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by: Lenore Medhurst


Lenore Medhurst
Texas A&M
GPA 3.72

Maria Barrufet

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Maria Barrufet
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This 193 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lenore Medhurst on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PETE 310 at Texas A&M University taught by Maria Barrufet in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see /class/225885/pete-310-texas-a-m-university in Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
PETE 310 Lecture 16 Chapter 9 Properties of Black Oils from Field Data Analyzing Production Trends 0 Gas production trends Dissolved gas only Dissolved and free gas 0 Pressure trends Bubble point pressure determination Adjustment of surface gas data Separators Ye and 60R scfSTB yin and GO dSTB Usually vented Wellhead Note fora black oil have more liquid produced than for awet gas Less oil shrinkage and lower GDR Production Trends mmmn uaa Aggie m E E 2 a mmulatwe m Vrummmnwsr l Production Trends magma uaa me new smug m mmmwsm Adjustment of Surface Gas Data 0 Gas from the stock tank usually is vente o Ignoring this gas could lead to estimates for Rsb 10 to 20 lower 0 Solution Add stocktank gasoil ratio obtained from a correlation to the Rsb obtained from field data Graphical Procedure 0 Interpolations needed 0 Easy to mix up lines 0 Note the trends in RST Fig 94 SlockIank gasvml valin commm Adjustment of Surface Gas Data 0 Reading from graph can lead to substantial round off error 0 Equation B36 in Appendix B page 518 has been used to create Figure 93 0 Be careful with the units required in the equation Adjustment of Surface Gas Data 0 Equation In R37 2 A1 A2 log Ysro A3 log Ygsr A4 log pSP A5 log TSP I Here the temperature is in F 0 Read constants A1 through A5 from text book 0 Note the differences in oil and gas specific gravities density oildensity water vs Gas molecular weight air molecular weight 0 Note subscripts STO at stock tank p and T SP at separator p and A Conceptual quiz I An oil with API graivity of 50 will have a lower RST than an oil with API gravity of 20 TRUE FALSE DEPENDS 0 Discuss Fig 97 smok lamk gasrmi lam cullaiahcn PETE 310 Lecture 26 Chapter 12 GasLiquid Equilibrium Nonideal VLE GasLiquid Equilibrium Non Ideal Behavior Applicafions fo low amp high pressures gt Use models for fhe equilibrium rafios ki values 39Z39Simpler models ki f KT 39Z39More complex models ki fPTComposifions use equafions of sfafe E05 convergence pressure VLE general same EIThe equilibrium criteria between 2 phases on and 5 is P P T TD tquot iquoti 12NE It statement of Equilibrium K Most general case is Yi Xi i that Ki is a function of P T and compositions 18 13 Mathematical Relationships Z1X1fly1fv Z1X11 V1fv Wi l z1 x iv 1 iv y1 X1 quot1quot2vquot1quot2l In general Bubble Point Evaluation NonIdeal Behavior Model EIThe bubble point pressure at a given T is 2 ZZiKiPbP T 1 ZziKiPbPT It Bubble Point T P16 X1Y1 P2G Dew Point Calculation CIAt the dew point the overall fluid composition coincides with the gas composition That is ziyi Dew Point Calculation NonIdeal Behavior Model EIFind DP pressure and equilibrium liquid compositions Yi XiKi Zi XiKiPdpT It Dew Point P26 zi Yi X1Y1 Flash Calculations DIn this type of calculations the objective is to find fraction of vapor vaporized fV and equilibrium gas and iquid compositions given the overall mixture composition and T Flash Calculations NonIdeal Behavior Calculations DStart with the equilibrium equation Yi XiKi DMaterial balance zi xift yifv xi1fvyifv It Flash Calculations EINow replace either liquid or gas compositions using Ki values exercise derive the expression Flash Calculations DObjective function flash function is ZiKi wilml 1 0 Flash Calculations EIThere are several equivalent expressions for the flash function a 2 y 1 0 b 2 x 1 0 c Elk21x 0 It One of the Models for Equilibrium Ratios 1 Require critical properties amp acentric factors ci 211 ci K P xexp537x1 mix17 Example calculations in excel file VLE310 n PETE 310 mm 3 12 n t u cumquot 7 Gas Hydmns Pndiction amp Comm Basics Of Gas Hydrats Hydrates Definition Natural gas hydrates are ice like structures composed of water and natural gas molecules Under favorable conditions of high pressure and low temperature water molecules form cages which encapsulate gas molecules inside a hydrogen bonded solid latticequot Why Study Gas Hydrates El Hydrates have potential as a future energy resourc El Related to climate change El Affect strength of sediments in which they are re in constructing underwater stmcture El Hydrates currently cause blocking in some underwater natural gas pipe ines El Hydrates may be an alternative to pipeline transmission as a wa 0 move natural gas from deep water to the terminals of existing offshore pipelines Hydrates Occurrence in Petroleum Engineering Operations EIProduction re common est 500 million just for inhibition in offshore pipelines EIDrilling Typically during well control situations external to BOP at seafloor EIDrill Stem Testing operations Typically in deeper water but definitely possible in shallow water operations Slrilus Ef zvs r Gas quotyam m in o m Ins Dmgqng Dr max urn m MES Dmemnn w a mug m w bdaw Boo Emma mmamg vf Winn am My mbng mm was urn m m dmrg DEYavumm um wqm vzd w m n ma a mummy a m m3 World wad Locations of Manual Mcthanc Hydraquot smug Capacity of Hydmns A sourcl of algal burning mm Natural Gas Hymn on thc 5m Floor Sas mums may ausl land 45 39 I m ln lnln d s Pressure Temperature Profiles SmeFa Water 3n a 7n xn w Wlter nerlh n name n Crystal Structure Cavities guest host Crystal structure of Gas Hydrates Gas Clathrates are crystalline compounds that occur when water forms a cage like structure around smaller guest molecules F Definitions EIHost water molecules EIGuest gas molecules Methane Hydrate Molecular structure unmir na n amn sum Hydrates vs Ice EIDifferent dielectric constant EIDifferent thermal conductivity 223 Wm K ice vs 05 Wm K hydrate Hydrate Forming Conditions Hydrates can form when 4 ingredients are present Elfree water Elnatural gas N2 H28 602 61 62 63 i 4 Dreduced temperature Elincreased pressure Elements Necessary for Hydrate Formation Hydrate u39 39 Natural Gas High Low Press ramp Hydrate Modeling How much hydrate forms and when Hydrate Modeling EIThree phase V L S equilibria d EINeed models for fugacity coefficients solid liquidgas 39 3 EIHydrate formation curves 39 39 fPTcomposition 9 saturation boundary Hydrate vs NoHydrate Pressure Hydrate forms Temperature Hydrate Equipment For measurement procedures see the following web site httpwww neoso com6969Nwestponwindowcell mm A quoti Typical Hydrate PT Curves mmm y Typical Gas Compositions mol 73 Well 0 cg c iCA nCA iCs quotCs Cs 32 cog Tranquilzs 3233 252 351 313 312 335 333 333 356 352 Aguzrzgue 3233 232 373 313 311 313 333 325 373 233 ValleMmzdn 3323 335 335 323 333 313 313 323 333 253 52m Pedriln Light Components Effect Pmssure nsl Cnmrlnslllnn 132 c02o c1 p lm3l Inhibition Dissociation of Hydrates CIRemove One Component ie Water Gas DIncreaseTemperature CIDecrease System Pressure DUse an Inhibitor in the Water Phase Thermodynamic Remove one of the components needed for hydrates to form Hydrant uvtr Natural Gas High Low Puss Tunp Hydrates Remedies Once hydrates have formed what I can be done to remove them Dreduce pressure quot Clincrease temperature Dchemical thermodynamic inhibition Elkinetic inhibitors Elmechanical removal El Chemical mn39 Remedial Actions Hydrate melting schemes El Mechanical lz n El Depressun39zation El Thermal pxsssuxs pm n 12 3 4 5 l 7 x y l twsmumn Hydrates Prevention CIRemove any of the 4 ingredients EIThermodynamic inhibitors Elelectrolytes salts form ionic bonds with free water Elpolar compounds alcohols