DEVELOPMNTL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 307
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This 77 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 307 at Texas A&M University taught by Rachel Hull in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/225875/psyc-307-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
PSYC 307 32113 Chapter 5 Lecture Notes True False 0 Infants are born with a taste for the foods common to their culture 0 Infants benefit most when their toys are changed often Sensation amp Perception o Sensation when information interacts with sensory receptors the eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin physical process 0 Perception when the brain interprets sensory information to make it meaningful mental process 0 The physical energy collected in the retina sensation is interpreted as a particular color pattern or shape perception o Sensation is a constructive process How Do Infants Learn about their World 0 Experiences form the context for learning 0 Learning happens when 0 a stimulus is repeated and o Neural pathways are formed to represent the experience 0 Gradually infants and children learn to differentiate sensations as favorable or deterrent o Objects have affordances opportunities for interaction Dynamic Systems Theory 0 Nature and nurture together drive motor skills that meet environmental demands 0 Children develop gross motor skills gradually through maturation 0 But motor development is not a passive genetic unfolding o Perceptions help finetune infants motor and cognitive skills and beyond 0 Motivate infants to adapt movements to solve a new motor goal I Grasp I Kenya people run everywhere they go It is part of their culture Sensory amp Perceptual Capacities The Orienting Response 0 Infant turns head toward a sight or sound 0 Shows infant can see or hear PSYC 307 32113 Visual Tracking 0 Eye movements follow a moving object o Evaluates infant s early visual ability 0 Newborns don t track smoothly until Visual Scanning 0 Pattern detecting ability 0 Infants scan for patterns look for limits improve over time o Attracted to more complex patterns Visual Acuity 0 Young infants prefer to look at patterns of high visual contrast because they have poor contrast sensitivity Cones differ from adults Acuity tests and fatty acids Newborns see color poorly can detect brightness and movement focus best at 812 0 20 240 o Nerves muscles cones and lens of the eye are still developing 0 Visual discrimination acuity develops rapidly o Prefer mom s face within days 0 By 23 months can track movement have good color vision match voices to faces discriminate faces from their own vs other ethnic groups 0 By 45 months 2060 acuity handeye coordination binocular vision and depth perception Measuring Sensoryamp Perceptual Capacities Visual Preference aka Preferentiallooking Examines infants ability to discriminate between stimuli seen at the same time 0 Show infant 2 stimuli at once 0 2dayold infants prefer to look at patterns a face a bull seye o Whichever they spend more time looking at they like more 0 Prefer more complicated image 0 Evolutionary psychology looks at infant preferences that are the same universally 0 Number one phobia in the world is snakes Even infants are more drawn to looking at snake compared to other stimuli they would normally find interesting 0 Not just what do they prefer but what do they perceive period Looking Time 0 Length of time infant is visually fixated on a stimulus 0 Repeated presentation of the same stimulus measures infant s ability to distinguish between old and new stimuli 0 Baby begins to ignore the same stimulus seen repeatedly 0 Introduce new stimulus what happens PSYC 307 32113 I Heart rate sucking rate looking time 0 When these things increase it indicated baby is interested If you habituate baby to one stimulus then show baby a new one and they get interested again that tells us you can tell that thing is new I Infants get bored I llabituation been there done that bored with it o Lets us know they recognize the object they ve seen multiple times I Show new object 0 With looking time you are measuring how long the kid is looking at ONE stimulus rather than which the child prefers of two stimuli Habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations Dishabituation recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation Video habituation and cayenne pepper Can use these two things to determine ifyour infant is colorblind habituate baby to red ball then show baby green ball that s identical except for color Face Preference 0 From birth infants like faces 0 Bias toward patterns with more elements in the upper than lower half where the eyes are 0 More attention to eyes and internal features I Face preference is innate something we are born with We are born with a preference for things that look like human faces I Supports social development 0 From paying attention to real faces infant learn 0 To recognize and prefer their own mother s face 12 cumulative hours I Why does the research not talk about dad I Because in most families the mother is the primary caregiver even today in our quotadvancedquot culture and society The women seem to do a lot more of the childcare work I We expect that we would find the same thing if dad did the majority of the childcare work 0 To prefer the type of face they see most often I Prefer type of face from their own ethnic group because ofpattern recognition 0 To understand the significance of different facial expressions I Social aspect PSYC 307 32113 I Video still face experiment Dr Edward Tronick http wwwyoutubecom watchvaszGEbth0 I Still face experiment know about it because it is very informative about how important social interaction and facetoface interactions with your infant really are not only for you to recognize what their cues are but for the infant to learn how to recognize how to engage in a social interaction In the still face I Orphans in orphanages where they re stuck in a warehouse in lines of cribs there aren t enough workers to spend facetime and comfort time with these kids They babies are fed and kept clean but that s all they can do What effect do we see 0 They don t gain these types of social skills Depending on how long they re deprived of these experiments we see how their skills develop The longer they lack it the more severe their lack of social skills is Once they pass the critical period development is impaired Ifyou can catch it early you can help the baby overcome it DistanceDepth Perception o Newborns do not fully understand distance eg commonly grasp for objects that are out of reach 0 Depth perception develops over time by trial and error function of experience 0 By 5 months 0 O 0 Depth perception is present Important to fix quotlazy eye as soon as possible They earlier you intervene the earlier the child Stereoscopic vision binocularity sense of 3ml spatial dimension Crossed eyes should self correct by 5 months Traditional recommend surgery by age 2 I Patching removes binocular cues I Not a natural experience for developing binocular cues New strategy quotFixing my gaze article 4 PSYC 307 32113 PSYC 307 32113 Chapter 5 Lecture Notes True False 0 Infants are born with a taste for the foods common to their culture 0 Infants benefit most when their toys are changed often Sensation amp Perception o Sensation when information interacts with sensory receptors the eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin physical process 0 Perception when the brain interprets sensory information to make it meaningful mental process 0 The physical energy collected in the retina sensation is interpreted as a particular color pattern or shape perception o Sensation is a constructive process How Do Infants Learn about their World 0 Experiences form the context for learning 0 Learning happens when 0 a stimulus is repeated and o Neural pathways are formed to represent the experience 0 Gradually infants and children learn to differentiate sensations as favorable or deterrent o Objects have affordances opportunities for interaction Dynamic Systems Theory 0 Nature and nurture together drive motor skills that meet environmental demands 0 Children develop gross motor skills gradually through maturation 0 But motor development is not a passive genetic unfolding o Perceptions help finetune infants motor and cognitive skills and beyond 0 Motivate infants to adapt movements to solve a new motor goal I Grasp I Kenya people run everywhere they go It is part of their culture Sensory amp Perceptual Capacities The Orienting Response 0 Infant turns head toward a sight or sound 0 Shows infant can see or hear PSYC 307 32113 Visual Tracking 0 Eye movements follow a moving object o Evaluates infant s early visual ability 0 Newborns don t track smoothly until Visual Scanning 0 Pattern detecting ability 0 Infants scan for patterns look for limits improve over time o Attracted to more complex patterns Visual Acuity 0 Young infants prefer to look at patterns of high visual contrast because they have poor contrast sensitivity Cones differ from adults Acuity tests and fatty acids Newborns see color poorly can detect brightness and movement focus best at 812 0 20 240 o Nerves muscles cones and lens of the eye are still developing 0 Visual discrimination acuity develops rapidly o Prefer mom s face within days 0 By 23 months can track movement have good color vision match voices to faces discriminate faces from their own vs other ethnic groups 0 By 45 months 2060 acuity handeye coordination binocular vision and depth perception Measuring Sensoryamp Perceptual Capacities Visual Preference aka Preferentiallooking Examines infants ability to discriminate between stimuli seen at the same time 0 Show infant 2 stimuli at once 0 2dayold infants prefer to look at patterns a face a bull seye o Whichever they spend more time looking at they like more 0 Prefer more complicated image 0 Evolutionary psychology looks at infant preferences that are the same universally 0 Number one phobia in the world is snakes Even infants are more drawn to looking at snake compared to other stimuli they would normally find interesting 0 Not just what do they prefer but what do they perceive period Looking Time 0 Length of time infant is visually fixated on a stimulus 0 Repeated presentation of the same stimulus measures infant s ability to distinguish between old and new stimuli 0 Baby begins to ignore the same stimulus seen repeatedly 0 Introduce new stimulus what happens PSYC 307 32113 I Heart rate sucking rate looking time 0 When these things increase it indicated baby is interested If you habituate baby to one stimulus then show baby a new one and they get interested again that tells us you can tell that thing is new I Infants get bored I llabituation been there done that bored with it o Lets us know they recognize the object they ve seen multiple times I Show new object 0 With looking time you are measuring how long the kid is looking at ONE stimulus rather than which the child prefers of two stimuli Habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations Dishabituation recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation Video habituation and cayenne pepper Can use these two things to determine ifyour infant is colorblind habituate baby to red ball then show baby green ball that s identical except for color Face Preference 0 From birth infants like faces 0 Bias toward patterns with more elements in the upper than lower half where the eyes are 0 More attention to eyes and internal features I Face preference is innate something we are born with We are born with a preference for things that look like human faces I Supports social development 0 From paying attention to real faces infant learn 0 To recognize and prefer their own mother s face 12 cumulative hours I Why does the research not talk about dad I Because in most families the mother is the primary caregiver even today in our quotadvancedquot culture and society The women seem to do a lot more of the childcare work I We expect that we would find the same thing if dad did the majority of the childcare work 0 To prefer the type of face they see most often I Prefer type of face from their own ethnic group because ofpattern recognition 0 To understand the significance of different facial expressions I Social aspect PSYC 307 32113 I Video still face experiment Dr Edward Tronick http wwwyoutubecom watchvaszGEbth0 I Still face experiment know about it because it is very informative about how important social interaction and facetoface interactions with your infant really are not only for you to recognize what their cues are but for the infant to learn how to recognize how to engage in a social interaction In the still face I Orphans in orphanages where they re stuck in a warehouse in lines of cribs there aren t enough workers to spend facetime and comfort time with these kids They babies are fed and kept clean but that s all they can do What effect do we see 0 They don t gain these types of social skills Depending on how long they re deprived of these experiments we see how their skills develop The longer they lack it the more severe their lack of social skills is Once they pass the critical period development is impaired Ifyou can catch it early you can help the baby overcome it DistanceDepth Perception o Newborns do not fully understand distance eg commonly grasp for objects that are out of reach 0 Depth perception develops over time by trial and error function of experience 0 By 5 months 0 O 0 Depth perception is present Important to fix quotlazy eye as soon as possible They earlier you intervene the earlier the child Stereoscopic vision binocularity sense of 3ml spatial dimension Crossed eyes should self correct by 5 months Traditional recommend surgery by age 2 I Patching removes binocular cues I Not a natural experience for developing binocular cues New strategy quotFixing my gaze article 4 PSYC 307 32113 PSYC 307 2713 Chapter 3 Prenatal Beginnings True or False 0 When a child is conceived there is a 5050 chance it will be male 0 Playing music near a pregnant woman s abdomen can stimulate advanced cognitive development in the baby 0 Excessive drinking while pregnant can cause Down syndrome 0 Smoking pot while pregnant can make the child more susceptible to marijuana addiction as an adult 0 The best thing you can tell couples who lose a baby to SIDS is that it s not their fault and help them look to the future by reminding them they can still have more children 0 Premature infants often have developmental problems and lag behind their peers Modern couples pretty much share household and child care responsibilities Life is Sexually Transmitted o 1 egg 200 million sperm conceptlon Quiz Questions 0 Conception is the moment at which a female becomes pregnant Was this 0 Egg aka Ovum the female sex cell experimental o Sperm the male sex cell Control group 0 Fertilization the union of the ovum and sperm Ethical Stages of Prenatal Development 0 266280 days 3840 weeks 9 months 0 Divided into 3 trimesters o Zygote first 2 weeks after fertilization germinal period 0 Embryo 3rd through 8th weeks of gestation o Fetus 9th week until birth The Developing Organism o The singlecelled zygote develops into a multicellular embryo then the more complex multisystem of distinct cell types ofa fetus 0 Four major developmental processes accomplish the transformation 0 Cell division mitosis the creation of new cells 0 Cell migration the movement of cells from their point of origin to their ultimate location where they become functionally specialized Cell differentiation transforms the embryo s unspecialized stem cells into roughly 350 different types of cells Apoptosis programmed death of selected cells promotes more efficient O O PSYC 307 development Stage 1 The Zygote 02 weeks 0 Begins when the sperm and egg unite o 2 week period of rapid cell division 0 Ends with implantation to uterine wall 0 50 60 do not successfully implant 2713 Stage 1 Ectopic pregnancies Instead ofimplanting on the uterine wall the blastocyst attaches to a o Zygote travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus Stage different area of the 0 Rapid mitosis and initial migration reproduct1ve system Zygote39s outer cells will form the placenta and inner cells will form the developing embryo o Blastocyst quothatchesquot and attaches to uterine wall 2 The Embryo Prenatal period from 2 weeks through 8 weeks Ectopic pregnancies cannot be carried to removed surgically term and cells must be Cell differentiation and migration intensify forming quotlayersquot Endoderm will become digestive and respiratory systems Mesoderm will become bones muscles circulatory excretory and reproductive systems Ectoderm will become nervous system and brain sensory organs and skin hair and nails Neural tube a Ushaped groove formed from the ectoderm eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord While they are being formed the body parts are especially vulnerable to environmental events Recall genetic imprinting Most miscarriages occur during the embryonic period Face Development Stage 3 The Fetus During fetal period 8 weeks birth Fetus is about the size ofyour thumbnail at first Rapid CNS and muscular development differentiation All organs complete their differentiation and begin working Mom can usually feel movement by 4 12 months quickening Re exes usually appear about 5 months After 5 months lanugo soft hair develops Eyes can open and close by 6th month 0 000000 Fetus at 12 Weeks About 2 inches long Starts to initiate movements Sex organs start to emerge Fetus at 16 Weeks About the length ofa car key and weighs about 35 ounces Heart and blood vessels are fully formed fingers and toes Have fingerprints PSYC 307 2713 0 Recognize about these developmental milestones how early they are how much development is going on Fetus at 20 Weeks 0 Weighs about 10 ounces 0 About 6 inches long 0 Can suck a thumb yawn stretch and make faces 0 Ultrasound is generally performed at 20 weeks to confirm that the placenta is healthy and attached normally and that fetus is growing properly 0 Time when most women are given ultrasound 0 Can see facial expression thumbsucking yawning Fetus at 24 Weeks 0 Weighs about 14 pounds Responds to sounds by moving or increasing its pulse rate 0 Responds to sound in a way that we can measure 0 This is the point that we can tell and measure their response to movement 0 We measure it through their changes in movement and pulse rate We infer from these things that they can hear 0 Control is within the individual I Baselinemeasure the pulse rate of fetus at rest I Introduce stimulus like mom s voice and the HR speeds up We know this means that they have heard something I You can measure the suck rate ofa newborn on a pacifier as a baseline then introduce a stimulus and measure the suck rate to see if they re paying attention 0 By measuring these things in this case heart rate we have the disadvantage that they could be doing this in this case hearing earlier but we cannot measure it until this point 0 Inner ear fully developed Fetus at 28 Weeks 0 weighs about 2 12 pounds 0 Changes position frequently 0 Good chance of survival if born prematurely now 0 Parents should register for birthing classes to prepare for labor and delivery and parenting the newborn 0 Trust her you need them 0 Yes people have been having babies for thousands ofyears But guess what The survival rates ofwomen and babies back then were LOW Like super low This is not a simple procedure It s a big deal 0 There are so many things that can go wrong 0 You need preparation Fetus at 36 Weeks 0 