one s personal experiences Procedural memory 7knowledge about how to do things such as riding a bike or swinging a gold club Serial position effect 7the pattern that shows that you ll remember items from the beginning and end of a sequence when you need to remember a list more often due to the recency and primacy effect Basically you remember certain things from a list differently depending on where they were in the list Chap 9 pp 279 thru 293 Thinking 7 the processes that underlie the mental manipulation of knowledge usually in an attempt to reach a goal or solve a problem Cognitive psychology 7the study of activities that underlie all forms of thought Phonology 7 rules governing how sounds should be combined to make words in a language Grammar 7 the rules of language that enable the communicator to combine arbitrary symbols to convey meaning Syntax 7 Rules governing how words should be combined to form sentences Semantics 7the rules used in language to communicate meaning Phonemes 7 the smallest significant sound units of speech Produced through a complex coordination of vocal chords lungs lips tongue and even teeth English users use only about 4045 phonemes Morphemes 7 the smallest units in a language that carry meaning Usually consist of single words but can also be pre xes or suffixes cool l morpheme uncool 2 morphemes The grammar of a language dictates the acceptable order of morphemes within a word Surface Structure 7 corresponds to its super cial appearance the literal meaning of the words Deep structure 7 refers to the underlying representation of meaning Language production requires the transformation of deep structure into acceptable surface structure Pragmatics 7the practical knowledge used to comprehend the intentions of a speaker and to produce an effective response Pragmatic Guidelines 1 Be informative 3 Be relevant 2 Tell the truth 4 Be clear Overgeneralization 7 children tend to this by picking up their language skills implicitly they automatically learn rules for language production Such as when they are in preschool and learn to add ed to the end of a verb to make it past tense they will begin to automatically add ed to the end of verbs in order to make them past tense whether it creates an error or not a child says goed instead of went this is not done because they learned the word goed but because they automatically add ed because it is also a verb like quilted where the ed works for past tense All in all they overgeneralize a rule they have learned in language production so that they apply it to more than just the words they learned creating possible errors Basiclevel category The intermediate level in the hierarchy of categories Also the level in a category hierarchy that provides the most useful and predictive information the basic level usually resides at an intermediate level in a category hierarchy EX When a furry feline saunters by you call it a cat not a living thing or an object found on the planet Earth The category cat provides just the right amount of information People know you re talking about a fourlegged object with fur but you haven t burdened the conversation with a needless amount of detail Also basic level categories are the first used by children Subordinate categories The lowest level category in which someone includes needless information that adds more detail to the conversation EX There s and 18yearold sealpoint Siamese that prefers salmon for dinner Superordinate category The top level categories or super ordinates are simply not very descriptive EX When people were asked to list the distinguishing features of toplevel categories such as living things Rosch and her colleagues found that only a few features were actually generated try it yourself list the properties that characterize living things At the basic level more properties are generated and the generated properties tended to be ones that most members of the category share Kind of like when you describe a cat which is a fourlegged animal you say it has fur and in reality the top level category of four legged animal most of the animals in that group have fur however when asked to describe a fourlegged animal you may not include fur like you did when you were asked about a cat Category examples Superordinate Level Look it s an object of the planet Earth Basic Level Look it s a cat Subordinate Level Look it s a sealpoint Siamese Functionate Look it s something to cuddle Telegraphic speech Occurs as a child approaches the end of his or her second year of life a phase of tele graphic speech begins Telegraphic speech involves combining two words into simple sentences such as daddy bad or give cookie It s called telegraphic speech because as in a telegram the child characteristically omits articles the and prepositions at in from communications Also a 2yearold s first sentences re ect a rudimentary knowledge of syntax words are almost always spoken in the correct order EX a child will reliably say Want cookie instead of Cookie want FINAL EXAM REVIEW Chap 10 Psychometric approach ithe use of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes Intelligence determined by administering a variety of tests that measure specific mental skills such as verbal comprehension memory or spatial ability g factor general intelligence 7 according to Spearman in uential psychologist from 18631945 a general factor derived from factor analysis that underlies or contributes to performance on a variety of mental tests EX performance on all tests someone who is high in intelligence should perform well on many different kinds of ability tests s factor specific intelligence 7 according to Spearman a specific factor derived from factor analysis that is unique to a particular kind of test EX performing well on verbal comprehension but not necessarily spatial ability 9 Fluid intelligence 7 the natural ability to solve problems reason and remember uid intelligence is thought to be relatively unin uenced by experienceDetermined by biological or genetic factors Crystallized intelligence 7 the knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience as from schooling and cultural in uences Howard Gardner s theory of multiple intelligences 7 people possess a set of separate and independent intelligences ranging from musical to linguistic to interpersonal ability These skills not traditionally covered by the verbal and analytical battery of commonly used intelligence tests Gardner rejects idea that intelligence can be conceptualized through the psychometric approach Musical 7the type of ability displayed by gifted musicians or child prodigies Bodilykinesthetic 7the type of ability shown by gifted athletes dancers or surgeons who have great control over body movements Logicalmathematical 7 the type of ability displayed by superior scientists and logical problem solvers Linguistic 7 ability shown by great writers or poets who can express themselves verbally Spatial 7 ability shown by those with superior navigation skills or an ability to visualize spatial scenes Interpersonal 7 ability shown by those who can easily infer other people s moods temperaments or intentions and motivations Intrapersonal 7 ability shown by someone who has great insight into his or her own feelings and emotions Naturalist 7 ability to observe and interact with diverse species in nature shown by biologists or environmentalists Triarchic Theory 7 proposed by Robert Stemberg says there are three types of intelligence analytical creative and practical Analytical people tend to perform well on conventional tests that tap reasoning and logical mathematical abilityEX SAT ACT etc Creative how well people are able to create invent and discover EX applying skills you ve learned in a new way coping with novel tasks Practical measure of how well people can take ideas and put them into everyday practice EX solving problems that are uniquely posed by their cultural surroundings street smart Test reliability 7 consistency of test results reliable tests produce similar scores or indices from one administration to the next IQ intelligence quotient 7 mental age divided by chronological age and then multiplied by 100 Useful measure because it establishes an easytounderstand baseline for average intelligene 7people of average intelligence will have an IQ of 100 because their mental age will always be equal to their chronological age People with IQs greater than 100 are above average and below 100 are below average Dizygotic twins 7they develop from two separate eggs that are fertilized by two separate sperm EX fraternal twins Monozygotic twins 7 they develop from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos EX identical twins Stereotype threat 7 when people take intelligence tests they have certain expectations about how they ll perform and these expectations can affect the final score EX if you re nervous or expect to bomb a test you re less likely to do well The topics of heritability and IQ deviation scores will not be tested Chap 13 pp 411 428 Stereotype 7 collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members common stereotypes include those based on gender race and age Prejudice 7 positive or negative evaluations of a group and its members Discrimination 7 behaviors that are directed against members of a group Perspective taking 7 Perceiving physical social or emotional situations from a point of view other than one s own External attribution 7 attributing the cause of a person s behavior to an external event or situation in the environment Three factos consistency distinctive and consensus EX we know Ira is always in a good mood after his exercise class because it is highly consistent every MWF its occurance is distinctive he s happy after the class and there is a high level of consensus exercise tends to make people happy Intemal attribution 7 attributing the cause of a person s behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition EX a friendly pleasant person Bystander effect 7 the reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present