glycols compete with hydrates for hydrogen bonding Thermodynamic Inhibitors EISalts EIAlcohols EIGlycols Hydrates Prevention Its a EINormally sodium chloride 20 24 by wt EIPotassium chloride can be used but it is significantly more expensive an saturated KCI muds have performed poorly in offshore environments 39 EICalcium Chloride very ex ensive and not as effective as NaCl for ydrate suppression Salt Inhibitors EISalt Ionizes In Solution And Interacts With The Dipoles Of The Water Molecules And Causes Clustering EIThis Clustering Also Causes A Decrease In The Solubility Of Potential Hydrate Guest Molecules In The Water EIThese Combine To Require Substantially More Subcooling To Cause Hydrates To Form Examples Sodium Chloride And Calcium Chloride Alcohol Inhibitors EIThe Hydroxyl Group Hydrogen Bonds The Water Molecules In Direct Competition With The Dissolved Apolar Molecules DInhibition Ability Decreases With Volatility Examples DMethanol DEthanol DIsopropanol Glycol Inhibitors DMore Hydrogen Bonding Opportunity With Water Through One More Hydroxyl Group Than Alcohols EIGchols Generally Have Higher Molecular Weights Which Inhibit Volatility Examples El Ethylene Glycol El Triethylene Glycol Common Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors Salts Alcoholdials Naa Malml lltcl Ethanol CaCIZ slycml MalFormal Ellylono glycol KFomm Propylono glyool NaBr Polyolkylono glyool CanZ may2 Thermodynamic Inhibitors Summa EIGchols ry DAlcohols EISalts Alcohols amp Glycols when dissolved in aqueous solutions form hy rogen bond with the water molecules and make it difficult for the water molecules to participate in the hydrate structure Effect of NaCl pressure A1 an 1 as an 95 1M2 coz a up cnmnnsmnnmnm Effect of Methanol onnn Pressure nus Hydrate Inhibitors EISalts Effectiveness NaCI gt KCI gt CaCI2 gt NaBr gt Na Formate gt Ca Nitrate More Effective Typical Sanple Formulations Kinetic Inhibitors El Delay the onset of formation El Slow the rate of formation El Prevent the agglomeration of hydrates slush El Reduce the amount of hydrate that form Kinetic Inhibition Hydrate Hydra a Hydrate References with full articles Kinetics of Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition httpwww ench ucalgary caNhydrateskinetics htmlE httpwww ench ucalgary caNhydrateshydpub htm httpwww mines eduresearchchsighc html Hydrate Formming Gases EEE EIFor a given T m Hydrate formation P am increases as HC size decreases maquot mum MM A W549 Mugm u Phase Boundaries Mum squot umpmm Fig 17 4 Hydrideformation condi ms of methanepropahefifju39f Psm pmssun Lon HVDRATE rower 39F A ME 1 Fig 17 6 Hydratetanning summons lcr natura gases Kalz Trans 60 mo cnpyngh19A5 SPEVAIME o 4 w m a Fi 17 7 Depression of hydraIeformalron iemperamres by inhibitors Fiom Handbook 0 Natural Gas Engineering by Katz 9 al Copyrigm i J i i i a 6047 7 i b Iemperamrz r 5 Depression in nymu iarmniion 4mm soon 3000 Gasroli iauo sciSTE Dapnuian ai nydlau Vovmumn limprunquot VWh inhibitor Pressure 0 quotif jWithout inhibitor lt gt Temperature iANBIInI canceninhun in liquid m as Initial P 3000 psia T 170 F Safe no hydrate final P 350 psia and nal T 50 F Fig 17 11 Permissible expansion of 07 specilic gravity gas without hydrate lormation Katz Trans AIME 160 140 Copyright 1945 SPE No Hydrates Hydrates Forming 71 l Fig 17 11 Permissible hydrate lormation Katz Trans gravity gas without Copyright 1945 SPE Hydrates Summary EILots of research issues to pursue El Be aware of hydrates El Be prepared to prevent hydrate problems El materials El procedures El contingencies El sitejob investigation PETE 310 Lecture 17 apter 10 Properties of Black Ch OllS Reservoir Fluid Studies Fluid Properties for Reservoir Engineering Processes oTlIe fluid roperties of interest to the Reservoir ngineer are those that affect the mobility of fluids within the reservoirs these are used in material balance calculations OProperties at surface conditions for transportation and sales API viscosity oil quality Fluid Properties for Reservoir Engineering Processes OPVT properties are determined from 5 specific lab procedures Flash liberation tests Differential Liberation Tests Compositional measurements Fluid Proper39l39ies De39l39ermined oOil Properfies Bubble Point Pressure 39 Rs t C and p oGas properfies Z B5 and 113 oComposifions oil amp gas Oil Sampling Procedures oBo r rom hole or subsurface samples OSepara ror Samples SAMPLE BEFORE RESERVOIR PRESSURE DROPS BELOW Pb 1Fash Vaporiza39rion Tes f I 2 I m w m yy y y PL P1gtP MEEMD E H H Temperafure of Test Reservoir Temperafure 1Flosh Voporizotion Test 0 Properties determined Pb co Determination of Pb EXAMPle I071 The dam mm a ush vaporization on a Mark all m 220 r m 3 below Demrmmz my bubb point x u I dpropun a mm ofprc r ry undu lalwc volume for my rz39servair nmd widy Pressure Total volume 7 5 cc m W W 83D Determination of Co EXAMPle I071 The dam mm a ush vaporization on a Mark all m 220 r m gn m below Demrmmz my bubblarpmnt pranqu and prepare a table oprmm and ulam39c volume for Ihl39 rzservair uid widy Pressure Total volume V psl cc 2 Differential Separation Test 124 pzltpb Temperature of Test Reservoir Temperature 2 Differential Separation Test OProperties Determined Oil formation volume factor at the Bubble Point pressure BM and below the bubble point pressure Bod Solution gas oil ratio at the Bubble Point pressure deb and below the bubble point pressure de Isothermal compressibility derived property 3 Separator Tests oTests performed at a combination of different Temperature and Pressure pairs 3 Separator Tests oGoals Maximize API minimize Bosb amp RsSb EXAMPLE FA Sylr rl optimum suvaramr mull10m m 600d 01 Co No 4 Mmmfv RM and um Solulion on lavmuian um um Fig 1075 Results at separator tests ior Good on Co No 4 pan oi soiunon to Example 104 Optimization of Separator 2 Conditions High Pressure Separator 900 psia and100 F 3280 g 3 co m V V D D D D a H m S 9 z o m in DC LL n o E II 2 m 0 o gt 5 5 1a 3 E O 3160 T sepz LL 5 100 150 200 250 300 Separator 2 Pressure psia Comparison between 1 amp 2 Separators Stages volatile oil 3460 E A A 296 5 gt 3440 V a V c E O S tor Stage ne epara E3420 a 294 E o E quotE 8 a u 3400 E a 7292 x 3 E 33230 a c 2 9 iLow Pressure Separator 300 psia and 75 F 90 E 336 T 16d F 5 Sep139 i y i i i u 0 500 600 700 800 900 10 0 Separator 1 Pressure psia Typical PVT Properties for a Black Oil and a Volatile Oil 32 Black Oil T 1so F ad Volatile on t A Black Oil Correlation 30 d N N N N N ea c N as ea co l Formation Volume Factor Bo III 16 7 14 7 12 7 l l le l Pb 13900 1000 2000 3000 4000 50 0 Pressure psia Typical PVT Properties for a Black Oil and a Volatile Oil 4000 Black Oil TR 1800 Volatile Oil 437 Black Oil Correlation g 3000 7 2 5 p 8 2000 7 E Li H 392 11 lzl g 1000 7 D m 0 1000 2000 3 00 400 50 0 Pressure psia TABLE 10 3 Nomenclature used in analysis of reservoir uid studies 6D relailve oil volume by differential vaporization page 5 column 3 Table 1071 am e 39 nan a rnlllmn 1 Table 1071 BaSb lormatlorl volume factor at bubble potrlt irom separator tesl at selected separator pressure page 7 column 5 Table 101 vivalF relallve total volume all and gas by llasn vaporization page 4 column 2 Table 1071 BB relatlve total volume oll and gas by differential vaporizailorr page 5 column 4 Table 104 R5 gas rematmng m solulton by dmerentral vaporizatrom page 5 column 2 Table lo t Rm 2 gas in solutlon at bubble palm and above by dlr ierentlal vaporization page 5 Column 2 Table 10 1 Rest sum 0 separator gas and slooklank gas mm sepalalor test at selecled separator plessuve page 7 column 4 Table 071 4 Compositional Tes l39s mp me edudep chemrmy mlenhrEnmmnCHROMOnhmmmtm mm m www xedud shame mtenhrEnvAmnCHROMOchruammhtml vulm 95 main r0356 an 4 413 m 35135 3303 3333 2cm r0356 an m I arc 301 m 40133 9335Mquot mains 3944 g PEP m m F4gtltgt4gt4gt m EVE F 40133 