About 185 inches long w eighs 0 Close to 6 pounds 0 Brain has been developing rapidly o Lungs are nearly fully developed PSYC 307 2713 0 The lungs are the last major organ to complete When infants are premature one of the most immediate concerns is whether they can breathe yet 0 Head is usually positioned down into the pelvis by now Considered quotat termquot at the end of 37 weeks 0 Anything before 37 weeks is considered premature o This part for Mom is pretty exhausting and grueling o The average American baby weighs 7 12 pounds and is about 20 inches long Prenatal environment 0 The sensory structures are present early in prenatal development and play a vital role in fetal development and learning 0 The fetus experiences tactile stimulation as a result ofits own activity and tastes and smells the amniotic uid 0 It responds to sounds from at least the 6th month of gestation o Prenatal visual experience is negligible I Vision is not awesome in newborns Their tactile sensations though are already being experienced They suck their thumbs feel themselves against your uterus I It swallows the amniotic uid in which there are avors depending on what Mom has been eating It can taste I It can smell I Anything that mom ingests the fetus also experiences because they share uids 0 By the time the fetus is born 100 billion neurons are present and handle information processing in the brain 0 That is more neurons than any adult has You never have more neurons than when you are born You are born with more neurons than you will ever use Prenatal Environment amp Risks 0 Nature AND Nurture matter in utero 0 Critical periods nurture particular stages of development when certain environmental in uences strongly impact development I EMBRYO is the most important critical period because this is when everything starts to form 0 The creation ofnew neurons is called neurogenesis neuro brain brain cells genesis create 0 Neural migration movement of neurons from neural tube to their appropriate final locations creating the different parts of the brain I The movement of cells that are going to be CNS cells out to their final destinations I If this is disrupted bad things happen 0 Neural tube closes to form CNS failure to close results in serious defects 0 Spina bifida neural tube fails to close opening in the child s PSYC 307 2713 lower back where the spinal tissue is actually sticking out o Anencephaly neural fails to close at a different spot and the brain did not develop completely maybe not at all 0 Something went wrong in the embryonic stage 0 How can you protect against this 0 It s hard to protect against any environmental o Ifyou know ahead of time that you re planning ahead of time you can take measures to avoid exposure to teratogens Everything the mother experiences can affect the developing organisms Teratogens amp Prenatal Development 0 Teratogen ANYTHING that can reach the developing organism and cause a birth defect cognitive and or behavioral deficits 0 Drugs incompatible blood types pollutants viruses stress etc 0 People used to say that you can have as many drinks as the trimester you are in WRONG Texas Teratogen Information Service 18007334727 Type and severity of abnormalities are linked to o How genotype of the pregnant woman and genotype ofthe embryo or fetus interact with the teratogen 0 Timing of exposure 0 Nature of the teratogen o Doseresponse principle the dose how much you They vary across people Exposure to teratogen for one woman might result in a severe birth defect in another woman the defect might be negligible are exposed to the teratogen predicts how severe the response will be 0 More exposure stronger effect 0 The more you ingest the more severe the defect will be Common sense 0 Congenital rubella syndrome body rash eye and heart defects hearing loss mental retardation 0 Result of the mother being exposed to the rubella virus 0 Rubella is a known and severe teratogen o Ifyou re unvaccinated before you get pregnant you need to get vaccinated Because if you re exposed to the virus your child is going to have serious defects Teratogens and Timing 0 Most serious damage from teratogen exposure in first 38 weeks 0 Chart from book showing various stages of prenatal development and rough ranges of critical periods 0 CNS 3 weeks through end 0 What you should get teratogen exposure in the first trimester is most deleterious Prescription Teratogens o In general legal and illegal drug use during pregnancy are associated withdevelopmental deficits PSYC 307 2713 0 Including lower IQ scores poor school performance higher risk for dependency problems later in life 0 Ifyou re taking a prescribed drug while pregnant it s a teratogen o Prescription drugs that may affect the embryo or fetus o Antibiotics Ant1nausea med1c1ne for O Antldepressants nausea resulted in birth 0 Hormones defects quot ipper babies 0 Accutane prescr1bed for acne It was made FOR 0 Thalidomide for morning sickness and anxiety PREGNANT WOMEN 0 Sleeping pills o Antianxiety drugs Nonprescription Ifyoure taking a teratogens include 0 Just because your doctor prescribes them doesn t mean they re not teratogens o What if they have something like bipolar disorder and wants to get pregnant medication there had better be damn good evidence that is does NOT cause birth defects 0 There s a huge risk that there s going to be a birth defect If you continue taking your medication when pregnant you re risking birth defects 0 What if you can t function without them Then you need to make a choice about whether you are at an appropriate point in your life to have a child 0 There will be situations where the risk of taking a medication outweighs the risk of birth defects 0 High fever for extended periods of time NonPrescription Teratogens o Nonprescription teratogens include 0 Diet pills aspirin Aleve ibuprofen Advil 0 Tylenol is even iffy not the miracle drug we once thought it was 0 Psychoactive Drugs Act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness modify perceptions and change moods o Nicotine marijuana ca eine alcohol X crack heroin etc o In general the more mindaltering the drug is the worse the birth defects will be 0 Doseresponse principle Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 0 Birth defect caused by mother s drinking during pregnancy 0 This is essentially a syndrome a group of characteristics that kids who have this disorder share 0 Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman s drinking alcohol 0 Symptoms include facial disproportions heart malformations and other physical abnormalities stunted growth and behavior problems 0 At well baby visits they do measurements of things like nosebridge and whatnot to possibly diagnose this 0 Much more important what is going on inside PSYC 307 2713 0 Kids often have heart problems 0 They don t grow in normal ways 0 Behavior problems and mental retardation kids with FASD have high rate of behavior disorders belligerent outofcontrol 0 Leading cause of preventable mental retardation in US o No known safe amount of alcohol 0 Many years of evidence suggests that no amount of alcohol is safe More Common Teratogens Caffeine o 2 cups of coffee or 2 to 3 cans of cola per day increase risks for spontaneous abortion and low birth weight 0 Pregnant women who consume 300 or more milligrams of caffeine a day have an increased risk of fetal death spontaneous abortion 0 One soft drink has about 50 mg so you may be okay 0 Caffeine before pregnancy Okay since it ushes out ofyour system pretty quickly 0 Causeeffect 0 We cannot do an experiment with human 0 We do experiments with animal models and they show the effect 0 There is a correlation significant with humans HOWEVER There could be a third variable that goes along with women who drink a lot of caffeine that causes them to miscarry Nicotine I Through the vehicle of smoking cigarettes as there s not much data on consumption of nicotine through other vehicles We don t have data on the new mediums that are around now Increased risk of learning disabilities stunted growth upper respiratory and ear infections cleft palate Increased risk of premature births and low birth weights fetal and neonatal death respiratory problems and sudden infant death syndrome SIDS also known as crib death when mothers OR fathers smoked during the pregnancy Keep in mind the doseresponse principle There are tons ofpeople alive whose mothers smoked This does not mean smoking is safe It s been associated with all these problems in offspring Hugely significant correlation relationship between smoking in the environment and SIDS SIDS When an otherwise healthy baby just dies aka crib death In this situation what it looks like is that the air quality of the home is compromised when people in the household smoke It doesn t matter if Mom doesn t smoke if Dad does It compromises air quality and increases the chance of SIDS Lungs are the very last things to develop If air quality is compromised it makes sense that the child could suffocate 0 Most research comes from US and Europe PSYC 307 2713 Marijuana 0 Infants have increased likelihood of having tremors increased irritability and nervousness I While pot may make the mom feel good it makes the baby irritable and nervous o Prenatal exposure predicts later marijuana use by the age of 14 I Could it be because ofprenatal exposure It could be but it probably is not Cleft Palate I Palate andor lip fail to close during face formation 0 Surgery to correct cleft palate is expensive and it s rarely just one surgery 0 Smile Train charity that helps parents pay for cleft palate correction surgeries I Epigenetic either parent may pass the susceptible gene expression may or may not be triggered 0 There s an association between teratogens like nicotine and cleft palate but we ve more recently discovered that there is a genetic component 0 There is a way for parents to pass on a susceptible gene that either is or is not triggered You could have the gene but it s not expressed in your phenotype Exposure to certain teratogens for some has a different effect for people based on their genotype I Defect linked to maternal smoking alcohol and psychoactive drugs More Teratogens Flu and viruses associated with numerous psychological disorders I When pregnant women get the u it s particularly bad at the END ofpregnant which is uncommon for a teratogen I Can t do experiments with humans I Women who have the u during pregnancy have dramatically increased rates of schizophrenia in their kids I There is rapid brain development at the END ofpregnancy Apparently the u teratogen affects brain development in a way that promotes development of schizophrenia I It s associated with other mental disorders as well Why Because at the end of pregnancy the final parts of brain development are occurring Stress hormones I Stress hormones increased risk ofpremature birth and difficult temperament babies I Temperament about half ofwhere your personality comes from you re born with your temperament and it s a persistent characteristic throughout your life I Affects your development ofpersonality social skills I Associated with difficult temperament unpredictable unhappy hard to please 0 40 of infants have difficult temperament 0 Rates are higher in women who have high levels of stress hormones while pregnant STDs Associated with brain damage deafness blindness and a range of serious physical and neurological disabilities PSYC 307 2713 0 STDs are associated with all kinds ofphysical and neurological problems Incompatible blood types I Incompatibility between the mother s amp father s blood Rh factors 0 Anemia jaundice heart failure fetal death 0 PARENTAL ENVIRONMENT I Rh positive is dominant I Rh negative woman and Rh positive man results in incompatible blood types 0 It takes long enough for the mom s body to create enough antibodies to launch an attack that the first child she carries ends up okay If you get pregnant again mom s body will immediately start attacking the fetus if untreated I If you get blood tests done procedures can be done that will make it okay But you have to know about it I Left untreated these pregnancies are often not carried to term There s a wide range of defects Maternal nutrition I What the pregnant woman eats drinks and breathes predictsinfant health often for the rest of their lives 0 Folic acid reduced CNS abnormalities 0 Iron reduced cognitive motor deficits better emotional functioning o Malnourished mothers more risk for children to be malformed develop schizophrenia antisocial personality disorder diabetes obesity liver and kidney failure I Malnourishment means they are undernourished This may the result of too little food or of food lacking in the nourishment the mother needs like fast food 0 Dutch Hunger Winter of 19441945 infants born to mothers in famine were much more likely to become obese and diabetic adults I Obese moms risk infants with neural tube defects neonatal death injury bigger moms 9 bigger babies we re seeing deliveries in which bones are dislocated or broken 0 Diet quality is linked to ethnicity SES and education 0 Education is the biggest predictor of malnourishment o Maternal malnutrition associated with low SES Parental environment 0 Maternal stress is a common risk factor for child health deficits such as 0 As infants malformations anemia hyperactivity irritability feeding and sleeping difficulties 0 As children psychological and behavior disorders depression anxiety asthma This is not an experiment And I Asthma is not strictly a physical disorder there may be additional factors it has psychological components at play Ifmom s under stress 0 As adults Increased rates of schizophrenia chances are there are bad 0 Because of how strong the effects of maternal stress are things going on in her the NIH and WHO recommend that effects of maternal environment Those may be to stress during pregnancy should be given high research blame for some of these health deficits PSYC 307 2713 priority 0 Social support network can help 0 3 F s are critical to resilience all of these moderate the Be ab1e to identify what outcomes of maternal stress Moderator something I The Father that lessens the impact I The Friends ofa variable I The Family Risk factor I The 3 Fs are a social support network 0 The more support you have from those around you the better chance you have of having a healthy pregnancy 0 33 vs 90 Prenatal Environment amp risks I Taking the most high risk group low SES moms who have high numbers of risk factors I In high risk group observe and track see who has the 3 F s or any of them track how the pregnancy goes how the children are when they re born as they re developing Variable is the 3 ps 3 P Moderatorsgfor 39 For women who do not have the 3 F s only 7 w 7 atemal 33 of them had healthy normal r lt pregnancies I In this highrisk group 90 of the women with all 3 F s had healthy normal pregnancies The stress was still present in their environment but they were able to ameliorate that I This is something we can t afford to overlook I Not an experiment we can t intentionally stress people out while they re pregnant 0 Moderator things that reduce the effect of some variable 0 Risk factor 0 Stress createscauses the production of cortisol which gets into mom s blood stream and thus the fetus s Stress as negative effects on the fetus Best thing you can do have the knowledge beforehand so that you know what to eXpect and how to handle problemsdifficulties you may encounter Maternal Age 0 Maternal age may affect unborn child 0 Two maternal ages are of special interest adolescence and 35 and older Risk of miscarriage and chromosomal abnormalities increases with age Older fathers contribute to risks as sperm quality deteriorates Teen moms at greatest risk I Infants born to girls 15 years or younger are 3 to 4 times more likely to die before their 1st birthday than those whose mothers are in their 20s 0 Age 15 is another breaking point 000 10 PSYC 307 2713 I Girls 15 and younger have higher rates ofinfant death than older moms o This is the highest risk group 0 Body is not done developing 0 Lack of prenatal care giant predictor for problems no matter how old you are 0 Young girls very often do not get prenatal care 0 And the brain is not yet done developing Your frontal cortex is not done developing You don t know what you re doing but as a 15 year old you think you do I Babies born to 15 year olds have the highest infant mortality rate 0 Mom s frontal love is not done developing the part of the brain in charge of executive functioning reasoning inhibition planning decisionmaking o More emotional than rational in their decisionmaking o Shaking baby syndrome 0 More likely to be angry at the child neglect the child abuse the child hurt the child and eventually kill the child 0 3 F s are moderators here as well Forewarned is forearmed 11 PSYC 307 2713 Pregnancy for Mom Mom s Experience True or False o A fast fetal heart rate means you are having a girl 0 False The fetus heart rate does not predict fetal sex All the old wives tales are false 0 Carrying your pregnancy all out in front means you are having a boy 0 When you are pregnant you are eating for two I 0 False Pregnant women require 300 extra calories per day 0 You shouldn t dye your hair while you are pregnant 0 Chemicals in hair dye can get into your blood stream and act as a teratogen 0 Don t jog while you are pregnant 0 True mostlyYou should not take up a new exercise program when you get pregnant Do the exercise routines you are accustomed to doing prior to pregnancy It s fine to do what you re accustomed to doing but don t start any new exercise regimens o For each baby you will lose a tooth 0 False butYale study 0 Little bit of a grain of truth to it though The developing human organism is technically a parasite Everything it takes to grow that baby comes from mom s resources including mom s calcium 0 50 rule from Yale study not an experiment found that essentially the rates of tooth loss are 50 higher in women with more than one child than women without kids Their guess is something about the leeching of calcium and possibly something with breastfeeding 0 Drink lots of milk take prenatal Vitamins to moderate against this risk 0 Having sex while you are pregnant will hurt the baby 0 False 0 Women may have trouble concentrating in the first 3 months of pregnancy 0 True Absolutely true And it is definitely not restricted to the first 3 months of pregnancy 0 So many hormonal and physical things happening in the body so fast it s exhausting Your body is doing all times of stuff so you re going to be tired 0 Pregnant women have a special glow 0 True What causes it Increased hormone levels and increased blood ow Part of the weight gain in pregnancy is a result of having more blood which adds more weight 0 Pregnancy women are always hot Why Because of increased blood ow 0 Your hair will fall out after your pregnancy 0 True however You have significant hair loss after pregnancy because most women grow a lot of hair during pregnancy The hormones that were helping the baby grow hair was helping mom s hair grow Now that the hormones are getting back to normal that hair is going to fall out 12 PSYC 307 Average Healthy Weight Gain 2713 Average Healthy Weight Gain for Mom during Preg lcy Baby 75 pounds Maternal energy stores fat protein 7 pounds other nutrients Fluid volume 4 pounds Breast enlargement 2 pounds Uterus 2 pounds Amniotic uid 2 pounds Placenta 15 pounds Placenta 15 pounds Breast enlargement 2 pounds Uterus 2 pounds Average Healthy Weight Gainand Amniotic uid 2 pounds Distribution for Mom during Pregnancy Baby 75 pounds II Maternal energy stores fat protein etc 