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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 606 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/225878/psyc-606-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
CHAPTER BRITISH EMPIRICISM In the previous chapter Descartes s meditation illustrates that author s attempt to know the contents of the mind with a special emphasis on nnat i In re ection were not derived from any sensory contact of the moment Althnunh 39 39 39 pithu Upni at partners they have coexisted in great thinkers other than Descartes For example Issac Newton 1642 727 I m L y y Principia Mavhemarim 1687 is how it acquires knowledge than in what it question for tWenty years writing and rewriting his most important work for psychology An Ersay thcemin uman U 39 39 published in 1690 Many historians use the publication of that book to mark the formal beginning of British empiricism Unlike Descartes Locke was more interested in how the mind works that a rience that was independent of the physical objects of the world In essence these secondary qualities were products of the mind and as such were the very basis of psychological study Empiricism continued through the work of George Berkeley 1685 1753 es pecially in terms of observations on sensory systems such as vision Berkeley disagreed with Locke39s distinction between primary and secondary qualities arguing that only the latter could really be known to exist For Berkeley all knowledge was dependent on the experiencing individual and qualities of ob jects existed only as perceived Berkeley was followed by David Hartley 1705 1757 and David Hume I7llr 1776 whose principal interests were in learning or what they called associatinni adjacent to one another in space or time were likely to be associated with one another They sought 39 L limits ofcontiguity in 39 Continuing in the empiricist associationist tradition were the Mills father James Mill 1773 1836 and his son John Stuart Mill 1806 1873 James Mill recognized that some associations were formed more easily than others and that some were more lasting His extremely mechanical view of t e mind described a set of fac u oc John Stuart Mill extended his father s work on associat39on but his most im portant work for psychology was A System ofLogic published in 1843i It is the source for the second selection in this chapter In his book Mill argues for the feasibility of a science of psyc o ogy in his words a scie e of human nature That was a hotly debated question in Mill39s time as many agreed BRITiSH EMPIRIClSM with Auguste Comte that there could be no science of the mind because the mind could not study its own processes Hothersall 1984 Although Mill ac knowledged that psychology was in his time an inexact science he believed it was as precise as some sciences such as astronomy and worthy of study He also proposed a related eld of study that he labeled ethology or the sci ence of the formation of character This eld was to discover the individual and social factors that developed individual character or what we might de scribe today as perionulily Mill s use of the word ethology should not be con fused with its contemporary usage as a naturalistic approach to the study of animal behavior From Locke to John Stuart Mill the approaches to studying the mind en sciousness in the experimental psychology about to take shape in Germany the subject of Chapters 6 an There are two secondary source selections in this chapter one dealing with Locke the other with J S Mill The article on Locke by Martha E Moore Russell examines the social and political forces that surrounded Locke and the writing of his Essay She uses what she calls a personinsociery approach to describe how she thinks Locke39s philosophy was determined by his interpre tation of the sociopolitical world around him In writing this article she has made use of a number of sources including several of Locke39s works that were shed T e other article by the University of New Hampshire historian of psychol ogy David E Leary describes the fate and in uence of Mill39s proposed ms to ave been ignored in historical ac Logic see unts This article traces its in uence up to 1940 and describes its culmina tion in the eld of social anthropology REFERENCES Hothersall D 1984 History prxychnlogy New York Random House Leahey T H 1987 A hmgry ofpxychnlogy Main curremx in psychological though 2d ed Englewood Cliffs NJ PrenticeHall
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