9333Mquot mains 110350 mien Ternary Diagrams Review Dilution Lines C A JAYSAVA 3 MAYAYA39AVAVA 1 VAWAVAVAVAYAVA 1 n 2 1 3954 Ternary Diagrams Review Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria Tie or equilibrium lines ElTie lines join equilibrium conditions of the gas and liquid at a given pressure and temperature 0 Dew point curve gives the gas composition 0 Bubble point curve gives the liquid compos l0quot Ternary Diagrams Review Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria Tie or equilibrium lines EIAII mixtures whose overall composition zi is along a tie line have t e SAME equilibrium gas yi and liquid composition xi t he relative amounts on a molar basis of gas and liquid fv and f change linearly 0 vapor at BP 1 liquid at BP Hu3o 0 23mm mltoouo 93 do Ezou 4 39gtE agg b 3 P 4 m 332 gt434 9 Banksb b b 4w 3 55 F 4 Cuou 0 40133 0323 Nogomosgzo om 351603 8303 29mm mores 2 9 13330139 033 042453 133 an nvvuoxmagn 15m 1532 om a 283333 3553 5 Q1813 12 33 m hhmtmoneihgm o Erna 33 93233 Annunb Ea r no z 9 nom v E Cuou 0 40133 0323 3320 monolto1lt 362quot qu 0 Exercise Find overall campus an of mixfure made Wifh 100 males oil quot0 10 Inaes of mixfure quotAquot Practice Ternary Diagrams Pressure Effect 0F Pressure Effect T130F Pressure Effect P147 psj a P200 psi g r V c1c3c1o H 7 T180F Pressure Effect T130F V Pressure Effect P400 psia P600 para 7 V Av A Y yo Practice Ternary Diagrams Pressure Effect T180F Pressure Effect T130F 39 Pressure Effect P1000 psia P1500 pJ 39 y x T180F T130F 1 T180F P2000 psi T P3000 psi P4000 psfat z p t Practice Ternary Diagrams Temperature Effect T100F Temperature Effect T150F b Temperat re Effect P2000 psi afquot ngooo p 39 w T200F Temperature Effect T300F L Temperature E eof ngooo P2000 prys1a Practice Ternary Diagrams Temperature Effect T350F Temperature Effect T400F I Temperature Effect P2000 pfs Ia P2000 psiav A A V 0 o T450F Temperat re Effect P2000 psia 0 PressureTemperature Diagram for Multicomponent Systems 1Phase 1Phase gt v 09 06 99 Reservoir Pressure 2P hase Reservoir Tem perature gt Changes During Production and Injection l 1 gtgt Pressure Temperature PETE 310 Lecture 8 Five Reservoir Fluids Chapter 5 PETE 310 Phase Behavior Pressure vs Temperature Diagrams DUsed to visualize the fluids production path from the reservoir to the surface EITo classify reservoir fluids CIVisualize miscible processes PressureTemperature Diagram for Mul39l39icomponen39l39 Systems cgt Reservoir Pressure Reservoir Temperature Why do we need To classify Reservoir Fluids EIDefermine fluid sampling EIDefermine fypes and sizes of surface equipmenf EIDicfafe deplefion sfrafegy EIDefermine selecfion of EOR mefhod EIDefermine feclmiques fo predin oil amp gas reserves EIDefermine Maferial Balance calculafions Phase Envelopes condenbar auhhiermmcuwe Critical o Poim Fixed 4 Composition mm Pnim Curve Pressure Cricondemherm Temperature Classification of Reservoirs based on Phase Diagram EIGas Reservoirs Single Phase EIGas Condensate Reservoirs Dew Poin r Reservoirs DUndersa rura red Solution Gas Reservoirs Bubble Point Reservoirs Phase Diagram of a Dry Gas Reservoir Inilizl Reselvnir Cnndilinm Path anrndu inn Pressure Sepzrmnr Cnndilinns Temperature Phase Diagram of a We r Gas Reservoir Inilizl Resewnir Cnndilinns Pressure 7th anrndu inn Sepzmlnr Cnndilinns Temperature Phase Diagram of a Re rrograde Gas Reservoir Inilizl Resewnir I I I Cnndilinns CP n g Pal anrndu Inn I I Temperature Phase Diagram of a Vola rile Oil Reservoir A Inlllzl Resewmr canmunns Path n1 Prnducllnn Temperakure Phase Diagram of a Black Oil Reservoir Inilizli eservnir I I It Q E I I Temperature Phase envelopes of different mixtures with different proportions of same HC components 7000 TR Critical Points 6000 r Volatilel 5000 r c dens o o o l a o o o l Pressure psia 2000 7 Wet Gas Black oil 1000 y 20 100 o 100 20 300 400 500 600 700 30 Temperature quot F Typical Reservoir Fluid Compositions Component Black Oil Volatile Oil Gas Condensate Wet Gas Dry Gas C1 4883 6436 8707 9585 8667 C2 275 752 439 267 777 C3 1 93 4 74 229 0 34 2 95 C 160 412 174 052 173 C5 115 397 083 008 088 Ce 1 59 338 0 60 0 12 C7 4215 1191 380 042 MWC7 225 181 112 157 GOR 625 I 2000 18200 105000 Tank oAP 343 501 608 547 Liquid Greenish Medium Light Water Co r Black Orange Straw White l Gas Condensate W ngh Shrinkage Oll Volatile all 0 Low Shrlnkage Oll Black Oll C vNZ Compositional M 0 Distribution VolurqosAbout of Reservoir Fluids y Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS EIGOR between 70000 100000 SCFSTB EIDensity greater than 60 API EILight in color EIC composition 1 125 Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS EIGOR between1000 8000 SCFSTB EIDensity between 45 60 API EIOil FVF greater than 200 high shrinkage oils EILight brown to green in color EIC composition 3 125 Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data BLACK OIL RESERVOIRS EIGOR less than 1000 SCFSTB EIDensity less than 45 API DEeservoir temperatures less than 250 DQlilFVF less than 200 low shrinkage OI s EIDark green to black in color EIC composition gt 30 Assignment CIRead and make a summary of revised amp newer criteria for classification of Reservoir Fluids from given paper by William D McCain in J PT September 1994 J PT paper study Guide DWhat are the distinctive features of black oils in terms of EIInitial 60R amp 60R vs time EIInitial API amp API vs time EICompositions DColor J PT paper study Guide DWhat are the distinctive features of volatile oils in terms of EIInitial 60R amp 60R vs time EIInitial API amp API vs time EICompositions DColor J PT paper study Guide DWhat are the distinctive features of Condensate gases in terms of EIInitial 60R amp 60R vs time EIInitial API amp API vs time EICompositions DColor J PT paper study Guide DWhat are the distinctive features of Dry gases in terms of EIInitial 60R amp 60R vs time EICompositions PETE 310 Lectures 25 26 Chapter 12 GasLiquid Equilibrium GasLiquid Equilibrium Ideal Behavior Applications to low pressures Simplifications gtthe gas phase behaves as an Ideal Gas gtthe liquid phase exhibits Ideal Solution Behavior I n Ideal Behavior EIThe equilibrium criteria between 2 phases a and is P P a TD iquoti 12NE It Equilibrium Conditions EIThe last criteria implies tendency of a component to be in phase or or 5 is balancedquot net mass transfer across phases is zeroquot Ideal Behavior Model EIGas hase behaves as an ideal gas 16 and iquid phase behaves as an ideal solution IS EIThese assumptions imply that 2019 molecular interactions are zero molecules have no van 2015 forces of attractionrepulsion between molecu es are t e regardless of molecular species Volumes are additive Amagats Law Forces between molecular species oltgto Olt gtO 0 gtO A A B B A B It statement of Equilibrium 0 1618 Raoul r39s law P B B H Types of VLE Calculations CP1 T Liquid P1quot r 1quot 5 y a Flash E 5P2 054quot P2quot P2quot 0 Vapor Ta Temperature 0 x1 Y1 I Recall Molar Compositions EIBy convention liquid composifions mole fracfions are indicafed wifh an x and gas composifions wifh a y n n X1 Vim quot1quot2 liquid 1 2 gas It Mathematical Relationships Z1X1fly1fv Z1X11 llV1fv Wl lll z1 x r 71 v f quot1quot2v Vi Xi V quot1quot2vquot1quot2l In general Depletion Path Isothermal Reservoir Depletion Process for a Reservoir Oil with 2 Components 73 Pressure Temperature Quantitative Phase Equilibrium ExerCIse Pxy Diagram 2000 1600 3 39 5 1200 2 z 3 800 2 i 400 0 00 0 1 06 07 08 02 03 04 05 Composition nCl Bubble Poin l39 Evalua39l39ion Ideal Behavior Model EIThe bubble poin r pressure at a given T is ZyinI ZziPT Pbp ZziPic Bubble Poin r from Raoul r39s law T P16 zi xi P2 X1Y1 Bubble Poin l39 Evalua39l39ion EIUnder Raoulf39s law le bubble poinf has a linear dependence wifh ue vapor pressures of le pure componenfs EIOnce le bubble poinf pressure is found le