7 pounds a Fluid volume 4 pounds Breast enlargement 2 pounds 1 Placenta 15 pounds h Uterus 2 pounds Amniotic uid 2 pounds Know what your options are what these procedures are what the outcomes rates are like what risks they bring 0 Know you can ask for X tests ofifyou know about them Back in the 60s the school of thought was that women should not gain any more weight than the weight of the newborn baby As a result they started putting massive numbers ofwomen on diets Not good Pattern ofweight gain look at how much more there is than baby at how much more is going on in mom s body All of these things have weight and mass and you need them 0 You have to have energy stores It takes a ton of energy to grow a person from scratch 13 PSYC 307 2713 Increased blood volume Amniotic uid Breast enlargement Uterus grows massively Placenta 00000 First Trimester 012 weeks o Zygotic and embryonic stages early fetal stage 0 Early signs and symptoms 1 Missing a periodspotting only 0 Hormone surges cause mood swings headache and irritability I Your support system should be awareprepared for all of this 0 Progesterone tiredness indigestion You re going to be super tired during the first trimester o Estrogen breast tenderness darkening of nipples upset stomach cravings or aversions I If they were pink they re going to be brown I Cravings is it real 0 Yes It s real Go get that woman her pickles and ice cream 0 Weight gain or loss I In the first 3 months some women gain weight some stay the same weight and some even lose weight o How do they lose weight Morning sickness lots ofvomiting 0 You might have morning sickness with your first not your second vice versa Each pregnancy is different 0 Eat small frequent meals get more sleep get emotional support from the 3 Fs B First Trimester Prenatal Visits 0 Set preliminary due date 0 Prenatal care is critical The earlier you can get started treating your body as the incubator it is the better your chances of having a healthy pregnancy and baby 0 Urineblood screening tests not just checking for the pregnancy hormone 0 Test for Rh factor compatibility o Alphafetoprotein screening AFP 20 error rate Because Of the high I Neural tube defects such as spina bifida errOF Fate OfAFP I Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities 35k for triple twins screen I Abnormal results should be followed up with more tests D Why such a high error rate Because they re testing mom s cells not the fetus s cells 0 Discuss appropriate weight gain 2535 pounds for normal BMI nutrition prenatal vitamins uid intake job risks 0 Job risks Americans are some of the worst in the world at this I Appreciating the needs ofa pregnant woman s body is something America sucks at I If you re lucky you might get 46 weeks of maternity leave postbirth Before that Nope 14 PSYC 307 2713 I There are risks associated with working for pregnant women but we as a culture fail to acknowledge that and provide for it o Ifyou can plan ahead to not have to work while pregnant that would be ideal but that doesn t happen very often 2nd Trimester 1228 weeks 0 Usually easier than 1st but changes continue 0 O O 00 Body aches as uterus and ligaments stretch Stretch marks on abdomen breasts thighs and buttocks Linea nigra 75 line on the abdomen stretching from around the diaphragm down to the pubic area I Sometimes it s just a line other times it s hair It will go away Do not panic Melasma quotmask of pregnancy I Looks kind oflike heavy freckles or acne over the bridge of the nose and cheekbones almost like you have a mask on Goes away after pregnancy Swelling and itching especially ankles fingers and face Varicose veins hemorrhoids Trimester in which mom feels the bets hormones aren t quite as out of control morning sickness often subsides you re not quite as tired I Varicose veins are painful and unfortunately they don t go away without surgery I Hemorrhoids horrible also don t go away Bleeding gums and nosebleeds I Not a big deal Don t freak out 2nd Trimester prenatal visits 0 Discuss current symptoms or discomforts O O O 0 Mother39s weight and blood pressure Growth size and development of the fetus and uterus Fetal heartbeat Ultrasound at 20 weeks due date physical status Noninvasive and there don t seem to be any adverse effects Can help determine a more accurate due date and detect any major abnormalities gt350ffered amniocentesis for genetic studies and Down s I It may seem like you don t have a choice but you DO Your MD may try to insist upon it but you can refuse I There can be risks associated with this Urine tests to detect problems I These tests are not so concerned with looking for situations with the fetus should have been discovered already but are instead looking at mom such as gestational diabetes and toxemia o Gestational diabetes and toxemia o If they re going to happen they re most likely going to happen towards the end of the pregnancy 15 Sugar may indicate hyperglycemia gestational diabetes Albumin a protein may indicate preeclampsiatoxemia PSYC 307 2713 I Preeclampsia toxemia Preeclampsia Toxemia o The most common seriously dangerous pregnancy complication 3 o Sudden spike in maternal blood pressure after 20 weeks ofpregnancy Certain placental substances appear to generate an immune reaction in mom Less common in second pregnancies or with paternity change The deadliest thing about toxemia is that the woman doesn t know she has it She doesn t feel any different She has so many things going on during pregnancy dramatic growing dramatic weight gain your feet and hands are already swelling she may not notice any symptoms I The biggest systems that a pregnant woman can see is rapid unusual swelling swelling beyond normal and that occurs very quickly Ifyou experience this go see your doctor Ifyou have a home blood pressure monitor you might want to use that It can kill you very quickly so hurry Your blood pressure will sky rocket putting you at incredible risk of stroke or heart attack Left untreated not only can it kill you it can also cause permanent liver and kidney damage 0 Causes liver and kidney damage in mom stroke seizures death if untreated I Anoxia brain damage death in fetus 0 These are a risk to the fetus because ofwhat is happening to the mom 0 Anoxia oxygen deficiency o Ifmom is stroking that s going to disrupt the ow of oxygen to the fetus They can result in brain damage or ultimately fetal death The only treatment is delivery of the placenta o Ifyou deliver the placenta you have to deliver the baby 0 Ifyou don t deliver the placenta both you and the baby are going to die Most of the time if you get toxemia it happens toward the end ofpregnancy end of 8th month during 9th month It CAN happen sooner though 0 Chances of baby surviving are pretty good There s something in the placenta that causes the toxemia 000 Third Trimester o Physically and emotionally exhausting 0 Continued breast heaviness and weight gain 0 Colostrum leakage and heavy vaginal discharge 0 Facial hair and skin darkening I Facial hair will fall out after birth Backaches increase as pelvic joints stretch You re going to be tired again It s a long time to have your organs being squished Most pregnant woman are at the quotJust get it out stage O 0 Increased skin and basal temperatures 0 Compression causes I Shortness of breath heartburn frequent urinationconstipation varicose veins hemorrhoids 16 PSYC 307 2713 You have a limited amount of space in your torso much of which is needed for your organs You ve got this growing organism taking up more and moer space compressing and squishing you organs I You have to use the restroom all the time have heartburn constantly o Braxton Hicks contractions false labor I Weak uncomfortable irregular quotwarmups I You start to feeling get so excited thinking it s time that you can finally get this thing out of you so you go to the hospital And they tell you quotNope you re not in labor Go home Sorry I These are quotpracticequot Your body is practicing for labor 3rd Trimester Prenatal Visits Every 2 weeks then weekly during the last month 0 You need to be checked weekly for preeclampsia Continue monitoring mom s discomforts weight and blood pressure fetal heartbeat and movements Vaginal exams for baby s size and position Cervical exams for dilation and effacement Vaginal and anal swabs for group B streptococcus o Strep B can be found in the vagina or anal area Ifleft untreated it can easily kill your baby 0 Intravenousantibiotics can easily treat it if given in time 0 Baby dies about 17 hoursafter birth If the woman is Get used to having a doctor up in your lady parts all the time Advocate Strep B Not all OBGYNs or clinics test for this and some who test for it don t do anything about it not given antibiotics and is positive for Strep B the baby dies 0 You re going to be in labor for a long time Take a swab when labor starts Continued urine tests for toxemia and hyperglycemia Discuss labor and delivery options and procedures 17 PSYC 307 2713 Birth I 38 42 weeks normal range I due date is at the end of40th week Tm Ica B Irih process Maybe one 0fthe reasons Typical Birth Process the last trimester of I Labor and delivery is a life transition for the infant pregnancy 15 50 miserable is I Prior to this from CONCEPTION the baby as been totally 50 that You re READY for this dependent on mom for life support I Now the baby has to depend on itself It has to breath by itself digest things do all the things that mom has been doing for it I From total dependence on mom for life support to total independence Three Stages of Typical Vaginal Delivery Ideally I First stage from onset of true labor until cervix is completely dilated o Cervix starts thinning out and opening up a process which takes hours and is painful I Second stage from complete dilation 10 cm until delivery ofbaby 0 When the child is actually being born I Third stage Delivery of placenta Stage 11 Early Labor Phase I Duration is typically 812 hours the longest stage 0 Cervix will efface thin and dilate stretch to 3 cm about the size ofa quarter I Effacement thinning The longest stage 0 Short mild contractions with a few minutes to rest between of childbirth is I Typically start in back just to open your I Feel the muscles in your lower back tightening up all body up to the way to the front It s uncomfortable but it s not prepare to get the too bad baby out I Not too painful I You have some time to rest in between Take that rest when you can get it You re going to need your strength and energy 0 Water may break at any time in stage 1 Stage 12 Active Labor Phase Duration is about 35 hours Cervix will dilate from 4cm to 7cm size of a small lime Contractions last about a minute with 35 minutes rest in between Contractions are stronger and last longer than early labor 0 Time to head to the hospital or birth center I Contractions are going to be painful now I Last about a minute I By the time you get to active labor most women are falling asleep in between contractions I Once this stage begins you need to get to wherever you re going to have your baby 0000 18 PSYC 307 0 Stage 13 Transition phase Think quotone contraction at a time Duration is 30 min2 hrs or more Cervix will dilate to 10cm like a small grapefruit Contractions last 6090 sec with a minute or less between Contractions are long strong intense and may overlap Expect intense pain Announce when you cannot resist the urge to push You may experience hot ashes chills nausea vomiting gas urination bowel m ovem ent O 0 These embarrassing bodily processes may occur But remember it s because of all the compression You re not going to care at this point Stage 2 Pushing 8 Delivery Lasts between 20 min to 2 hours 0 O 0000 O Contractions last 1min and come 1min apart Overpowering urge to push Painful pressure at your rectum Baby39s head will eventually crown become visible You will feel a burning stinging sensation during crowning quotthe ring of fire 2713 There will come a point during transition where you feel that there s no way you can t push You need to let whoever is doing the birthing know that you can t NOT push You do the pushing in the presence and guidance of someone who s guiding your birthing After 2 hours ofpushing ifyou haven t had the baby they re going to do a C section Only push when your provider tells you to Incorrect pushing can lead to increased vaginal and anal tissues In terms ofmeasuring pain the experience of giving birth is equivalent to the breaking of 40 bones at once 0 The Pushing Process Relax your pelvic oor and anal area 0 Kegel exercises might help contract the same muscles you would as if you were peeing and had to stop the stream Rest deep breaths between contractions Use a mirror to see your progress Reason why they re advised to use a mirror to see progress is because they can t see what s going on It doesn t make sense to them and they don t know why they shouldn t push 0 Correlation with woman having an easier time during the pushing process and being able to see what s going on where you are in your progress Use all your energy to push Do not feel discouraged ifyour baby39s head emerges and then slips back in this process can be two steps forward and one step back 19 PSYC 307 2713 Ending The Pushing process I DON T PUSH Pant through the contractions now incorrect pushing can cause increased tearing of your vaginal and rectal tissue When should you stop pushing When your caregiver tells you to Episiotomy formerly common during childbirth to assist in delivery in which the medical professional would take a scalpel to cut the tissue between the anus and vagina o No longer recommended in US because ofincreased risk ofinfection 0 Thought it reduced tearing of the tissue 0 Increased dramatically the infections that were sometimes very dangerous to mom and baby With all the stuff going A little too much pressure and you can pierce the bowel area Too much risk 0 Now it is advised that you NOT have one of these Though that doesn t mean that all doctorsnursesmidwives are aware of that fact 0 Vaginal tearing is common 0 Baby comes out Baby born mom has MASSIVE surge of the hormone oxytocin Stage 3 delivery of placenta I Lasts between 5 and 30 min Small contractions begin again Placenta tears free of uterine wall for it to be delivered it has to be torn free from the vagina Sometimes damage is done that causes massive bleedinghemorrhaging which can and does kill Provider may massage and apply pressure gently pull the umbilical cord Severe shaking and shivering are common Bleeding and uterine contraction should be monitored for several hours Many women don t even notice or remember this part because they are so overwhelmed by all the emotions and love for their new child Many women are unaware of how important this is If all of the tissue is not removed from the body it can easily turn into an infection that can turn deadly 0 That s one of the reasons home birth is risky ifyou don t know exactly what you re looking for and what you should see you can t know ifyou ve gotten everything else That puts the mom in potentially grave danger PSYC 307 2713 Potential Complications Complications for Baby I Premature and low birth weight Infants weighing less than 55 pounds are considered to be of low birth weight LBW o Premature LBW infants are born at or before 37 weeks 0 Inadequate surfactant 0 May cause respiratory distress syndrome I Fullterm LBW infants are aka small for date SF D 0 These ones ARE full term If they re still low birthweight something else must have happened Something may have happened during the pregnancy that has resulted in this underweight baby I Poor diet inadequate prenatal care drug and alcohol use Rates from highest to lowest AfricanAmerican LatinAmerican E u rop ean American I Probably not a race thing in terms of genetics It s something that goes along with SES and there are larger percentages ofthose races in lower SES I Premature birth LBW or other physical or temperament problems can affect the emotional bond between parent and child 0 The emotional bond that forms in the very beginning of the baby s life is compromised Baby is taken away from mom at the time the this very important event is supposed to be occurring Good hospitals will encourage and allow parents to touch and physically interact with their baby as much as possible They respond to touch Those receiving touch improve faster improve better than those nonhandled get out of the hospital sooner Premature low birth weight because they re not done they re not mature yet With technology today we re able to keep these microbabies alive In 1989 there was a baby born at 27 weeks weight 99 ounces 0 O OO O O Other Complications I Abnormal presentation breech birth how the baby is situated in the womb feet or buttocks first in the birth canal 0 Usually detected by ultrasound must be manually turned in delivery 0 Feetfirstbuttfirst is no bueno for mom or baby It can cause massive amounts of damage 0 So what do you do You try to turn it The doctor usually first tries by inserting a hand 0 May require use of special tools risks I Failure to Progress prolonged labor gt 2 hours ofpushing 0 Increased risk ofinfection and anoxia lack of oxygen 0 May require use of special tools risks 21 PSYC 307 2713 0 After 2 hours If the pushing part of labor lasts longer than 2 hours it s labeled failure to progress Within those 2 hours you should have had that baby and finished it Ifyou re failing to progress they start doing tests 0 With all the pain 0 At this point abnormally high amounts of stress hormones may be running through her system and the stress is passed along to the baby Infants who have gone through a particularly long painful delivery process have hypersensitivity to pain throughout the rest of their life It s as if there s a critical period surrounding pain perception o The kind of labor and delivery seems to be a predictor of some sort of baby s pain perception 0 Baby is squished compressed not getting enough oxygen A lot of risks associated with FTP o Umbilical cord abnormalities too long too short compressed wrapped knotted 0 There s a lot ofvariability to them as everyone grows their own 0 Why prenatal care is important see if there are problems with the cord ahead of time before you re trying to deliver If found early they can plan a delivery that keeps mom and baby at minimal risk 0 All can cause abnormal decreases in blood and oxygen ow to baby 0 Home Births I 2X as likely to have an Apgar score of under 7 compared to a hospital or b ir 1 ing center 0 10 is the highest so 7 is not optimal a bit ofa red ag just on the age of the danger zone I Double the chances ofmom having a seizure o Often happens during stage 3 pushing I Presence of certified midwife or nurse reduces chances back to normal 0 Don t try to have the baby by yourselfin the bathtub That is a terrible terrible idea APGAR SCALE Procedure they do to brand new newborn to make sure it is functioning well Done twice once immediately 1 minute after birth then 5 minutes later 0 First score is usually lower The second test is higher as they ve had a chance to acclimate and adjust some Goal is to measure how well the baby is transitioning Baby has gone from safe environmentswhere everything is provided to the big wide world where they have to function on their own I Apgar gives us an indication of how well the baby is making this transition PSYC 307 2713 I Lower than 4 they re going to take the baby and start working on it doing whatever they can to revive it I What does a high score indicate What does a low score indicate Infant Mortality I Death during the first year after birth has become relatively rare in industrialized nations 0 