equilibrium vapor composifions are found from Raoulf39s law It Dew Point Calculation CIAt the dew point the overall fluid composition coincides with the gas composition That is ziyi Dew Point Calculation Ideal Behavior Model EIFind DP pressure and equilibrium liquid compositions yiPxiPi 1 x gt 2 52 ziPxiPiu P NE z 1 P i Dew Point from Raoult39s law T P16 P26 if 2i Yi X1Y1 It Flash Calculations DIn this type of calculations the objective 5 to find fraction of vapor vaporized fV and equilibrium gas and liquid compositions given the overall mixture composition Pand T Flash Calculations Ideal Behavior Calculations DStart with the equilibrium equation 039 yiP xi DMaterial balance zi xift yifv xi1fvyifv Flash Calculations EINow replace either liquid or gas compositions using equilibrium equation P 1 Pia fv yfv E xi Here replaced x P I ziyi It Flash Calculations El Rearrange and sum over all yi z y 20 12 u mm Separation process yiT1P2 ZiT1P1 P1 gt P2 T1P2 gt XiT1P2 Flash Calculations DObjective function flash function is This is 1ki idul quilibrium ratio I M Flash Calculations EITlIere are several equivalent expressions for the flash function a Zyi 10 b zxi10 c ZyiZXFO Flash Calculations DOnce fy is found the equilibrium gas and liquid compositions are evaluated from z P 39 Po 1 fv fv yiP and Pa xi In Vapor Pressure Models Antoine Equation 1 Constants depend upon the component Different Units It Example in our web sife excel file VLE310 Flash Functions and Rachford Rice Func on Sum Wm mcmmm my 4am 39 Im Mo a Fraamn m Valor M PETE 310 Lectures 2 Alkanes Old Assignment CIRead MCain pages 1 12 Monday 12 22 for today Chemical Bonds and Chemical Compounds EIThe shells or orbifs which confain fhe elecfr ons have characfer isfic occupancy capacify EIThe firs fhr ee confain 2 8 and 8 or 18 respecfively EIAfoms fend fo combine chemically forming eifher ionic or covalent bonds so fhaf fhe oufer orbifs are complefe The Ionic Bond Sodium Has An Excess Electron Chlorine Lacks One The Ionic Bond Orbits become complete by donation acceptance of an electron POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION The Covalent Bond Orbits become complete by sharing electrons H H 3 I H OOEOOH H CH o H Covalent amp Ionic Bonds Hydrocarbons homologous series Alypmics ANmatics amines awn Hydrocarbon Compounds Homologous Series 2 A group of molecules which have similar chemical properties and a gradation in physical properties All members conform to a general formula Alkanes General fonnula CHHal z Saturated hydrocarbons Have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons ie all the C C bonds are single bonds Components of Typical Petroleum Gases Naxural gas Hydrocarbon Memana 7mse mane 140 Propane lraceAS Ve Buxanes trace 2 Penlanes race 1 o Hexanes lrace Vz M Heplanes trachfn Nonhydronarbon Nitrogen traceAi 5 Carbon dioxide tracerS Vo Hydrogen sulfide wace qua Helium up lo 5 usually irace or none Occasionally I A which are predominate hydrogen Sullids 1 Gas irom a well which also is producing petroleum liquid Hydrocarbon Memane 492 Elhane 4 21 r ane 145 mane v 7 Penianes irate Hexanes race 2 Heptanes none 1 Vana Nonhydrccarbon Nilro en achup lo 10 Carbon dioxide lrace4 Hydrogen sulfide none lrace 6 A Helium ue Typical Crude Oil Fractions do a mqmtm Jami51mm Alkanes Family Physical Properties gravity Ylmnurllurl 39Fr Nun1m at urban atom in moiqu Alkanes DSee addifional proper es from fexf book D Combusfion Reaction Elm 12 Rig I hg 2 Haggai Covalent Bonds single Double Triple HBC CH3 ethane HZCZCH2 efhene efhylene efhyne acetylene IUPAC Naming compounds CH CH 2 CH2 CH2 CH C mp NWWWacdlabs cumupadnumendamm H3 0 0 H H3C H3 Two or more double triple bonds amp Func39l39ional Groups H20 CH2 0 i O Exercises Naming Compounds CHa H3C CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH CH2 HC CH CH CH 2 2 CH2 CH3 c CH CH2 39H CHf CH2 H3C Exercises Naming Compounds H2C CH CH3 C CH Homework Due Friday El Always check syllabus El Always check learning objectives file El Problems from text book McCain PETE 310 Lectures 9 amp 10 Ideal and Real Gases Equations of State The Ideal Gas 0 Ideal gas properties Volume of gas molecules is negligible compared with gas volume Forces of attraction or repulsion between molecules or walls of container are zero No loss of internal energy due to collisions Boyle s Law 1 PT1 Voc T2 At fixed T Gay Lussac s Law V x T At fixed P Avogad ro s Law At the same P and T equal Volumes of gas contain the same of molecules Na 2 73x1026 moleculeslb mole Internet Lesson on Ideal Gas Behavior 0 Experimental instructions mp ersey unregm eduvlabqun 0 Problems with solutions mp dbhs Wvusd klZ musGaSIAWWsldml h Ideal Equation of State Construction Ste 1 T2 p PM 1 sz Step2 p P2 Combining P1 1 P2V2 v1 vX v2 T1 T2 Boyle amp Charles laws a cool website with lots of info hllp Ndth wvusd kl 2 m uyGaslAwKMTrGasrlAws hlml Boyle amp Charles laws Voc 1 VOCTL P awampn HR T1 T2 T VMVn R gas constant depends upon units used See page 95 McCain book Ideal Gas Mixture oThe pressure in a vessel containing an ideal gas mixture n or a single gas component nk is P hllp humB army ddwalla39 fandu phdgaslawhim Vt P nkRT k V t Partial Pressure yk P 1 I oPk is the partial pressure of component k and by 391 definition NC 2nP i1 Density of ideal gas nRT In 3 2 Watch out the units Mixtures of Ideal Gases o Dalton s law of partial pressures oAmagat s law of partial volumes 0 Specific gravity of a gas Apparent Molecular Weight of a Gas Mixture 0 Determine the Mm and density of a mixture of 30C1 40C2 and 30C3 at T200 F and P4000 psia Behavior of Real Gases Equations of State for Gases 0 Ideal gas 1 RT 0 Real gas PVM Z Z is the ratio of the real molar volumequot RT KPVM overthe ideal molar volumequot PV M of a substance measured at the same RT L z a 1 pressure and temperature 4 39 quot wan The Principle of Corresponding States me same reduced tempemmre arid reduced pressure have alwmxmlalely me same dewaze from ideal gas banalll to about me sane degreequot Yhe Wincipie m warming as iraei Wigwam win we component was erms nl reduced 0 Material prnpe ies are usually ex ressed inl zrzrneiers such as Rmum Vannaaunz zTn Typical Reduced Parameters Reduced Pressure P P 11 Reduced Molar Volume Vr Reduced Parameters 0 Usually Tr and Pr Vr obtained as a function of Trand Pr 0 These are called twoparameter Corresponding States models 0 Threeparameter corresponding states models improve predictions but third parameter is not Vrnot independent variable Generalized Corresponding States Th reeParameter oThis third parameter is called the acentric factor o It takes into account the nonspherical nature of molecules 0 Peng Robinson and the Soave Redlich Kwong equations of state EOS are examples of three parameter corresponding states models Compressibility Factor Charts 0 Following the POC only one compressibility factor chart can be used to determine volumetric properties of any pure fluid by using its reduced properties The shape of this chart is in general Corresponding States Correlations amp Models 0 The objective is then to find a model models to predict the Z factor 0 Ideal gas behavior is described from the ideal gas Equation of State EOS with a compressibility factor of 1 Extension of Corresponding States to Mixtures OZ factor charts all built from EOS are also used for multicomponent systems in this case the coordinates used are pseudoreduced properties 0 For a mixture you can use the same charts as for a pure component Pseudoreduced Properties 0 For mixtures the same type of charts apply but using pseudoreduced properties which are de ned similarly as the ratio of pressure or temperature with pseudoreduced critical pressurequot or temperature These pseudocritical properties are an average of the critical properties of the components in the mixture Charts for mixtures can also be used for single component uids oompvessmmry Factor 1 l5 Soluhon Flov n Dvanchuk P M and AMlHKassem J H Cslculallonolzrlaclors TV quot lorNaiuvalGasesUsmg Equations msmeu Cdn Pet Tech Julyrsepl 97s 15 ates W4 r30u Compressibility factor 2 as a function or pseudoreduced pressure Ranges olAppllcablluy O2ltPult30 nd 1 nlt Tlt3o a 00ltPVlttDleU7ltTWltl0 m n w 3 Mi 5 s 7 3 s Pseudoreduced Pressure PW Pseudocritical Properties of Natural Gases o Pseudoreduced Pressure P p pc pr Pseudoreduced Temperature prT pc Pseudocritical Properties of Natural Gases o If only the specific gravity and MW of of the gases is known then charts are available to estimate these pseudocritical properties McCain figure 310 Pseudocritical Properties of Natural Gases o Naturally the degree of accuracy is reduced substantially We well see methods when compositional information is available in this case NC NC Ppc 2yiPLi T1 22yiTci i1 t Pseudocritical Properties of Natural Gases 0 Once Z is evaluated you can find the gas density as pg lbmft3 05 7716quot irrr e iisd pressure f Zfactor chart for low reduced pressures PETE 310 Lectu re 29 Chapter 14 Equilibrium Ratio Correlations Kvalues Non Id GasLiquid Equilibrium eal Behavior 0 When evaluating VLE we use models for the equilibrium ratios lgvalues Simpler models K fPT 0 low pressure applications 0 explic t More complex models K fPTgtlty use equatons of state EOS current or convergence pressure memods earlier 0 apply lo low and high pr sures o implicit highly iterative What s a low or a high pressure o Separator pressures for a black oil are usually considered low 0 Reservoir pressures considered high are gt 1000 psia but this limit depends upon type of fluid For black oils simple Kvalue correlations do a good job Volatile oils and gas condensates have a more complex behavior o Compositionally independent correlations assume that kvalues depend upon pressure and temperature only 0 In fact K values depend upon the type and proportions of other molecules in the mixture Example Your behavior is different when you are surrounded by people of your same age than when you are surrounded by professors or potential employers Bubble Point amp Dew Point Evaluations o The bubble point pressure at a given T is ZyiZziKilpbpT 1ZzKpiT o The dew point pressure at a given T is yl XlKl Zl XlKlpdplTi 39 0 Objective function flash function is ZiKi Zl1fvKifvl 1 0 One of the Models for Equilibrium Ratios o Requires critical properties amp acentric factors K ampx eXpE537x1mx1ihjj p T 0 We need other models for higher pressures For higher pressures and temperatures 0 Equilibrium ratio charts for different convergence pressures Tedious but Illustrate fundamental concepts 0 Equations of State mainly cubic Tedious by hand Suitable for computers More in later lectures Convergence Pressure Equ brium Ratio Charts 0 Plot K vs p in a log wwwmpmmm log scale quotI 120 o K values converge to a unique pressure called Black oils have convergence pressures of about 1000 39 0 Observed experimental behavior see Fig 1 and 14 2 of text book 0 g E Convergence Pressure Highlights o Is a property that takes into account the composit onal effect 0 When the mixture is a volatile oil the K values of their have 3 of about 7000 psia 0 When the mixture is a gas condensate the K values of their components have convergence pressures of about 5000 psia k contains only charts for convergence pressure pk of 5000 psia 90 Convergence pressure charts are tabulated for pk s of 800 1000 1500 2000 3000 5000 and 10000 0 0 Convergence Pressure Highlights 0 Convergence pressure is found iteratively 39 ay be needed among charts ublicly available equations have een generated from thee charts GPSA have computer codes at a cos 00 U1 3 g9 lt2 mu 3 om 2 0 3 33 E u 2 N m D m 3 D 3 0 395 Procedure is lengthy and tedious For repetitive computations reservoir simulation Equations of State EOS have replaced this methodology 0 Still a good approach for few calculations 00 Other Uses of Convergence Pressure Charts 0 To determine the pressure range of ideal behavior 0 To have a quick comparison among K values of different components 0 To estimate vapor pressures Convergence Pressure Equilibrium Ratio Charts Errors Black Oil at Surface Conditions A man m u nuwulll um ml Errors Black Oil at Surface Conditions 0 What would be the percent error in the evaluated liquid produced at 65 psia and 120 DF if the K value for 3 52 m 1 15 hlgher than the actual value about the effects of the other components n the mlxture39 Errors Retrograde Gas at Reservoir Conditions Errors Retrograde Gas at Reservoir Conditions 0 What would be the percent error in t255 the evaluated liquid volume a 0 psia and 195 DF if the K value for C i s 15 hlgher than the actual value 15 lower than the actual value 0 Which are the most influential39 components Equilibrium Ratios for Methane Convergence Pressure 5000 psia 0 Note the slope and dotted lines Equilibrium Ratios for Ethane Convergence Pressure 5000 psia I r 1 I quot 0 Given a F temperature lower than the TC of C2 How can we estimate the vapor pressure of C2 from this chart Equilibrium Ratios for Octane Convergence Pressure 5000 psia 0 According to this chart what is the pressure range for which we could have used the Raoult s law model for KC8 as a very good approximation Standings Kvalue Correlation SPE 7903 o Correiation good for Pressures up to 1000 Sia Observed behavmr r is a component characterizatmn factnr Number m chart indicates Dumpuund Standings Kvalue Correlation SPE 7905 JPT September 1979 o Correiation is Tm nomttemverature a m m Standings Kvalue Correlation SPE 7905 JPT September1979 o Correiation i5 F aireadv de ned 10acF p Kr Wth a7245x70quotxp75x70 gp2 c4094 7x70 lxp73 5x70 p2 E Values for b and TD from SPE Paper nu i VALun or n mu 139 ran use in courunun KAR AND monuum euiLiamuui Mum nemw 10m plll n r Campcund cycle an El Nimn 470 in Carbon lolldl 552 m Hydmgen lullln Has an Momma For heptanes and heavier we can use 0 We will use the following approach K07 015 x K07 o Other approaches include using an equivalentcarbon num ert at de ermines a normal boiling point forthe heavy fraction pa per Modified Homework 0 Use the data from problem 141 and determine the K value for each component at T 160 F and p 1500 psia 0 Compare the K values With the K values prowded in the book Ind cate the uu differences Calculate the initial oil compos tion if the fraction of gas produced With the old K values is 10 0 Use the recently obtained reservoir composition W h th ew K values run a flash and determine the new gas fractio Compare With the preViously reported one and discuss o o MB Pete 310 page 1 F211 2002 PETE 310 Application of the Crude Oil PVT Properties in Reservoir Engineering Problems Radial Flow of Crude Oils Using Darcy39s law in differential form to a crude oil flowing in a radial system gives 2 11271 27rr11k11d Z rag ab 10 1000110 dr day 1 To express the oil flow rate in STBday we need to include the oil formation volume factor Q 2 11271 27rr11k11 Z 5 0 100011030 dr day 2 Separate variables and integrate by imposing the inner wellbore and outer drainage area boundaries 9 dr 11271 27zr111d1 e 00 r 10001030 quot3 r 1quot W MB Pete 310 page 2 F211 2002 Notice that we have assumed constant or average properties to integrate equation 3 QO 2 000708 17 AP 0 Bo lnf fW 4 Where Qo oil flow rate STBday h pay zone thickness ft k permeability md milidarcies AP difference between reservoir pressure and bottomhole flowing pressure P ow psia Bo formation volume factor of oil at reservoir pressure bblSTB pa oil viscosity cp M wellbore radius ft re drainage radius ft The following sketch helps to identify the process MB Pete 310 page 3 F211 2002 magnified weIbore w The application of this equation is limited to steadystate and laminar flow The fluid and the reservoir are homogeneous MB