However rates in the United States are the 20th highest in the worldWHY 0 Why is it so high in the US Because the amount of time pregnant women get off from work is much much MUCH lower We should be advocating for more paid maternity leave so women can maintain their health benefits and help us improve our infant mortality rates Potential Complications for Mom 0 Depression 0 About M of women are depressed during pregnancy or within the first year after delivery 0 Highest in 1st trimester 11 3 months postpartum 13 o Inhibits ability to perform her daily activities bond with her infant relate to her family It s not always postpartum that depression occurs The most probably times 0 for it to occur are in the first trimester ofpregnancy and the first 3 months following delivery I First 3 months you have the massive hormone uctuations The embryo is doing the majority ofits development draining mom even more I Ifneurotransmitters are at atypical letters could it do anything to the embryo It s possible If nothing else her stress levels are going to be high 0 Your health care provider needs to know your background and any risk factors personal history family history 0 One of the main quothallmarkquot symptoms I Depressed person simply doesn t have the energy to get up to do things they need to do something that they usually love and enjoy doing 0 What is a strong moderator for risk factors associated with depression I The 3 F s Obesity 0 Obese mothers risk of gestational diabetes toxemia miscarriage premature birth birth defects Gestational Diabetes hyperglycemia and carbohydrate intolerance 510 of women meaning your blood sugar is too high 0 Inability to process sugar effectively 0 This is why prenatal care and blood work are critical PSYC 307 2713 0 Increased risk ofjaundice premature birth Type 2 diabetes later in the child I Means the liver is not functioning properly I If the mom had gestational diabetes then the rate ofT2D developing in the child is significant Higher rates of toxemia in obese moms Pregnancyrelated Death largely a result of lack of prenatal care and reducedaccess to medical and technological advances o More common in low SES women Why 0 Lack of accessaffordability to prenatal care higher levels of stress Natu ralquot Childbirth Unmedicated childbirth is a personal choice It s up to you Labor and delivery are huge physical trauma so before deciding how you re going to attempt to deliver you need to be educated and informed 0 Once again pain equivalent of 40 bones breaking simultaneously Tools women use to try to have a quotnaturalquot birth 0 Lamaze technique to help mom feel more comfortable and in control 0 Imagery forming mental pictures that help create relaxed feelings 0 Breathing different patterns of breathing help direct the mind away from pa1n o Positioning and movement changing positions and moving around during labor helps relieve discomfort and may even speed labor Rocking in a rocking chair walking swaying During labor some women decide to use medication to cope with the pain IT S OKAY to change your mind Don39t feel like you gave up or let your baby down Only you know how strong the pain feels o Experiencing too much pain and stress is not good for your baby either Use of Anesthesia and PainReducing Drugs Analgesics pain relief drugs for labor and vaginal deliveries that do not induce num bness eg D em erol Anesthesia pain relief with loss of sensation for vaginal or cesarean deliveries eg epidural There is no evidence to suggest that using painrelieving medications has adverse effects on your baby Why Because you re getting them when you re in labordelivery rather than when the baby is doing all of its development 0 NOT correlated with any negative Risks to the fetus and newborn are very minimal 0 Abnormal stress and painful birth may create infant hypersensitivity to pain Proper use of anesthesia no ill effects on infant s later wellbeing Very high doses may temporarily lower the ow of oxygen to fetus Some newborns are less physically responsive or have more difficulty initiating breastfeeding at first Symptoms disappear within hours up to 23 days 000 O PSYC 307 2713 Cesarean Section 0 25 33 ofUS births 0 Baby is delivered through a surgical incision in mom s abdomen 0 Most Csections are done after unexpected problems during delivery 0 Health problems in the mother eg preeclampsia o The position of the baby 0 Not enough room for the baby to pass through the pelvis CPD 0 Signs of distress in the baby You Must Have Been a Beautiful Babyor Were You Vernix white waxy substance that covers the skin of the fetus and newborn Lanugo downy hair on the body of the fetus and newborn Swollen eyes enlarged genitals wrinkly skin Covered in blood and other substances Pressure during birth can cause temporarily misshapen head OMG Now What Consider your options before you go into labor It s becoming more popular End of Chapter 3 Cesarean Section 0 2533 ofUS births 0 Baby is delivered through a surgical incision in mom s abdomen 0 There are different kinds of cesarean sections 0 When you re doing an emergency Csection they re not as pretty 0 Ifit s planned you can get a pretty little bikini incision 0 Old Wives Tale ifyour first birth is not an emergency Csection the subsequent births have to be 0 Most Csections are done after unexpected problems during delivery 0 Health problems in the mother preeclampsia 0 Position of the baby 0 Not enough room for the baby to pass through the pelvis CPD 0 Signs of distress in the baby You must have been a beautiful babyor were you 0 Skull in an infant plates are not yet fused together 0 Good because as they re sqeezedtrhough the birth cana o VerniX white waxy sub stance that covers the skin of the fetus and newborn o Lanuga downy hair on the body of the fetus and newborn o Swollen eyes enlarged genitalia wrinkly skin 0 Covered in blood and other substances 0 Pressure during birth can cause temporarily misshapen head PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Introduction and Methods Why Study Iimild Di quot quot397 0 Raising children hardest job in the world 0 Learn to parent from I How you were raised I What you read on the internet in books or journals etc 0 Most parents want to do what s best for their children but they just don t know what that is 0 Social policies the laws that we enact supposedly for the greater good 0 Lots of laws about kids 0 Kids don t have rights really Parents can parent pretty much whatever they want to do as long as the kids have food shelter and clothing parents are obeying the law 0 Recently we ve started paying more attention to how people parent was effective and what s not 0 Understanding human nature 0 There are certain characteristics tendencies ways of thinking situations in place and environments that determine how a person will respond True alse What Do You Think True False Genes play a role in the development of almost all behaviors Infants who are born to women with HIV almost always develop the disease themselves Humans use only 10 of their brain IQ testing indicates that people are getting smarter and smarter It is perfectly fine to use baby talk with infants People all over the world understand each other s emotional expressions Lots of parentteen conflict is normal in families Many children and teens are quoto vel Scheduledquot in activities The incidence ofstepfamilies is about the same today as 1901 Adults whnrvwere abused as children are very likely to become abusive parents themselves Genes play a role in the development ofalmost all behaviors TRUE Infants who are born to women with HIV almost always develop the disease themselves FALSE Humans use only 10 oftheir brain FALSE IQ testing indicates people are getting smarter and smarter TRUE PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 IQ tests are created with education as their basis Without formal education there are questions on IQ tests that you can t answer correctly without that formal education 0 Analogy schools teaching to students how to take the test teaching to the test rather than what people need to know to actually succeed in life I Fucked up strategies ifyou don t know the answer go with C It s more statistically advantageous than the other choices I How can we change the problematic quotteaching to the test with the policies currently in place Compile evidence mobilize a grassroots organization to help educate people about why the current methods are not helping our children and finally and most importantly VOTE It is perfectly find to use baby talk with infants TRUE but 0 True depending on how you operationalize baby talk 0 Operationalize how do you define it What do you mean by baby talk 0 Different kids of baby talk 0 Infant directed speech IDS is fine This includes things like nursery rhymes I Not saying the words in the same way Rather than speaking childishly you speak rhythmic speech That kind of baby talk is fine even preferred because it allows the baby to pick out words from the word stream 0 Baby talk quotWittle baby want a bawdle I Babies think that s how they speak presenting a major impediment later on Kids think that s how they re supposed to speak as that s all they hear so when they start speaking they imitate what they hear They often need speech therapy People all over the world understand each other s emotional expressions FALSE 0 Cultural differences cultural norms facial expressions body movement etc are not consistent throughout the world Lots of parentteen conflict is normal in families FALSE 0 Serious levels of con ict are not common Smaller fights getting grounded for Many children and teens are overscheduled in activities FALSE 0 The group ofkids that are more quotoverscheduledquot is a pretty select group and includes most people at AampM middle class 0 Kids in lower socioeconomic statuses are rarely overscheduled because they don t have the money to participate in lessons sports etc The incidence ofstepfamilies is about the same today as 1 900 TRUE 0 However these days it s because of divorce whereas in the past it was the result of death of a parent 0 Anything that happens in a child s environment affects their development A lot of strife and tension coming from being in a stepfamily can have an effect 0 Most likely population to get married those who have gone through a divorce 1012 o The fact that there are so many stepfamilies suggests that we should do a little more research on them and how they affect a child s development Adults who were abused as children very likely to become abusive parents themselves FALSE 0 The vast majority of parents do the very best they can including people who were abused When they re abused they think quotI m never going to do something like that to my kids And often they don t PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 There IS a higher incidence of abuse from parents who were abused as kids than from parents who were not abused however it s a very slight difference in incidence and it is not that common for the abused to become the abuser Reason 1 Raising Children 0 Good parenting takes an enormous amount of time 0 Knowledge of child development can help parents and teachers meet the challenges of rearing and educating children 0 Helping children manage anger fear and other adverse emotions 0 Children are born with no experience no idea how to manage emotions Why do babies cry They don t know how else to express their emotions and cope with them Must help children develop coping skills Helicopter parents hover over children try to do everything for their children I Normal reaction but they re not doing their kids any favors By doing everything for them solving their problems for them you re sending a message that you don t trust them or think they re capable of handling their own problems It generates low selfesteem Kids need to learn how to solve their own problems Parents have the difficult position of standing there watching as they re about to fall on their face and the parents has to stand there and watch You can t save your kids from experiences they have to learn how to cope 0 Many parents learn parenting practices from their parents 0 both desirable AND undesirable practices 0 Number one way they learn how to parent 0 quotJust because this is the way it s always been done is not a good enough reason to do something one way Reason 2 Choosing Social Policies 0 Making informed decisions about social policies that affect children 0 Social policy a government s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens 0 Should lawyers be allowed to question young children in court 0 Are US schools failing to teach children how to read write and calculate adequately o How do you know which way to vote Any kind of social policylaw that deals with kids people get so freaking emotional about it You can t understand that until you have a child When you perceive a threat to your child the response is high emotional and charged 0 When we make policy decisions based on strong emotional reactions they are often not ideal decisions We tend to overlook the future consequence in order to address an immediate problem 0 In state of high emotion you are by definition irrational making it more likely for you to pass a decision that isn t beneficial longterm Childhood obesity we ve tried 0 Removing coke machines from school 0 Increasing the amount ofphysical exercise they get in school 0 Nothing we ve done so far has made one iota of difference Threats we re dealing with 00 PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 Seems like we have a higher number child predators This is keeping us from sending our kids outside to paly every day We have more information of the horrible things people do It s good to keep us informed but it plants fears and ideas in parents minds to make them even more protective o A lot more issues with childhood obesity than availability of cokes in vending machines 0 We are the future leaders We re going to be the ones making policy decisions for the next generations I As we re learning about what the science tells us about human thinking growth development behavior we need to think about what we can do to improve the situation for our kids Reason 3 Understanding Human Nature 0 Knowledge of child development gives important insights such as the relationship between early and later experience 0 Romanian orphanages and basic trust I The USSR big group of countries under central control When it broke up tons ofpeople were killed the majority of whom were parents This resulted in millions of orphans in a country of turmoil They built giant warehouses packed with cribs and babies with very few adults to take care of these kids 0 The kids got food and shelter and little else Little contact individual interaction Lived in these cribs until up to 9 years old 0 Kids have compromised abilities to form relationships because they never learned to form basic trust 0 The experience young children and infants have make a difference 0 Sociocultural contexts how involvement in social interactions and cultural activities in uence psychological development 0 Social interaction means behaviors that are oriented toward others I How you approach social interactions is a result oflearning from your parents siblings peers friends etc It is a product of the context in which you were raised 0 Culture means the behavior patterns and beliefs passed on from generation to generation over time I Not simple social interaction goes much deeper I Your belief systems your religion your feelings on various issues like politics Something that is deeply held that you re born into and raised around your entire life It filters the way you view the world and other people thus in uencing your social interactions I Gender differences 0 In this country it s becoming less rigid but it s still there American couples this age still have the stereotypical mother bearing the domestic load 0 Turns out dads have a huge in uence The more involved dads are the healthier the development of the children 0 Context is the sociocultural setting in which development occurs I Bullying dangerous neighborhoods religion privilege PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 Socioeconomic status SES how much money a family has in uences their quality of life healthcare type of foods they eat quality of schoolday care etc fundamental lifestyle issues impacted by how much money you have 0 Position in society based on occupational educational and economic characteristics Differences in the ability to control resources and to participate in society s rewards produce unequal opportunities In 2006 174 ofUS children were living below the poverty line This stuff has social implications in terms of social policy Risk factors conditions that can cause a problem Protective factors circumstances or events that can ameliorate dampen or moderate the effect ofa risk 0 Family turmoil almost half of poor kids experience family turmoil I Risk factor for maladaptive behavior increased incidence of drug use pregnancy quitting school conduct disorders in school etc I 45 for poor kids 12 for middleincome Child separation brothers and sisters end up in different places I 45 ofpoor kids 14 of middleincome I Huge risk factor Exposure to violence firsthand violence I 73 ofpoor kids 49 of middleincome Crowding not enough space having to share everything even a bed with others never having personal space I 16 ofpoor kids 7 of middleincome kids Excessive noise no escape from the noise becomes very stressful wears on your noise I 32 ofpoor kids 21 of middleincome Poor housing quality no insulation ratinfested cockroaches I 24 poor kids 3 of middleincome How does socioeconomic context in uence development I The socioeconomic context has a huge in uence on children s lives and development 0 Low status predicts high infant and child mortality lower standard ofliving lack of resources O 0000 O O O O O 0 What is a Child 0 Middle ages original sin view 0 Babies are born evil You have to bear the devil out of them 0 1600s tabula rasa Locke blank slate 0 Babies are born with absolutely nothing preprogrammed o 100 nature 0 Only the experience a child has matters No awareness of genetics 0 1700 innate goodness view Rousseau 0 Babies are born absolutely good and are corrupted by what happens to them 0 1800 and early 1900 children were viewed as unregulated property to be exploited 0 High infant mortality rate 0 People had kids so the kids could help them survive 0 They served as workers maids babysitters oldage plans PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 Had no rights you could do whatever you wanted to them and no one could stop you 0 1910 10 infant mortality less than 1 today 0 So people had more children hoping some would survive 0 Child abuse and child lab or largely unregulated o 1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Today39s Child 0 Look at how much our views on children has changed and why it has changed 0 Legally any person under the age 18 years 0 Sociologically completion of 5 milestones o Completing school 0 Leaving home 0 Being financially independent 0 Marrying 0 Having a child 0 By age 30 o 1960 77 ofwomen were independent of parents 65 ofmen o 2000 49 ofwomen 33 ofmen I Postdivorce men are more likely to move back home with their parents because women are more likely to get the house I A lot of reasons behind these rate changes Child Development Research 0 Emerged just over 100 years ago following 0 Social reform movements I Research for the benefit of children I Described the adverse effects harsh environments can have on development 0 Darwin s theory of evolution