Pete 310 page 4 F211 2002 Oil production example Estimate the daily oil production of WELL77J in STBday The following rock and fluid propertieshave been given to you k 1000 md h 40 ft re 700ft M 05ft AP 300 psia Pe 3300 psia ow 3000 psia R3 800 SCFSTB has remained constant over time Qg 09 specific gravity of separator gas API 40 T 200 F reservoir temperature The PVT lab could not finish a complete Differential Depletion Test at Reservoir Temperature T200 F but they gave to you the following data MB Pete 310 F211 2002 page 5 Pressure psia Oil Density gm cc 5000 0681 4500 0676 4100 0673 3500 0666 3000 0660 2500 0652 2350 0665 2100 0673 1850 0689 1600 0697 You have reasons to believe that the reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure of the reservoir oi because the producing gasoil ratio has remained constant In addition you can and must estimate the bubble point pressure of this reservoir fluid by using the data of the PVT report A plot of pressure vs density or pressure vs volume at fixed temperature should give you the bubble point pressure of this oil MB Pete 310 page 6 F211 2002 Experimental Determination of Bubble Point Pressure Density grcc l 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Pressure psia We will take the bubble point pressure as Pb 2500 psia Or alternatively we can obtain this pressure from the type of plot we are more familiar with MB Pete 310 page 7 F211 2002 Specific Volume ccgr Pressure psia Now we are sure that our reservoir is above the bubble point pressure To evaluate the formation volume factor to be used in equation 4 we first require its value at the bubble point pressure and then we correct it for a higher pressure using the oil compressibility Bob can be calculated from the following formula OSTO I39 00135 stg pm 5 Bo MB Pete 310 page 8 F211 2002 Where 0 STO is obtained from the AP gravity of the stock tank oil 1415 1415 2 PSTO API13L5pW 4013156237 5146 Ibmcu 6 The density at reservoir conditions is obtained from the PVT report We interpolate between the two pressures Closest to the reservoir pressure We can use a linear interpolation Pressure psia Oil Density gmcc 3500 0666 3300 0664 3000 0660 thus 2 06660660 OOR 0666 35006000 200 0664 gmcc 7 OOR 06646237 41414bmcuft 8 MB Pete 310 page 9 F211 2002 The formation volume factor at the bubble point is then 5156 00l35gtlt800gtlt09 01 41414 148 bblSTB 9 but we need the formation volume factor above the bubblepoint pressure Therefore we need to correct for the compressibility of the oil above the Pb The following equation is to be used BO 2 B 01624 00Pb 39 10 We need to find out a value for the isothermal compressibility We must use the data provided in the PVT report 5p 1 18gtlt106 513 T 0664 35003000 1051391 col p MB Pete 310 page 10 F211 2002 Therefore the formation volume factor at 3300 psia is Bo 148 eAp18X103962500 3300 146 12215723 12 To estimate the viscosity of the oil at reservoir conditions we will make use of the equations listed in Appendix B of your text book The charts from Chapter 11 in your text book could also be used To evaluate the viscosity we follow a three step procedure 1 Evaluate Dead oil viscosity uoD log log 1100 1 18653 0025086API 05644 log T 13 18653 0025086 40 05644 log 200 043 log 0100 1 10O437 0366 UoD 1O035511321cp MB Pete 310 page 11 F211 2002 2 Evaluate Saturated Oil Viscosity mi Uob A MOD 3 14 A 10715Rs 100 0515 B 544Rs150 0338 00 0374 cg 3 Evaluate Oil viscosity above Pg 110 Uob PbP B 15 B C1P C2 exp 03 C4P 26 P 1187 exp 41513 898x1O5 P 029 Jo 0374 33002500 029 0405 C9 Finally the daily oil flow rate is 00 2 000708 kb AP 0 Bo 112 rerm MB Pete 310 page 12 F211 2002 000708X1000X 40gtlt 300 0 19834193 SIPday 0405gtlt 146 11170005 Pretty good well PETE 310 Lecture 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry viewed as an engineer Engineering in General CI The abil fy 7 0 compufe sepanafes fIe e ineer from le fecIn c an e ucaf on in engineery ma fIemafics genenafes an ins9M info physical phenomena 771 course requires 1 QUALITA TI VE componean z QUAN TI TA TI VE componean 3 EXPERIMENTAL componean Engineering in General 1 QUALITA TIVE TIe genenaf on of ideas 5 rucfunes comepfs RestIf are exprefsed in skefcIes gym7 s xIema cs 2 QUANTITATIVE TIe compufaf on of le magnfude of le properf es in a quaifaf Ve 39 ea TIese result are expresse 39 numbers usualy wfI physical Lin7 s 3 EXPERIMENTAL The use of physical models and fen s 7 0 compensafe for bafI qua0 ve and quanf faf Ve umerfa nfy Review of Organic Chemistry and some definitions 39 f Very limited The Periodic Table hllp Mummy mu enhChermcuul Characteristics of Selected Elements Name Symbol Pro ns Agomic A mic Number Weight Hydrogen H 1 1 101 arbon C 6 6 1201 Nitrogen N 7 7 1401 Oxygen O E E 1600 Sodium Na 11 11 2299 Magnesium Mg 12 12 24 41 P sphorous P 15 15 3097 Sulfu S 16 16 3206 Chlorine CI 17 17 3545 Potassium K 19 19 3910 Calcium Ca 20 20 400E A cool website http wwwwebelementscom provides properties of all elements in the periodic table and links The Atomic Theory CIAll matter consists of tiny particles called atoms CIAtoms are in turn made up of three fundamental particles protons neutrons and electrons Atomic structure EIProtons and neutrons are in the nucleus EIElectrons are in orbits around the nucleus EIThere are equal numbers of protons and electrons Atomic Mass DProtons and neutrons are far more heavy than electrons EIThe unit of atomic mass is the mass of a proton or neutron DCarbon has an atomic mass of 12 the total of protons plus neutrons Atomic Number CIAtomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus EIThe atomic number identifies the element and distinguishes it from all other elements EIThus carbon is the element with atomic number 6 Molecular Weights EIThe molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of the constituents of the molecule EIExample water H20 the molecular weight is 16 101 101 1802 atomic mass units The Mole EIThe weight in grams equivalent to the atomic or molecular weight in atomic mass units CIA mole of water has a weight of 1802 grams CIA mole of any substance contains AVOGADRO39S number of particles 602 x 1023 The Carbon Atom 9 PROTON O NEUTRON NUCLEUS O ELECTRON The Carbon Atom Carbon Has Atomic Number 6 And Atomic Weight 12 ARBON Vlrsa lity Anson Vlrsa l k mm mm m mm x mm Ehlmizd was ad Ehlmizd ampMud m w m wmm 91qu m my mman am mm mm tnqu 2 x a x w m mm mm mm w 91mm mmde mm why m w mmer mm in mm m any mm m zamvm The Ionic Bond Sodium Has An Excess Electron Chlorine Lacks One The Ionic Bond Orbits become complete by donation acceptance of an electron POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION The Covalent Bond Orbits become complete by sharing electrons H H 3 I H OOEOOH H CH o H Covalent amp Ionic Bonds Carbon Chemistry Homologous Series 1 A group of molecules which have similar chemical properties and a gradation in physical properties All members conform to a general formula Alkanes General formula CHHZHQ Saturated hydrocarbons Have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons ie all the C C bonds are single bonds Assignment CIRead MCain pages 1 12 today 12 22 DSend e mail to me barrufetespindletop tamu edu PETE 310 Lectures 23 amp 24 Chapter 11 Pages 317 19 321 22 326 333 Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations 0 Methods Discussed Given composition of saturated liquid iterative procedure guess contribution of C1 amp C2 Excel file amp Ex 114 Given composition of saturated liquid correlation using W1 amp W2 Excel file amp Ex 115 Given solution gasoilratio ga composition and stock tan 0 s k H gravity or API Excel file amp Ex 116 Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations 0 Methods Discussed cont All these methods evaluate oil density in stages a Pseudooil at Tsc Psc b Correct oil density in a 1St for reservoir sure