I The other guys didn t know about genetic and inheritance Darwin brought up evidence that there was more to it than just experience His research inspired other guys to say if it works with plants how much does that matter in our children People began to be able to pick apart nature and nurture It s been a raging debate ever since I People believed it was 100 nurture Locke and 100 nature original sin and Rousseau views I Pretty much every component you can think about in psychology and most physical traits are a matter of nature AND nurture I Once people were aware of the in uence of DNA they realized are things we can and cannot control so the question of quotWhat can we do to make children s lives betterquot came up I EXperimetnal approach inspired research on child development to gain insights into the nature of the human speices I 1920s Society for Research PSYC 307 Lecture Notes What Do We Know 0 Each of us develops in certain ways like all other individuals like some other individuals and like no other individuals 0 What shapes the universal milestones on the path of human development and what shapes the difference 0 What do you really know about what makes kids develop the way they do I Siblings have same parents so same gene pool raised the same way so how are they so different 0 How much is parenting choices nurture o How much is genetics nature What Do You Think TZFI pick a baby up every time she cries she will cry more 0 False but At around six months HUGE MILESTONE for many different abilities and behaviors most babies have figured that out Before 6 months they don t get it they re crying because something is wrong After six months they might be screwing with you Research tells us whether a theory is true or false 0 False A theory is not the same thing as a hypothesis Also in the fields of science where subjects are living animals you can never quotprovequot truth and falsehood They are people and people do not always follow the rule You can find evidence in support of or against a hypothesis which can be put toward a theory big body of knowledge that explains all the tests Children can learn to fear objects such as a piece of toast 0 True Classical conditioning because we re training an emotional re ex response The best way to train a behavior is to reward it every time the child does it 0 False The best learning principal is sporadic rewarding of the behavior If you use partial reinforcement they don t know when they39re going to the get the reward but they know the reward is possible they re going to work harder for the reward Gambling is a huge industry built on partial reinforcement The best way to get rid ofa behavior is to punish the child every time he does it PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 False Punishment is not the ideal way to train behavior There are times it s appropriate but more often you can use various reinforcement strategies which are much more effective When young children are selfish and selfcentered it is because their parents spoil them 0 False But quotYoung children means up to 3 or 4 years old PreK age Up to that point it s not that they re selfish and selfcentered it s that they don t have Theory of Mind yet They look selfish to us but they can t help it They do think they re the center of the universe Their brains can t yet conceive that other people have feelings You have to train them because kids aren t born with morals Darwin 5 idea of quotsurvival of the ttest means that the strongest animal is the most likely to survive 0 False Strongest is not always the fittest Might does not always make right Notion of adaptability one of the things that infants have to do to survive is to adapt to the environment in which they are born and raised They come with biological endowments and prewiring to make them able to fit in the niche in which they are born Babies lose the stepping re ex because their legs become too heavy for them to ll 0 True Babies gain a lot ofweight fast but the stepping re ex never goes away Science vs common sense 0 Why do you need to understand theories and research methods 0 Provide plausible scientific understanding that is public and testable What does crying mean Pick up the baby Don t pick it up Up to 6 month milestone pickit up then pay attention to signs 0 Help you become a good consumer of developmental information I Books magazines TV internet folkwisdom peerreviewed journal articles look for accuracy and reliability I Consider the source Ifit s a blog it s someone s opinion How much do you trust that person Ifit s any form ofmedia that is paid then if someone paid for you to see it they have a reason for shoveling out that money It s rarely just for the greater good They want to lead you to believe in the position they hold They may be trying to get you on their side on voting get you to donate money etc I Beware of generalizations Kids are different What works for one baby probably won t work with the next one because each kid is totally different I Beware generalizations perceptual bias quotcommon sense 0 quotBoys are naturally more aggressive than girls 0 quotGirls are naturally better at language arts than boys I quotNaturallyquot means quotb orn that way They are taught that shit There is no gender different in kindergarten in language arts and girls actually test better in math at that age Those differences are promoted The differences come in experiences I Expectations can drive performance so expecting boys and girls to perform differently on certain things can in uence how they perform 0 Important applications of the science Parents can better understand kids needs and abilities at each stage 0 Ageappropriate stimulation responsiveness risk factors protective factors PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 Professionals can design better strategies for prevention intervention and promoting positive development 0 Teachers doctors therapists lawyers social workers etc 0 Social policies enhance positive effects ofpublic laws and programs 0 Design laws and programs that increase chances for optimal development across social and cultural contexts 0 Citizens can use objective science instead of folk wisdom to advocate and vote for policies that promote positive child development Central 39 in in 39 0 Physical development biologically based changes that occur as kids grow 0 Understand what to expect since expectations drive performance 0 Infants children teenagers undergo such dramatic physical development in small amount oftime As soon as you re comfortable handling it it will change Don t get complacent Cognitive developmen changes that take place in children s thinking and learning 0 Thinking mental development Start out with plastic ball of clay brain Every experience makes a change Your behaviors and responses will shape how that brain turns out to a dramatic degree Socialemotional development changes that occur in children s understanding and expression of emotions as well as their ability to interact with other people 0 Not born with it Not born with knowledge of how to behave emotionally how to cope Socioemotional stuff can be thought ofas very much a result of nurture 0 Changes in development are the result of biological cognitive and socioemotional processes biosocial interactions 0 These three components are always interacting One in uences another all the time 55 Adaptive vs maladaptive promote success vs failure 55 Adaptive fitting surviving hopefully thriving If a behavior is adaptive they are adjusting appropriately to cope to handle the environment they are in Adaptive behaviors promote success 55 Maladaptive the opposite 55 As a parent promote adaptive behaviors you have to know what is adaptive and what s not It starts early Different developmental circumstances can result in the same outcome eguifinality The same developmental circumstances can result in different outcomes multifinaligg These are people We cannot control everything about a human creature We make decisions and choices and those have a ripple effect Kids have different personalities OOO Biological and Environmental In uences nature and nurture o The single most basic question about child development How do nature and nurture interact to shape the developmental process Nature our biological endowments especially the genes we receive from our parents 0 Nurture the wide range of environments both physical and social that in uence our development PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Individual Characteristics with Context and Culture Individual differences How every child is unique children s genes their treatment by other people their subjective reactions to other people s treatment of them and their choice of environments all contribute to differences among children even within the same family There is no point at which we stop developing You will continue to change and grow your entire life Development does not stop after childhood 0 It s nature and nurture 0 Cultural differences SES sociocultural in uences Sociocultural context The physical social cultural and historical circumstances that make up a child s environment 0 Individual differences are differences between the individuals 0 This will be a test question Yay Strongly in uences one s reasoning about self others right and wrong Mayan children typically cosleep with their parents for several years culture prizes interdependence US children typically sleep in a crib separate from parents culture prizes independence Ideas and attitudes with a culture of independence show very clear pattern quotVery mad mother selling 16 year old son s 1993 Ford Ranger Drove three months before son forgot to use his brain and got caught driving drunk 3500 OBO Call meanest mother in Wyoming 1 Sociocultural something you d see from an independent background Independent not only means that this is my life it means that you take responsibility for your actions 0 O O O OO PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Theories on Development 0 3 classic stage theories this shit has only been around since the 1950s or so they take into account nature and nurture to different extents 0 Describe observable qualitative changes in behaviors over time I Qualitative change not just a change in the amount of something it is a change in the nature of something I Difference between crawling and walking qualitative difference versus difference between walking and running quantitative difference 0 Focus on the interaction ofbiological preparedness and environment 0 View development as a universal set of discontinuous stages I Each stage builds on the one before require that you do stage 1 before stage 2 They build like steppingstones I Each stage is qualitatively different I All of these theories are viewed as universal they assume that every child in the entire world ever will follow these stages Freud s Psychosexual Theory I Many of the basic premises of his ideas are not scientifically supportable They ve had a ton of in uence H okay here s what you need to know SEX AND VIOLENCE And unconscious motivations Most ofwhat he s talking about is personality I Freud focuses on sexuality as the driving force for development says adult personality is determined during early childhood by the way we cope with con icts between pleasure and social acceptability Oral stage birth 18 months I Zone ofpleasure is the mouth feeding I Signs of oral fixation include overeating smoking nailbiting I Freud argues that tiny newborn infants have a sex drive and that is what drives their personality In the oral stage the zone of sexual pleasure is the mouth They satisfy that by feeding Ifyou don t learn as an infant in the oral stage how to feed yourself you end up with an oral fixation Anal stage 18 mos 3 yrs I Zone ofpleasure is the anus potty training I Retentive or explosive o If you re anal retentive you didn t learn how to cope properly with potty training Instead of experiencing the pleasure ofpooping it translated into you being anal retentive about everything 0 Anal explosive took a little too much pleasure in pooping and you re really really messy Phallic stage 3 6 yrs I Zone ofpleasure is the penis boys identify with father girls with mother 0 Nothing said about girls He had no idea how to explain women 0 Right around here boys start to act like boys Detach from mom attach to dad Girls identify with mother Latencystage 6 12 yrs I Zone ofpleasure is learning and samesex friendships PSYC 307 Lecture Notes I The sex drive is latent Between these ages the sex drive hibernates and we focus on our samesex bffs Genital stage 12 and up I Zone ofpleasure is the genitals I Sexual interest emerges between peers I Hi there puberty o Freud s major contribution Early childhood experiences and parental attachment matter to later personality characteristics and behavior 0 What happens during early childhood does matter to our adult personality Few psychologists put stock in these stages but they recognize that early experiences shape our personality 0 Parental attachment not just the experiences you have but the way you attach to your parents affect your personality 0 Lots of evidence backing this us 0 Pretty much no one believes that we attach to our parents in these ways anymore Erickson s Psychosocial Theory Social development 0 Focuses on emotions and development ofidentity self 0 Stages from birth through old age that are social stages Every stage you encounter if you successfully negotiate that stage and cope with those issues that s healthy development If you don t successfully cope when you get pushed into the next stage you re not ready so you re screwed for every stage thereafter Says we go through 8 stages in which we interact with the environment to complete a social quotchallengequot 0 Successful completion healthy development 0 For example Stage 1 trust vs mistrust I Children develop a sense that the world is trustworthy and they can cope or it s unpredictable and bleak I Trust is adaptive In the context of social development if a child is mistrustful of everyone that would have a maladaptive in uence on social development 0 Major contribution framework for understanding the major issues to be dealtvvith at certain ages infant vs teen 0 Gives parents a handy tool for understanding what their kid is dealing with at that age frame 0 Be sensitive and aware supportive to help your kids develop the skills they need to develop Piaget s Cognitive Theorv 0 Most famous developmental theory still in use despite having come out in the 1950s changed attitudes toward kids more than any other theory of development 0 Focuses on 4 stages of mental development 0 Children are active agents PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 quotlittle scientists who organize 39 39 gt information and test ideas they 1 x seek out knowledge They try to make sense out of the world with the skills and capacities they have Explains how children think and organize the world meaningfully but di feren tIy than adults kid logic His theories make kid logic understandable You can understand how they arrive at that point Ifyou understand what your child is mentally capable of doing right now you can provide the optimal environment for the development of maximum potential Piaget s major contributions 0 Constructivism understanding is organized over timeas experiences quotbuild up Active learners instead of passive receivers I Adaptability to environmental life culture family friends demands 0 Major Contributions of Development Theorista Researchers Freud Early childhood experiences and parental attachment matter to later personality characteristics and behavior Erickson framework for understanding the major issues to be dealt with at certain ages Piaget censtructivism understanding is organized over time as experiences quotbuild up determining children to be active learners as opposed to pasaiwe receivers adaptability teenvironmenml demands Vygotaky Z PD and scaffolding O O Focuses on culture and social interactions as the guides in cognitive development was in uential mostly in education More interested in potential than current achievement level Zone of proximal development ZPD children s social interaction with moreskilled adults and peers is critical to their cognitive development 0 What is the range of stuff this child could learn given the right support 0 Pivotal concept moving on from achievement tests He was more interested in studying kids potential Culture dictates the tools of development 0 Development ofmemory attention and reasoning involves learning to use the inventions of society such as language mathematical systems and memory strategies Major contribution ZPD and scaffolding are becoming revolutionary in education You will need to know this shit as a parent Classical Conditioning trains re ex responses 0 Math class can make you hungry Operant Conditioning trains voluntary responses 13 PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 Slide card push button get candy 0 Major contribution of classical conditioning 0 Exposure deconditioning eg fears when a person has a phobia there is a technique called exposure deconditioning that exposes them to a tiny bit at a time until they are able to cope with it 0 Major contribution of operant conditioning o Token economy 0 Progresa oportunidades Mexico 2007 and school attendance schools paid the parents for kids getting perfect attendance 0 Dallas books read and payments rewards drive behaviors Bandura s Cognitive Social Learning k Theorv 0 Children learn through classical and operant conditioning AND through observation and imitation of role models 0 Bobo doll experiments showed children can learn aggressive behavior simply by seeing adults do it Blowup plastic doll Weebletype toy Kids and their parents were brought into the lab where there was a big window in room that you could see into see room of cool toy They observed a person stranger come into the room assault the toy and leave with nothing said Later the child is allowed to go play in the room The child goes in and attacks the Bobo doll in the same way as the model did This was a pivotal finding as we discovered that kids do learn by watching There doesn t need to be a motivation other than having a seen the model perform the action Kids learn by watching you even if you re not aware that they re watching even if something you don t want them to learn OO O 0 Major contribution selfefficacy awareness ofmotivations for behaviors gives one the power to make personal changes in one s life 0 When we can be aware ofmotivation it allows them to have some control over those behaviors Experiences and expectation drive behaviors Ifyou know that you re doing some behavior and figure out what it is that is causing you to do that it allows you to make personal changes in a much easier and effective way than ifyou re not aware ofwhy you re doing it Huge concept ifyou re trying to figure how people develop 0 Why do you do what you do Think about why do what you do When you can identify why you do it you have a better chance of changing it Contextual Perspectives looking at the context in which development happens 0 The lifespan perspective age cohort the period of time in which you grow up in uences development from womb to tomb Depression era kids tended to quotsettle to be safe Age cohort Matters dramatically to how you can interpret research Much developmental research is done on kids Ifwe re talking about how people develop over timeMost researchers can wait 17 years to study how this particular group develop over time That means you need to use crosssectional experiments You must protect against age cohort effects 0000 14 PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 0 What might the problems be in comparing groups ofa group of 3 year olds and 20 year olds Kids today grow up with technologies unheard ofin other generations They ve grown up in a different context 0 Some of the differences we see might be the result of the context in which they were developing o Might not be as dramatic as comparing 20 year olds vs 40 year olds 0 When the environments are dramatically different there may be some differences between the groups that have nothing to do with what you re trying to study Major contribution understanding the confounds of comparing across generations Bronfenbrenner s Bioecological Theory Says kids grow and develop within a nested set ofin uences Microsystem childfamilyschoolreligion Mesosystem interactions between micro and exo systems Exosystem0 friendsneighborsmedialegal and social services Everything from the child itself to the sociohistoricla events happening in the world matter They affect development because they affect the environment kids are living in Kids growing up in a war are going to have differing attitudes and belief systems than kids growing up in peace times 0 Everything touches everything Major contribution Ecological validity research must consider the natural environment surrounding the child think about how this might apply to equifinality and multifinality issues The natural environment must be accounted for For a long time in every area of scientific research was to do all your experiments in a lab That s not what happens in real life though We can bring kids into the lab and play syllabus for them to try to understand who they learn language but in real life they don t hear syllables They hear word streams It s not ecologically valid because it doesn t translate into the real world We are now moving into using stimuli that are ecologically valid Instead of giving them syllables give them sentences We need to know what these things are so that when we read research articles and hear provocative things in news we can look for these items and determine how much confidence we can have in what we re being told You must look at methodology Ethologj cal and Evolutionagy Perspectives Ethological theory focuses on adaptive behavior within natural environments 0 Includes critical or sensitive periods 0 A bit more recent very broad but they matter Adaptive behaviors promote survival and success They allow you to function well survive and succeed Ecological approaches allow you to include critical or sensitive periods 0 PSYC 307 O 0 Lecture Notes Critical or sensitive periods there are certain events that have to happen by a certain time or development will not proceed optimally The brain is prepared to receive certain types of information by certain times Ex Ifyou started learning a foreign language from birth you re better at it than those trying to learn it in high school The brain is more able to process and learn different languages within the first 5 years oflife You can t become as proficient in language after that sensitive period This is probably the best studied sensitive period Evolutionary developmental psychology focuses on human genetic change over time in brain and cognitive functioning O O O O O O 00 Different context cultures push adaptations that solve problems important in that place Looks at why particular genes are prevalent in a population What it essentially says is that whatever the context is during the time gene selection evolved talking about eras of time what was going on during this time that could have whatever that gene does makes people survive better Ex Puberty onset of puberty appears to be much earlier in girls than it was 100 years ago What it looks like there are specific populations ofyoung women where this happens much more frequently Those populations of young women are almost invariably from single mother households without a consistent strong male figure Historically and evolutionarily strong male figure protects and provides If there s not this protectorprovider figure it triggers the genes responsible for the onset ofpuberty to turn on earlier so she can become a woman sooner and find a mate and thus protectorprovider sooner Will discuss this more next chapter Major contributions link the in uence of environment with the expression of genes eg age of puberty onset The environment you are in can change what your genes do Your genes set you up for a certain outcome but your environmental factors can change it PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Approaching Research Truefalse The best way to do research on development is to conduct eXperimentsFalse 55 There are some situations where experiments are the best but there are other scenarios that aren t ethical 55 Kids are a protected population If we are studying children we have to jump through quot5 000 aming hoops over the Grand Canyon to make sure what you re doing is not potentially endangering these kids 55 Lots of devleopmetnal research is observational because anything else would be unethical False If observations are carefully done you will be able to determine the causes of the behavior you are observing 0 Ifa study observational you cannot conclude or identify causeeffect 55 No matter what you do you can t make that happen because in an observational study all we are doing is observing what already exists We are not manipulating anything or making something happen through our intervention we re just seeing what s happening There could be any other number in uences or cuases that we re unaware of 55 Still gives us a lot of good information we can use to understand development provide protections against risk factors etc 55 General public s inability to understand between experiments that tell us cause and effect and correlations that tell us that two things happen at the same time has resulted in disastrous social polciies in the past 55 First thing you should do when reading a report on a study is identify it s observational or experimental 5 Always consider the ethical implications 5 Consider studying the question of children who are abused becoming the abusers Some many kids who are abused do not become abusers 55 Public s voting is driven by their misunderstanding of events and causeeffect Example childhood obesity When faulty premises drive voting social policy becomes atrocious and ineffective Studying a single individual intensively is an accepted scientific methodologyTrue Case studies are observational lfwe have enough case studies we can design experiments to test whether there is a causeeffect relationship A lot of times it s not ethical but we are getting better at doing things with the brain like TMS transmedial stimulation that allows you to send a magenetic field that temporarily paralyzes a portion of the brain You can thus take healthy college student test what they can do paralyze part of the brain with TMS see what they can do and thus model how brain damage affects x Once we have established that the results of our research are statistically signi cant we can be con dent they will have an impact on realworld situationsFalse 55 Example of ecological validity If what you re doing is not ecologically valid the huge effect you found in the lab may not matter Even lfresearch consistently nds that children whose parents talk to them a lot have higher selfesteem we should not conclude that frequent conversations with parents build selfesteem in childrenTrue PSYC 307 Lecture Notes 55 First thing you must ask observational or experimental It s observational so we can t determine cause effect Studying Change Over Time CrossSectional Method kids of different ages are studied at a single time 55 Strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time 55 Risks cohort e ects Longitudinal Method studies same kids over time 55 strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more 55 Reveals individual children s patterns of stability and change over time 55 Difficult to keep all participants in study attrition 55 Attrition subjects just drop out ofa study People move people die they don t feel like driving there anymore and so on 55 More people more power The more people that are tested in a study the stronger it will be 55 Repeatedly testing children can threaten external validity of study practice effects 5 Advantages Better because you have fewer confounding variables like cohort effect 55 Disadvantages more expensive take much longer carries its own risks 55 Need to look out for practice effects Ifyou ve already done something one time you re more likely to be better at it the next time simply because you ve done it before 55 There are things we can do to control for these but it s still a risk PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Research Methods in Child Psychology DESCRIPTIVE Methods observe and interpret same thing as observational studies Structured you control what they see like in the Bobo dolls experiment Interviews 0 Children s SelfReports subjective experience 0 Just ask kids what they think how they feel 0 Reports by Family Teachers and Peers converging viewpoints 0 Ask others who have consistent interaction with the kid 0 Surveys ensure representativeness 0 Some instrument Direct Observation 0 Naturalistic observation no manipulation ofvariables o Observing kids in their natural environment 0 Structured observation compare behaviors in designed situations 0 You control where you see them what they re exposed to like in the Bobo experiments Establishing Patterns from descriptive methods 0 Correlational Method allows researchers to relate certain experiences or factors to each other and assess the strength of the relations 0 The more kids watched Sesame Street the better their test scores and the better their social skills What does that mean 0 Just like with conversations with parents and kids there could be some very important other things going on with kids watching Sesame Street 5 or more times a week 0 Could be that the parents want what they watch on TV to be educational so the only thing they get to watch is Sesame Street Or their idea of childcare could be parking the kid in front of the TV This could affect cognitive improvements 0 It s observational so you can t conclude causeeffect o If they re moving APART from each other it s a negative correlation 0 Only way to establish relations among variables we can t manipulate eg IQ and achievement popularity and happiness etc 0 Parents explain scientific things to sons like 6x more than they explain it to daughters because girls don t understand science Then girls don t do as well in science Wonder why 0 Observational Correlation Causation 0 Descriptive data only allow for correlational interpretations o Directionof causation problem 0 It is not possible to tell from a correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect 0 Thirdvariable problem confounds o A correlation between two variables may arise from both being in uenced by some third variable 0 Some other factor that you didn t measure is causing the effect PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Confound some factor that is in uencing your results that you didn t control or 0 account for 0 Examples 0 Permissive parenting causes9 children s lack of self control Permissive parenting causes Children s lack of selfcontrol An observed correlation between two events Children s lack of causes Permissive parenting cannot be used to selfcontrol conclude that one event A third factor such as causes both permissive parenting and children s lack of selfcontrol genetic tendencies or poverty PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Experim en tal D esigns CAUSATION REQUIRES MANIPULATION For you to determine cause and effect something has to have been manipulated Experiments are carefully regulated procedures that allow us to identify causeandeffect relationships 0 includes random assignment to either an experimental group or a matched control group Random assignment the assignment of sample subjects to either the control group or the experimental group Important to control for individual differences biases random assignment maximizes the potential that the control group and the experimental group are the same that different kinds of people are equally distributed between the groups I Minimizes in uence ofindividual differences 3ml variables Sample the people you test the ones you re studying You can t study every 2 year old in the world so you test these 1000 two year olds Your sample needs to be representative of the population you re trying to generalize to 0 Independent variables are manipulated and dependent variables are measured Experimental group subjects under study to determine the effect of some factor eg event substance technique Control group subjects that serve as a standard or baseline for comparison with the experimental group 0 Matched to the experimental group in number and characteristics but does not receive the experimental treatment The group to which nothing happens representing what would happen without any interventions You re not going to know if the experimental group had an effect ifyou don t have a control group to compare it to Independent variable IV variable that is manipulated by the experimenter 55 The independent variable is the variable that I manipulate 0 Level 1 watch violent TV 0 Level 2 watch nonviolent TV Dependent variable DVI the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment Operational definition definition of a variable that allows it to be precisely measured and that is replicable 55 I have to tell you the reader how I define my variables 55 Ifwe re talking about kids who have been abused I need to tell you ifI mean physical abuse verbal abuse emotional abuse ifI include neglect etc 0 O O PSYC 307 Lecture Notes Other quotExperim ental Methods Field experiments in the natural environment have ecological validity but riskw representativeness It s done in the field You go out into the actual environment Drawback Since you re going to a natural environment the people in that environment are selfselected The people are there because they want to be there 0 test the efficacy of State Modulation training on parenting efficacy I Does it improve interaction between mothers and preemies I Does mother s education level matter Natural experiments are quasiexp eriments that measure effects of nonexp erimental quotmanipulationsquot on children s behavior An event that was manipulated but not by you by nature Not necessarily nature as in the earth moon and stars 101 Example effect of vaccination on child health 0 Can demonstrate causeeffect connections in natural settings eg prenatal vitamins and vaccinations on developmental gains 0 No random assignment no control over IV Field experiments and natural experiments are not true experiments sort of a mix between observational and experimental Example of useful findings Although children make nearly a third of all ER visits a mere 6 of hospitals have all the pediatric supplies they need only 25 have a pediatrician on call kids aren39t just miniature adults research shows they react differently to illness injury and treatment body temperatures can rise more quickly fevers are more difficult to bring down Illnesses tend to come on more suddenly and progress more rapidly more vulnerable to toxins and have smaller blood volumes 0 2 ER nurses took 2 hours and 15 tries to insert an IV in a dehydrated hypoglycemic child and mom had to demand a blood test first Self generated possible practice questions for exam PSYC 307 12913 Chapter 2 Biological Beginnings Quiz 1 o A 1998 study in England suggested the MMR vaccine may be linked to autism 0 Popular media propagandized the story and parents freaked o Dozens of subsequent studies failed to replicate the findings 0 Journal retracted the article as quotdishonest and irresponsible in 2010 Today 0 25 ofUS parents believe that vaccines can cause autism in healthy kids 0 10 have refused to vaccinate their kids 0 10 kids dead ofwhooping cough in CA in 2010 0 Over 22000 cases in 2012 The original article is posted Focus on the methodological aspects of the study as we discussed and in class and consider what the researchers did that could have created confounds and misperceptions Major Themes of this Chapter 1 How do genes work and how do they impact development 2 How do genes and environment interact 3 How does environment including culture and SES impact development True or False Each human being has hundreds of thousands of genes that make him or her a unique individual 0 False We only have 20000 or so genes that make us unique individual Why did we think there were so many Because there s so much variation The mother s genetic material determines the sex of the child 0 False Women over 3 5 are twice as likely to have twins than younger women 0 True Women over 35 are more likely to use fertility treatments leading to an increased incidence of twins Age 35 is a cutoff point for women in terms of risk of having an atypical pregnancy That s why these women are encouraged to have amniocentesis It s recently been discovered that the age of the father also contributes to the risk of atypical pregnancy Makes sense More mistakes in sperm as males age thus increasing risk 0 Both over 35 the risk of atypical pregnancy goes up dramatically The tendency to have identical twins runs in families 0 False Whether you re going to have twins is chance unless you re on fertility treatments 0 Women are born with most of the eggs they ll ever have When you re 15 your eggs are 15 When you re 35 your eggs are 35 They don t stay young forever Many of the eggs are less viable at an older age PSYC 307 12913 Two parents with brown eyes cannot have a child with blue eyes 0 False This used to be a very popular way of explaining Mendelian genetics but it s oversimplified and incorrect It s just unlikely A whiteskinned couple can have a darkskinned baby and vice versa Females are more likely to have a genetic disorder than males 0 False Males are more likely to have a genetic disorder because they only have one copy of the X chromosome Your life experiences can change the structure of your genes 0 False Life experience can change the expression ofyour genes but not the structure There is a corollary though ifyou worked in Chernobyl or something mutations can occur Nature through Nurture D Nature the in uence of our genetic characteristics eg on personality physical and intellectual growth social interactions 0 The stuffyou re born with D Nurture every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us 0 These are things you re not born with things your environment and experiences shape It can all matter D Recognized as the way genes are expressed THROUGH the filter of environment So what s a gene 0 It s not nature vs nurture It s nature through nurture 0 Your nurture determines how your genetics are expressed o What you do matters to how your genetic endowments are actually realized What s a Gene 0 Genes make up the code of life 0 Genes tell the cells in your body what to do and when to do it o A single gene is not typically responsible for a single characteristic 0 Genes code for proteins Proteins tell the cells what to do 0 Human Genome Project only takes 20000 genes create a human being 0 Genes are organized into packets called nucleotides which in turn make up your DNA your individual genetic blueprint o Packets of genes that have some particular command they give are called nucleotides Put all the packets together and you get DNA The particular