c Correct density in b for reservoir perature JCPT paper method amp Example 117 of text book Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations o JCPT paper method amp Example 117 of text book Both require solution gasoilratio separator gas gravty API gravity of stok tank re and tempera ure JCPT includs a more current correlation Compare dens tis from both methods Oil density is at or below pb Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations 0 Example 117 highlights Given data ADI Rs T p v15 Find molecular Weight of gas as ng 79 X 29 Find mass of gas dissolved in one 8TB ofoil as R SCF lb 7 mole lb ZXMWH X X VM39 STB SCF be mole Find mass ordii in 1 8TB as your turnl Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations 0 Example 117 highlights more Pretend that the oil components are two stock tank oil amp surface gas Ll Id dens Convene Mass Tlth m quoty l m 0 msm IDISTB 2119c Psc Sauce gas fg m2 Slockriank 0I mmariassesl sumwKumsi pseudollcpld densny 7 m Iell me win cnmes negtd Figure 118 4 07 and wquot natural gases sxanamg Volumeb Hydrocarbon Systems SPE Dallas Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations 0 Compare the densities obtained by JCPT procedure with that from Example 117 0 Discuss results 0 Different evaluation methods will result in different values of Bo Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations o The oil formation volume factor is evaluated at or below pb pSTo 001357 gtlt R SYQS O 90R o How do we evaluate Bo above the bubble point For Pressures Above pb 130 BM EXP com p 6 in B0 In Bob pn p 7 The Oil Density Above Pb on f 1 f 9amp0 847 rcsults in 8 18 iquot 139 poi EXP 00 p pig Coef cient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil Co Why7 a It wIi mm m cuman H mm ampvulmwy 4 Fig 87 Typical shape oi the coefficient at isothermai compressibility 0 oil as a function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature Correlations for Co 0 Above bubblepoint pressure undersaturated 0 Below bubblepoint pressure saturated Co for pressures higher than pb 39aua name paizzmeslapun o Almaissardmm leuueuiosl ro swapguano 1V Bu CC for pressures above pb Appendix B page 522 Figure 11 1quot Page 327 Coefficients of Isothermal campressibilitv of Undersaturated Black Oils Figure llll was developed fromquot co A AIR AT Am A APBAch 349 where A 1431o A2 50 A3 172 An 1800 AS 12m A6 105 where Cu is in psiquot T 39c reservoir temperature in F v is spcdfic g aV W 0f Scparalbr gas a separator pressure of l00 PSiEv quotP 5 gram or sxwk mnk n in oAPL s reservoir pressure in pm and R IS SOlufxon gaspil ratio scfSTB at hubblepmni pressure Co for pressures below pb 0 Oil volume will change because of Pressure Gas in solution co 63343 J13 co2239425WW COB1 55JB JJ Co for pressures below pb 0 You can evaluate Co using the methods of JCPT paper 0 Need to have Bg Co 222 I J J13 Co Br ejla 22 J 39aww Co for p lt pb 91 lnnlntrmll munmm a an ads 9961 mama east 39e 1 was 319 IE xa macaw suo mm 030911119510 Amssemmoo lEWIGHIOS l0 swwomaoo ZL u in CO for pressures below pb Appendix B Bo for pressures below pb nm krg or puma L quotyawnmew wxraar a 44w uoum ramum vowxru auraLS mun owns any 5 39uorsswiad mm quot03 40199993 plaid lgo uomaqg 761 uq gmdool 39suo mm baimmes lo 5mm ewnloa uoueuuog 511 m Bo for pressures below pb Figure 119 page 320 Formation Volume Factors of Saturated Black Oils The following two equations are the basis of Figure 11 9 0 B0b 09759 12110 CNBDquot2 B 47 where 05 CNM Rsmg 125T B 48 8T0 These ancient plots are useful to 0 Establish ranges of applicability API Rs p 0 Determine trends for the physical properties as a function of p T API etc Does Bo increase with Rs Does Bo increase with API 0 Provide quick estimates sometimes 0 Exercise our visual skills l39uclssluuad um 03 uoieesau plaid no umAwo Aver lu iMdoQ Silo new 0 magi eull llOA uoueuuo moi m u lt61 Total Formation Volume Factor Oil Viscosity o Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid 0 This is called dynamic viscosity and has units of o Kinematic viscosity is viscosity density units are in Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity 0 Calculation of two phase flow 0 Gas lift and pipeline design 0 Calculate oil recovery either from natural depletion or from recovery techniques such as water ooding and gas injection processes Separmmnand m U m g StaragsFacilms d 1 W HL 5 mmquot lomFpama 0 may 7 on mm Misciblsant Oil Viscosity Variation of Oil Viscosity T constant TWO Phase FIOW Single Phase low Evaluation of Oil Viscosity 0 Evaluate dead oil viscosity no gas in solution given oil API and reservoir temperature Figure 11 13 0 Correct for pressure by adding gas in solution Fig 1114 0 Most of the oil viscosity correlations are oil dependent large errors Dead Oil Viscosity swam all many um Fig 11 11 Dead oil viscosities Dead Oil Viscosity Appendix B 1O Saturated Oil Viscosity add gas illcoiliy oi galmum oil10mg e o sauce y oi 9 tro euyuoo up Fig 11 14 Viscosities of saturated black oils Saturated Oil Viscosity Appendix B Figure 11 14 page 331 Viscosities of Saturated Black Oils Figure 1114 was developed from21 0 AtLoDB a Oil Viscosities above b sage 1qu pm mm in 3 B 5 quoti g E 5 E g 999 NU g 11 15 Viscosities of undersatura lecl black oils 11 Oil Viscosity Above Pb o No correction for p pb pgt pb 0 Larger corrections for higher pressures pb Viscosity of Undersaturated Black Oils Figure 11 15 page 332 Viscosmes of Undersaturated Black Oils B 57 Figure 11 15 was developed from398 39 Hollyplquot u and B QpClEXPKQ r Clp 8 58 where CI 2 C1 l4187 C 11 513C4 98 X to Viscosity Correlations lnl un u LIKI m Lrrrnlarlrn39 man lawhuml m m amp gummyy Name l39uur L nulll LEAH m Oiln ram Anituuw 4quot1quot mm m IJII39 r lbivdlulvl a lawn VAL4w 16 EM Judging Correlations minummm mmm Judging Viscosity Correlations mu WWW mmwmuumm mimmww Judging Bubble Point Correlations mirr Correlation Comparison BubeePoint mo r e r r r mo rn r r r XI mo r r r r i i Ir r r gim r r r r 0 a i i i r Eim r r i r i r r r r rrr Xiamlezaldiemr iiiTiiii riii riii I iamarnrdrr y V GEIEWdSTzIdiIgWBUU A Suldrlg W Hquot 7quot mw i i i i E iamri rrimalriierg D i i 39gi i i i i E 5 e i5 m 3 32139 Correlation I thaIIUiprhrr 1 0mm X rillarlrrr rain rsrninnrrinin Viscosity References RUE i ir irmsriy iii Currie ills 31 iiemri AA Frirriinrliiirl P Ujhmrnnritin irrirl P Inrrririrrr Ciwmrruri Fnrrrnernrrrr Sciurrrui rrl 39 Nari rip iDiiiUIr r i iiii Ezrtuirrhrrrr Jrumaeiri iii Ru39iirwir Firrrrii irrrrr lirurr Trierrrxnrieri J L hil riils HG 110i 3 C R CM JW Uriirbi39ir iJiIi rrri iii liii RI PVhrm Vermin 392 i Mi 19119 Rim Perri iisirrii Friiiirri39ariririrr Sririizrir MS 4 1M Winery iii Arr Writer Nirrirriri GM lirirdri Uri i39irrri ire Martinis Grim rir Uri Fiiiii Terrawhims sure F rrrslrrrir Viscosity References c Esai SPE Reprini Seiies Na 3 air and Gas piopeny Evaruarion and Reserves Esriinares Society orpermreum Engineeis erArME narras TX 1970 ppiieem 5 vgrumeriie and Pnase Eehavmur of on Fieid Hydronarbon Sysrems M a granding emery or Perieremn Engineeis gr ArME Barres TX i ear 6 Esiiinaring he viscusiry or Crude orr Syseenis H D Beggs and ubrnson JPTiSepsember19759911404141 7r Viscos y Conerarions rm Gas Saturmed Crude oirs J Chew and CH Connarry ir Trans AiME i959 216 pp23725 a An improved TemperatureNiscusiiy Cuneranun ran Cmde orr Sysrenis E o Egrmgan and J T Ng Journai grpenoreuin Science and Engineeiing 5 1990 ppie hzoo 9 PVeSSLireAVoiumeJem peiariiie Conerariuns roi Heavy and Ema Heavy orr G De Gnerro F Paune and M virra SPE 3031s internmronai Heavy oir Symposium Caigary Canada 19721 June was in Geneiariseg PressurerVoiHmEVTempelahile Cuneranuns a erase JPT May 1980 ppmmgs 11 Improved Conerarrons iorPredrciirrg rne Viscosily or Ligniciuees e i Journai or Petroieum Science arid Engineenng a 1992 pp2217234 Oil Viscosity References