arrangement ofyour nucleotides dictates how and when your cells will create basic proteins and reproduce themselves 0 Gene expression can be turned on or off by environmental signals Nature and Nurture o Behavioral genetics study of the degree of genetic basis for a behavior trait or ability especially compared to environmental effects 0 Behavior comes before genetics 0 Interested in some behavior so they work backward to try to figure out what genes give rise to that behavior 00 PSYC 307 12913 0 Wants to know how much of this characteristic is a result of hardcoding from the genes and how much is environmental o Eg adoption studies show genes play a primary role in fearfulness BUT environment also matters 0 Adoption is taking the genes from one family and putting it in a different environment 0 Databases track twins raised together raised apart separated at birth and so on 0 We can manipulate to a degree nature and nurture using twin studies with identical twins 0 Concordance rate in characteristics high rate speaks to a strong nature component I Different characteristics indicate a strong nurture component 0 Example I Sarah ll Age 41 UK quotAs a result of the family I grew up in I learnt from an early age that the safest approach to life was to be agreeable and invisible Environment Shapes Gene Expression 0 Boys who experienced severe maltreatment were more likely to develop conduct disorders than those who had experienced no maltreatment o More for boys with low activity MAOA genes 0 Reduced ability to quickly degrade norepinephrine o MAOA are involved in one s ability to degrade norepinephrine which is important because it s involved in your level of arousal alertness how on target you are in a situation 0 Not able to controlcalm down as quickly as people with normal MAOA genes are What happens is that when these boys 0 Some experience maltreatment mostly from parents home showed much higher rates of behavior disorder and antisocial behavior I Scientists look at this and ask quotIs this something we just learn They looked at it traced it back and found that this was something that was different in the two groups I Groups with higher antisocial behavior and behavior disorder had much higher rates ofmessed up MAOA genes I Some had these low MAOA genes but didn t develop conduct disorder LOTS with low MAOA genes DID develop conduct disorder particularly when exposed to maltreatment o Xlinked trait that s the reason boys are more likely to have genetic defects than girls they only have one X If there s a defect on the X there s no additional X to make up for it Nature and Nurture 0 Molecular genetics identifying particular genes to understand how these genes work within the cell then link those biochemical processes to observable behavior 0 Identifying genes see what it s doing in the cell then seeing how it PSYC 307 12913 affects behaviors o Eg particular gene that codes for PAH protein is defective PKU Infant cannot process certain chemicals in food so the chemical builds up in the blood stream tissues muscles and eventually brain damage 0 The damage is preventable environmentally by adjusting their diet from minute one Something that must be kept in mind ifyou are considering a birth not in a medical facility Not getting the tests done immediately after birth keeps you from knowing this information so you can t intervene from birth Ifyou don t know that the kid has PKU your feeding them is leading to this result No bueno O 0 What is a Chromosome 0 Recall that the way your genes are organized tells your cells what to do 0 Chromosome collection of related genes 0 The Y chromosome has genes that code for male fertility male primary and secondary sex characteristics etc 0 Your 46 chromosomes and all the genes on them work together to make up your biological endowments o 23 pairs 0 Genes tell the cells in your body what to do and when to do it If you don t have enough chromosomes you re missing instructions 0 Too many chromosomes and you have con icting signals going to your cells The integrity of the code is compromised and stuff goes wrong in a very predictable consistent way thus Down Syndrome Nature Genetic Transmission 0 Human karyotypes 23 chromosome pairs 1 of the pair is from mom the other is from dad 0 Number the pairs 123 0 Looking at pair 23 you can see the difference between X and Y o The Y chromosome is very small and it has fewer genes on it than the X The Y chromosome does not have a corresponding gene 0 Meiosis gametogenesis creates seX cells and ensures genetic variability I Meiosis happens in one parent before the meeting of material Meiosis happens within me not we Creation ofseX cells eggs or sperm Genetically there is this mechanism that starts with meiosis because it ensures variability We need genetic variability to survive as a species 0 Person s 23 chromosome pairs duplicate recall one from mom one from dad in each pair I When your body gets ready to start making seX cells you have one cell Crossing over the first stage meiosis I where variation occurs thanks to a swapping ofpieces of genetic material on PSYC 307 o Homologous copies exchange sections crossing over then cell splits into two quotdaughterquot cells with 46 hybrid chromosomes each 0 Process repeats in the 2 daughter cells EXCEPT that this time the 23 chromosome pairs are not copied first 12913 chromosomes In meiosis one cell creates four gametes In meiosis II recombination occurs Recombination the two chromosomes came from different places The pairs separate half go to one gamete half the other How they separate is random That means that it s random which chromosomes go to which gamete Each daughter cell has 23 chromosomes because they haven t met their mate yet At this point the genes are different parent cell from our own chromosomes make identical copies of themselves similar chromosomes pair up sections of DNA get swapped When the new hybrid pairs separate each chromosome randomly travels pairs of chromosomes divide chromosomes divide w N to 1 of4 individual gametes recombination V 11 7 so 6m does not have to go to the ml 38 f same gamete as 7 a 7m Whether a gamete gets a grandma or granddadbased chromosome from parent s original pair is like a coin ip pure chance Each of the 4 gametes has half the parent s genetic material 23 chromosomes but mixed up into a brand new order Sources of Genetic Variability o Combining the genes within and between the two parents increases genetic variability in the offspring and therefore in the population 0 The chromosomes in the gametes are not exact copies of parent s PSYC 307 12913 chromosomes 0 Plus the zygote s chromosome pairs each have 2 different origins one from mom one from dad 0 Nature through nurture 0 Pictures demonstrate the in uence of age cohorts growing up in similar cultures SES region environmental in uences has affected how they look what they like how they talk etc Nature Genetic Transmission 0 Genotype inherited from one s parents all ofa person s genes including those that are active and those that are silent o The combination of alleles an individual carries 0 Only identical twins have identical genotypes Fraternal twins and full siblings are only 50 genetically identical The actual code in your genes Your genotype does not always match your phenotype I Example Phenotype genetic expressions of characteristics that are actually shown in one s body and are observable and measurable o eg CFTR gene codes for a protein that transports chloride ions Presence of the dominant allele AA Aa aA in the GENOTYPE creates a normal PHENOTYPE healthy transport But the person still carries the recessive allele a and so can pass cystic fibrosis on to children I You can have the gene for cystic fibrosis and not show it making you a carrier The only what you would know you have the gene is through genetic testing Ifyour mate is also a carrier you have a 25 chance of having a child with who will have cystic fibrosis 0 What we can observe being expressed Conception 0 Results from the union of two gametes the egg and the sperm 0 Zygote contains the full set of 23 chromosome pairs 0 The 23rd pair determines the sex 0 Genetic female 23rd pair contains two X chromosomes 0 Genetic male 23rd pair contains an X and a Y chromosome 0 Mitosis zygote duplicates its 46 chromosomes 23 pairs and divides into identical daughter cells each containing the same copies of all chromosomes 0 Mitosis continues and a multicellular organism emerges o Mitosis takes two note the quottoquot in mitosis 0 You have a zygote fertilized egg it copies everything and splits in half The two resulting cells are the same with no crossing over or recombination Mitosis is simply about growth After conception you have a one cell organism that splits to two to four to sixteen until you have a blastocyst of all identical cells Happens very early first week 00 O PSYC 307 12913 Sex Differences Begin at Conception Approximately 120 to 150 males are conceived for every 100 females The sperm bearing the Y chromosome are lighter and presumably swim faster to the egg than those bearing an X chromosome 0 This is the popular eXplanation that the lighter load of the smaller Y chromosome helps it swim faster However male embryos are miscarried at higher rates than female embryos and boys are more vulnerable to developmental disorders 0 The males are more susceptible to genetic problems 0 Female fetus is usually much more robust and stronger than the male Males are also more vulnerable to illness throughout the life span Men and women are different for reasons we need to be PSYC 307 41113 Chapter 6 Cognitive Development Cognitive Development TrueFalse The main difference between child and adult thinking is that adults simply know more information False There s a ginormous difference between infantchildadult thinking The way that kids think is different from the way we think We must keep this in mind when we are raising them The ability to think develops We are not born with logic We describe preschoolers as quotegocentricquot because they are selfish FALSE Egocentrism has a different definition in psychology and this isn t it Infants who quickly get bored when repeatedly shown a simple object turn out to have higher intelligence later in childhood True The more quickly an infant loses an interest in an object implies that they are processing the information present more quickly Children may believe they remember something that never happened if someone repeatedly suggests it to them True It is very likely that some maybe many of us have false memories implanted in our brains by parents when they tell us about something we did as a toddler many times If before age 2 it s almost certainly a false memory Memories before age 3 are almost certainly not real because the actual neural structures in brain responsible for long term memory are not yet fully formed An infant would be surprised ifan object moved past the edge of a table but didn t fall as if they understood gravity True Adolescent are able to study while listening to a TV show or music because their attentional processes are well developed enough that they can effectively split their attention toward multiple tasks False Few people have clear memories oftheir lives before the age of 3 True Lecture Notes 1 PSYC 307 41113 Cognition o Cognition The study ofmental activity and how the mind works Thinking 0 We ve only been studying this for about 100 years 0 Before then we thought kids could think exactly the way adults can 0 Early 1900 s Piaget and Vygotsky used Binet IQ tests on kids 0 Piaget and Vygotsky breakthroughs we re still using today They both 0 Binet developed IQ test for adults These guys used it for kids to see how children tried to figure out questions posed on IQ tests 0 Piaget focused on common agegroup errors to understand children s thinking 0 Piaget focused on what is it that most 3 year olds consistently get wrong on these tests looking at age groups seeing what they repeatedly consistently as a population got wrong From that he may many inferences about how they could think I Readiness to learn new stuff 0 Vygotsky focused on children s quotreadinessquot to learn ZPD 0 Zone ofproximal development ZPD o Vygotsky was not so much interested in what they could do but interested in what they could almost do He started after Piaget using what he discovered Is it that they can t think about this kind of material at all What can we use to figure out when they will be able to think this way I Application has had most impact on education system where people are willing to listen to research 0 Died young at 38 so he didn t have the time Piaget had to develop his theories Review chapter 1 pages 2426 cognitive theories Piaget s Constructivist Theory 0 The quotgold standard of cognitive development He views children as active agents 0 Intrinsically motivated to learn I We are born with an inherent motivation to learn It s why kids investigate stuff Their ability to perceive information about the world is used to learn Their investigating everything putting everything in their mouth is indicative of their inherent desire to learn 0 Construct knowledge for themselves 0 Hypothesized that children progress through 4 stages of cognitive development each building on the previous one You can t start stage 2 before you finish stage 1 It all builds on what s come before You can t get to the next one until you finish the one before 0 Child organizes knowledge into increasingly more complex cognitive structures schemas I Schema like the set ofinstructions for how to do something I Think of it as the skeleton of knowledge I Our schemas are eshed out by experience Instructions get more detailed as we get more experience 0 Child continually modifies schemas based on what Lecture Notes 2 PSYC 307 41113 I As they have experience that experience gets added onto the schema I Qualitative changes occur in thinking Something that helps them learn in a new way There are two types of change qualitative and quantitative Cognition is a qualitative change When thinking changes qualitatively their reasoning becomes more adultlike it matures Things like height or weight are quantitative changes Qualitative changes are changes inside that affect your ability to reason 0 When schemas aggregate enough knowledge qualitative changes in thinking occur 0 Children think and organize the world meaningfully but differently than adults 0 They cannot think like we do yet They have kid logic They can figure a lot of things out using kid logic It can be very difficult sometimes for parents to understand and anticipate what kids might do but it makes sense to kids 0 They don t thinklike us because their schemas are so limited because they don t have experience As they gain experience with situations the world rules social niceties and whatnot they will learn and figure out how to think and act like adults 0 Kids are not wise Wisdom comes with experience 0 Early schemas are limited but become more sophisticated with experience 0 Schema our understanding of a concept that dictates how we think about that concept 0 A mental framework that organizes knowledge into categories or groups of associations 0 Sometimes our schemas can be applied to new situations but sometimes our schemas are not sufficient for a new situation 0 As we encounter new experiences sometimes the schemas we have work for the experience Sometimes our former schemas work Sometimes a brand new experience uses a schema that does not work that requires us to come up with a new schema InfantChildren Cognitive Development 0 Assimilation understanding a new experience in terms of an existing schema 0 We can apply our existing schema and it works We 0 What we think our schema our idea our instructionsit works We are able to expect what s happening without adjusting our expectations 0 Accommodation adapting our existing schema to fit a new experience 0 Disequilibrium uncomfortable state encountered when new experiences don t fit existing schemas I When something you expect to happen does not happen This is not where we want to be We are surprised confused and don t understand what has just happened 0 Eguilibrium when one s schema successfully explains past experiences AND successfully predicts new events Requires effort to move from disequilibrium to equilibrium When you figure it out once you figure out why the unexpected thing happened you have revised your schema to incorporate this new piece ofinformation When you do that when you find the explanation and move from disequilibrium to equilibrium it is called accommodation The only way you can do this is by experience I You don t know what you don t know I Big difference between us and kids readiness to learn Kids are very ready to learn to adjust their schema They do it every day We on the other hand are much less ready to adjust the way we do things and think of things We re not anywhere near as good at accommodation as kids are Probably has to do with their plasticity Initially they try to assimilate but if that doesn t work they accommodate Lecture Notes 3 OO PSYC 307 41113 0 Food schema Galileo and the solar system I Eating Everybody knows that little kids when they first learn to feed themselves are terrible at it They re super messy Some parents will avoid letting kids do it themselves because they don t want to clean up the mess so they ll do it for them That s not what they should do because it interferes with their learning how to handle the tools and do it themselves Ifyou do it for them they re not going to learn If there is a question on the exam that gives you a situation Has the child assimilated or accommodated What you need to do when you read the question see if there is a change if the child makes an adjustment If they do it is no longer assimilation If they accommodated it s accommodation Piaget s Constructivist Theory cont 0 Nature and nurture interact to yield cognitive development 0 Adaptation responding to the demands of the environment to meet one s goals I Way Piaget uses it is the way we ve talked about it already Adaptation means we respond we make a change we do something in order to survive to in this case meet the demands of the environment These kids are continuously challenged It happens constantly They re always trying to learn and do new things and they have to adapt The example we just talked about accommodation is an example of adaptation I Accommodation is a great example of adaptation 0 Organization integrate simple bits of knowledge into coherent and complex quotoperationsquot I As used in cognition it has a special definition Organization specifically means the construction of knowledge over time We talk little bits of experience and figure out how they all go together and allow us to build our understanding We re doing that in this class It s not just a child development thing it s a lifespan development thing We are relying on the building blocks from the past to help us understand more complicated concepts I Children come equipped to do this 0 Operations mental strategies I from simple activities to complex goaldirected activities I In Piaget and cognitive theory quotoperationsquot is a term that that means mental strategies I Mnemonics are mental strategies Here mental strategies are how we organize operations to do more complex thinking and activities I Re exes give them information about the world then they learn how to use that ability to do something on purpose for a goal That s a qualitative change in thinking Figuring out how to do that is an operation I Start out with re ex for sucking then they learn information from sucking I One thing that s the most predictive of optimal cognitive development experience Even though babies are built to do this the environment they experience makes a difference in how much cognitive development they experience This explains why enriched environments promote cognitive development and why deprived environments depress it 0 Cognitive development is based on modifying knowledge structures to adapt Lecture Notes 4 PSYC 307 41113 Piaget s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage 0 senses O 0000 O Sensorimotor stage Piaget s first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment Infants know the world through their senses and through their actions eg they learn what dogs look like and what petting them feels like Birth through age 2 Has 6 substages increasing from simple and complex re exes to more purposeful actions Primary ways kids learn Point of the theory on cognitive development is how learning develops how kids learn Learning is primarily acquired through the senses and motor activities in this stage The stages are easy to remember ifyou remember what kids can do at each age They use what they have In this stage they have their sensorimotor abilities From birth to age 2 there is a tremendous amount of cognitive development thus the many substages The stages are representations of qualitative changes in the kid 6 Sensorimotor Substages 1 Basic re ex activity re exive behaviors become more skillful and infants begin to realize they can use re exive behaviors to learn about objects Can t d Grasping a finger lets baby learn about how it feels 0 very much Ifyou stick your finger in the newborn s they are learning They learn what the finger feels like what it s like to grasp something Big deal for baby They are learning something using their re exes Newborn is 02 months 2 Primary circular reaction re ex results in a pleasurable experience so infant repeats it over and over again Lecture Notes PSYC 307 Sub Age Description 1 Birth1 Infants begin to use the re exes with which month they are born to make til gore adaptive understand the world by 39e1r action in it Clrcular reactlons become 2 14 Infants beg1n to organlze separate re exes motor schemas eg thumb months 1nto larger actlon schemas usually centered sucklng comforts 1nfant so on the1r own bod1es baby does 1t1ntentlonally 3 48 Infants becomlng Increasmgly Interested In Are beg1nn1ng to be able to months the world around them By the end of thls underStand that When substa e ob39ect ermanence ty icall something gets in their hands g 39 l p p y the can feel it when emerges y 39 4 812 During this substage children make the A somethlng gets 1n the1r mouth months notB error the tendency to reach where they can taste 1t They re just objects have been found before rather than learnlng thls Thls Is a step to where they were last h1dden Belng able to organlze th1ngs 5 1218 Toddlers beg1n to actlvely and av1dly explore 1nto broad categorles ls new I months the potentlal uses for objects lots of tr1al and for them I error Substa e 2 deals w1th learn1n g g 6 1824 Infants become able to form enduring mental 1nformatlon from the re exes representatlons startlng w1th deferred but usually It s centered on 1m1tatlon the repetltlon of other people 5 the1r own bod1es because at behav10r long after It occurred thls early stage most ofwhat happens in their life is based on their simple re exes They can t crawl or walk yet they can grab and grasp some things but that s about it They spend a lot of times just with themselves They re trying to organize what they re perceiving This is the fist circular reaction and it usually deals with stuffin their own bodies This reaction becomes a schema 3 Secondary circular reaction acting on something in the environment is pleasurable and they begin to recognize the object and use it over and over again Grasp the mobile and make it move Object Permanence Ability to form cognitive representation that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or heard 0 Visible displacement hide toy when child is watching 0 Milestone reached in sensorimotor stage in which they show evidence you can see that they remember things that they can t see at that instance This is the first evidence we can point to that supports that they are developing memory Longterm memory doesn t come online until around age 3 It s not until around age 5 that they are able to retain things longterm in a consistent way One little indication that this is starting to develop game ofpeekaboo I They can represent something in their mind for a very short time even when the object is removed from their vision Ifyou hide then they scream and cry it means they don t have object permanence and you just scared the crap out of them It scares them because it s unexpected I With object permanence it becomes funny To test for object permanence physical displacement you can see it get displaced The child is watching you hide the object You re doing it in front of them I Show the toy they acknowledge it Cover it up while they re watching If they look for it it tells you that they understand object permanence Here we see their intentions extend beyond themselves It extends beyond a re ex using it to figure out how to operate on their environment 0 O O 0 Lecture Notes 6 PSYC 307 41113 0 They develop circular reactions for things they do like 0 It s circular because they do it over and over again httpwww39youtub 4 Coordination of reactions planned goaldirected behavior combinations 39 77 organization mark the beginning of simple problemsolving N o Imitation recognize simple purposes of familiar objects 0 Beginning of simple problem solving intention is involved here in that they have a goal 0 They see something they want they reach for it they grasp it they bring it to themselves and they know what it is for o Demonstrates intention and problem solving Big deal in terms of thinking They ve gone from not being able to do anything but suck on something you put in their mouth to being able to have a goal and take the action to accomplish it 0 Move forward another step in memory remember memory is learning learning is memory can t have one without the other 0 Again use physical displacement to test for this In physical displacement the child is watching where you hide the object o AnotB error they see you put the toy in a different spot than it was the first time but they still look in the first place where they found it before 0 Why Remember their memories are just developing They know they found the toy under the white washcloth before It s as if they can t inhibit the original memory We know she knows it s under the other one because she looks for it there 0 When the child does not find the toy in the first place they look they continue Iookl ngfor it This is another stage of object permanence because they retain enough memory of the toy to keep looking for it even when they don t find it the first time o On the exam she ll only be referring to object permanence as part of the previous substage just to keep it simple Critically important thing to remember about both of these stages is that the child has to be watching while you hide the toy If they don t see you hide the toy under the second washcloth they won t look for it there LE O O 5 Tertiary circular reactions experiment with objects sounds actions to learn their properties still over and over but with variations 0 Testing 0 Understand object permanence for visible displacement but not invisible displacement 0 At this point they re bigger more mobile have better mobile skills so they re able to interact with a lot more stuff in a lot more ways 0 Experimentation o Knocking stuff over they re not doing it to be jerks They re doing it to understand the properties of how things work When they re throwing stuff out of their crib t s for science 0 Also show evidence they understand object permanence and can overcome the AnotB error If they see you hide the toy under the second washcloth they ll look under that washcloth 0 They don t yet grasp invisible displacement though when you hide the toy when the kid s not looking 6 Early representational thought begin using symbols instead of depending purely on actions to understand the world 0 Obvious signs permanent memories are beginning to develop Lecture Notes 7 PSYC 307 41113 0 Enduring memories that last longer than a few seconds or minutes It s still isolated they don t remember everything forever but they do start showing that they remember things that are especially significant to them Deferred imitation do it after a long amount of time has passed 0 Tells us that they have created a memory for this thing and that httpWWWwiutubmsig that memory has lasted for quite some time now mdwatcmwaxHWSG 0 They remember these things without prompting Appearance of early early primitive representational thought 0 Representational thinking means that you can do something like let one object stand for another I Dolls kid wants to give her doll a bottle but she doesn t have a bottle She might use another toy and pretend it s a bottle She s using an objet to represent another object Shows not only that they can remember objects and what they re for but that they can pretend True representational thought doesn t come until the next stage This is just the primitive form of representational thought It develops gradually over time with experience O O Preoperational Stage 2 7 years Stage 2 of cognitive development 0 Preschooler uses language and mental imagery to explore and represent the world true symbolic representation 0 Operations are mental strategies They re not there yet They re in the stage ofpre operational strategies Handy pneumonic preoperational preschool age Biggest shift their ability to use language If the child says the word quotbottlequot what are they using the word bottle for A representation Language is true representational thinking They are using a word to label to represent an object Can t yet use words to represent more abstract things like emotion but for concrete things they re at that point 0 Symbolic representation one object stands for another 0 Symbolic representation using iPhone to represent daddy s car I Words are symbols that represent other things 0 Has time comprehension with clear understanding ofpast and future 0 Can t read a clock What they understand what quotMommy will be back later means They get quotlaterquot 0 They understand future past 0 Major limitations 0 Magical thinking Egocentrism Centration Lack of reversibility Lack of conservation Transductive thinking when objects share properties it s as if they are the same thing quotI haven t had my nap so it can t be afternoon I They inappropriately transfer qualities of one event to another event An example ofkid logic They re trying hard to make sense ofwhat s going on but they way they make sense of things is not deductive logic it s transductive logic 00 00000 Lecture Notes 8 PSYC 307 41113 Pie operational Two substages 1 Preconceptual substage 2 4 years thinking is dominated by symbolic representation and imaginative play often with deferred imitation 0 Language images symbols 0 Magicalanimistic thinking inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and canperform actions 0 Around this age it is very common that your child will believe that their stuffed animals can talk and have feelings Animistic thinking child gives qualities of people to toys Time that they re going to start being afraid of the dark because they can see the curtain move and immediately it becomes a creature in their mind with bad intentions o Imaginative play really start to learn how to pretend 0 Using language symbolic representation imaginative play using magical thinking at this point 2 Intuitive substage 4 to 7 years thinking is dominated by what children feel or sense to be true but they cannot explain the principles behind it the quotwhyquot stage 0 Gaining some understanding of how the world works The child will feel confident that they know something they know how something will work but they can t explain why it works this way 0 Example Where do houses come from They grow out of the ground just like plants It s based on kid logic They re thinking it through They re sure they know they re right 0 Theory of mind begins to emerge between ages 4 and 5 an organized understanding of how the mind works and in uences behavior Gradual understanding that each person has their own mental states beliefs desires intentions that these states can be different from one39s self are based on people s knowledge can differ from reality and that people s behavior can be predicted by their mental states According to this theory theory of mind is not fully formed yet Theory of mind simply put means that you can understand that other people have their own separate lives their own separate feelings that they re different from you Kids without ToM believe everyone experiences the world exactly like they do Preschool age kids up to 7 years old though prof says there s evidence that children may reach these milestones earlier than Piaget thought do not yet have theory of mind 0 Egocentrism cannot differentiate one s own point of view from that of others and everything is mine 0 You can have some theory of mind and some egocentrism 0 Test with false belief task I Test for theory of mind What we want to know is whether the child can succeed at the false belief task or fail it o Succeed have theory of mind 0 Fail don t have theory of mind have egocentrism 0 Social interaction in the Preoperational Stage 00 000000 0 0 Testing Children s Theory of Mind 0 The Smarties task tests preschoolers understanding of false beliefs as does the Sally Ann test as shown in the video httpWWWVOUtUbeCO 0 Most 3yearolds answer in a way that suggests a lack of understanding mlwatehveglik10ggLH that people s actions are based on their own beliefs even when those beliefs deviate from what the child knows to be true Lecture Notes 9 PSYC 307 41113 0 Autistic children seldom develop theory of mind They live inside themselves and have problems understanding emotion facial expression and how other people feel 0 Temple Grandin highfunctioning autistic individual who someone in class brought up She is not a typical case 0 Can recognize what patterns on faces are supposed to correspond with but they don t understand it the way neurotypical do More Preoperational Stage 0 Centration tendency to focus on a single perceptually striking feature of an object or event and ignore other features 0 Limitation httpwwwwutu 0 Focus on one characteristic and ignore other information that could 1 39 help you 0 Scale error test 0 Should disappear by the time they get into the neXt stage concrete operations so should disappear between age 4 and 7 according to Piaget 0 When you see stuff like magical thinking centration and egocentrism disappear what does it mean about you child s stage of cognitive development They ve moved onto the next one the neXt stage of thinking I Wide span ofnormal ages for it to happen so don t get too hung up on the numbers Think of what the stuff means It tells us what they can do cognitively I To move up a stage on the thinking you have a qualitative shift Lack of reversibility cannot mentally undo an action or event or trace a line of reasoning back to its beginning 0 Do you have a brother Yes Does your borther have a brother quotNo he just has me Oh wait Yes my brother has a brother 0 Normal to go back and forth on the issue to regress a bit Lack of conservation cannot understand that merely changing the appearance of objects does not change their key properties 0 just because you change the shape of something doesn t mean it s changed 0 They re watching it happen Procedures to Test Conservation Piaget s Cognitive Stages Concrete Operations 7 to 1112 0 Children can transform reverse and use systematic reasoning but generally only about objects that are present or follow set rules Manipulables concrete present objects finger counting Reasoning is still limited to tangible situations Difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts Decentering child considers multiple aspects ofa problem to solve it overcoming centration Reversibility child understands that objects can be changed then returned to their original state de ated ball Conservation child understands that quantity length etc is unrelated to the substance of an object Piaget s Final Stage Concrete Operations 11 15 Lecture Notes 10 PSYC 307 41113 0 Classification ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance size or other characteristic including the idea that one set of objects can include another Seriation Ordering objects along a quantitative dimension such as length Transitivity Ability to reason about and logically combine relationships and heirarchies Inductive logic bottomup emerges in late concrete reasoning from a specific experience evidence to a general principle conclusion 0 First stage of quotscientific thinking Inductive reasoning parental control technique to help children understand the effect of their behavior on others 0 Works better than punishment or quotlove withdrawal Ability to think abstractly and reason hypothetically and systematically Can consider multiple possible outcomes ofa situation Can imagine alternative worlds and think logically about them 0 Formal operations stage is not universal Horizontal d calage concept that abilities do not appear at the same time within a stage of development 0 Children in Piagetian stages Assimilation dominates at the beginning of formal operational thought 0 Perceive the world subjectively and idealistically 0 Still ruledriven and experience is limited Later intellectual balance is restored and accommodation takes over 0 Adjust to cognitive upheaval by incorporating new information wisdom Deductive logic top down using a general principle to reason about a specific event Systematic reasoning formulate hypotheses gather and evaluate evidence and draw conclusions Ability to reason about hypothetical situations allows an understanding ofpolitics and ethics as well as scientific reasoning 0 Can solve truly abstract logical problems Critique of Piaget s Theorv 0 Although Piaget s theory remains highly in uential some weaknesses are now apparent o Vague about the cognitive processes and mechanisms that give rise to children s thinking and cognitive growth 0 Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought 0 Some children who are at one cognitive stage can be trained to reason at a higher cognitive stage 0 Culture and education exert stronger in uences on children s development than Piaget believed Article 5 Questions 0 How is selfcontrol operationalized here 0 Whether they were able to delay gratification by waiting to o What characteristics does selfcontrol predict 0 Academic performance as teenagers o Lowdelayers more likely to have behavioral problems at school and at home lower SAT scores struggled more in stressful situations trouble paying attention difficult to maintain friendships significantly higher BMI more likely to have problems with drugs 0 Highdelayers higher SAT scores better academic performance Lecture Notes 11 PSYC 307 41113 0 Ability to delay gratification better predictor of academic performance than IQ 0 When does selfcontrol emerge 0 As young as 19 months 0 How are selfcontrol and cognitive development related 0 Working memory suppression task 0 How can parents in uence kids selfcontrol 0 Has some genetic origin 0 Teach kids how to distract themselves sets ofmental tricks through modeling the behavior for them Lecture Notes 12
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