PETE 310 Lecture 15 Properties of Black Oils Definitions pages 224 240 Phase Diagram of a Black Oil Reservoir lnilileeservnir A Cnndilinns leh M Prnduclinn Pressure Temperature Properties of Black Oils Needed for Reservoir Engineering Calculations Formation Volume Factor of oil Bo Total Formation Volume Factor of oil Bt Solution Gas oil Ratio Rs Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Co Properties of Black Oils Needed for Reservoir Engineering Calculations Coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion 3 Oil Viscosity pu Interfacial Tension Learning Goals OUnderstand the behavior of those PVT properties BoRs vs P and type of fluid now OEvaluate PVT properties from later Field data Laboratory studies Correlations Definitions OSpecific gravity of a liquid 2 13003111 0 pwPpT1 oAPI gravity 1415 T GAP 135 Definitions oForma rion Volume actor of Oil Gas out o Surfuec PsTs I Reservoir PT Definitions Volume of Oil Dissolved gas Bo of Reservoir Pressure amp Temp Volume of Oil entering Stock tank at Tsc Psc Units Rsuvoir bumls be smk mu bumls 5139s General Shape of Bo Reservoir T constant Pb Reservoir Pressure Solution Gas Oil Ratio Rs 0 How much gas is dissolved in the oil volume per volume basis oRs depends upon pressure Units SCF gas STB oil W General Shape of Solution Gas Oil Ratio Rs Reservoir T constant Rs Pb Reservoir ressure Total Formation Volume Factor Bt Definition of Bt OAlso called Two phase formation volume factor BI Bo BgRsb Rs Units bblSTB bblSCF SCFSTB General Shape of Bt Reservoir T constant Bo Bt BtBo 3 Pb Reservoir Pressure Definition of Oil amp Gas PVT Properties Slandam Cunmlmns Deueasmg Pvesm The Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil OProvides Instantaneous change of volume with P at constant T 1 5V C0PA7TA 5 TA Also with molar volume and specific volume Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Speci c Volume AT Temperature Use in Steam Injection Processes Oil Viscosity OViscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid OThis is called dynamic viscosity and has units of centipoise 9 mass 100 sec cm oKinematic viscosity is viscosity density units are 39n centistokes centipoise gcc Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity oCalculation of two phase flow oGas lift and pipeline design OCalculate oil recovery either from natural depletion or from recovery techniques such as waterflooding and gas injection processes Sepavatmnand smageracmnes WWWWE lnyedmn Well on Bank Variation of Oil Viscosity T constant Gas Out of Solution Oil Viscosity Two Phase Flow i 39 Single Phase low Pb PETE 310 Lectures 6 amp 7 Phase Behavior Pure Substances Lecture 5 Two Component Mixtures Three amp Multicomponent Mixtures Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to EIUnderstand pure component phase behavior as a function of pressure temperature and molecular size EIUnderstand the behavior of binary and multicomponent mixtures EIBehavior understood through proper interpretation of phase diagrams Phase Diagrams EITypes of phase diagrams for single component pure substance gt PT gt PV or Pp gt TV or Tp Phase Diagrams Single Component Phase Diagram Fusion Curve 2 phases crmcal Point Solid 1 phase 6 liquid 1 phase Pressure Vapor Pressur e Triple Point 3 phases Vapor 1 phase Sublimau39on Curve 2 phases Temp erature Phase Diagrams Vapor Pressure Curve Critical Point p Pc 39 I 9 3 a 9 Liquid n pv Vapor 39 T Temperature 39 Hydrocarbon Families Physical Properties gmva Ylmnurllurl 39Fi Nun1m or urban nun in moiqu Pressure vs Specific Volume Pure Substance CP Pressure psia 2phase V V L v Speci c Volume 11 lbm Pure Component Properties EITabulated critical properties McCain Heat Effects Accompanying Phase Changes of Pure Substances Clapeyron equation LV TAVddP Btulb mol With Heat Effects Accompanying Phase Changes of Pure Substances LV TAV d7 Approximate relation Clausius Clapeyron Equation dPV LV PV dT RTZ Example of Heat Effects Accompanying Phase Changes DSteam flooding Problem Calculate how many BTUday just from the latent heat of steam are provided to a reservoir by injecting 6000 bblday of steam at 80 quality and at a T462 39F COX Vapor Pressure Charts normal paraffins I og scale Pressure Temperature Nonlinear scale Determination of Fluid Properties l s saturatipn pressures y r r315 r1r Temperature ofTest Constant Vapor Pressure Determination Pre ssure T1 Volume Binary Mixtures DRelationships to analyze P T molar or specific volume or molar or mass density as for a pure component EICOMPOSITION Molar Composition Hydrocarbon Composition EIThe hydrocarbon composition may be expressed on a weight basis or on a molar basis most common CIRecall M mass of quotiquot n Mw molecular weight of quot1quot Hydrocarbon Composition EIBy conven rion liquid composifions mole fracfions are indicafed wifh an x and gas composifions wif a y quot1 X1 quot1 n2 liquid Y1 r m Kn1 n2 gas Our Systems of Concern Gas system I open Oil sys l39em A separator YiT1P2 P1gtP2 ZiT1P1 i TlaPz XiT1P2 Mathematical Relationships Z1X1fly1fv Z1X11 V1fv Wl lll z1 x iv 1 iv y1 X1 quot1quot2vquot1quot2l In general Key Concepts EIFraction of vapor fv DMole fractions in vapor or gas phase 9 yi DMole fractions in liquid or oil phase 9 xi DOverall mole fractions Ii 9 combining gas amp liquid Phase Diagrams for Binary Mix l39ures EITypes of phase diagrams for a rwo component mixture Most common gt PT i af a fixed composifion gt Pzi 1 af a fixed T gt Tzi af a fixed P gt PV xi 0quot PP xi Pressure vs Temperature Diagram PTi Zi find CB Pussquot Liquid a bin Cum 2 P Imus Tnpcmtun Pressure Composition Diagrams Binary Sys39l39ems 3 Pressure N39 CP 1 1 Liquid r 006 6 9y 2phases Q 5P2 a Ox 027 P2quot Vapor Ta Temperature 0 x1 Y1 Temperature vs Composition Diagrams Binary Systems 1 Pressure e i T1s Temperature T 0 x1 y1 1 GasLiquid Relations Pressure 3 Temperature Supercritical Conditions Binary Mixture Temperature le Y1 0531320 2300 ma515 mx010u0 720 N98 38 a m w 08 m u n 8 m p 58 9 ab 9 9 Pa 95 Pa ob Pu Pm me gaze Gan 0531320 2300 ma515 mx01omu0 32 Emma 88 4u81 438quot a o 1 W88 Lil oh 95 Pa oh oh oh ob o 006820 35 40133 03250 m0ltm0ltlt ltgt4gt4gt4gtltgt4gtlt gtltgt4gtltgt4gt4gtN04gtltgt Ternary Diagrams Review Pressure Effect c quotC cx nc c n F 157 psi I mm vs x 1 r sun nslz c Cl Ci ix L nc quotC quotC C Ternary Diagrams Review Dilution Lines C mum 7 AV A753 1 9 AVAVAVA39AVAVAVAVA 1 A Ternary Diagrams Review Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria Tie or equilibrium lines EITie lines join equilibrium conditions of the gas and liquid at a given pressure and temperature 0 Dew point curve gives the gas composition 0 Bubble point curve gives the liquid composition Ternary Diagrams Review Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria Tie equilibrium lines EIAII mixtures whose overall composition 39 along a tie line have the AME equilibrium gas yi and liquid composition xi but the relative amounts on a molar basis of gas and liquid 1quot and f change linearly 0 vapor at BP 1 liquid at BP Illustration of Phase Envelope and Tie Lines AVIIAVIIIXIAAVAVAJ AVAAVAme 1 A Uses of Ternary Diagrams Representation of MultiComponent Phase Behavior with a Pseudoternary Diagram EITernary diagrams ma approximate phase behavior of mu ti component mixtures by grouping them into 3 pseudocoIIponenfs Elheavy 67 Elintermediate CZ C6 Blight c1 co2 Nz c1 cog c2 Uses of Ternary Diagrams Miscible Recovery Processes Exercise Find overall composition of mixture made with 100 moles oil quot0quot 10 moles of mixture quotA 1 2 a a s s 1 n a Practice Ternary Diagrams Pressure Effect T180F P147 psia Pressure Effect T180F P200 ps Pressure Effect c1c3c1o i r 310 T180F P400 psia quot Pressulre Effect T180F Pressure Effect P600 psia 39 Practice Ternary Diagrams Pressure Effect T180F Pressure Effect T130F 39 Pressure Effect P1000 psia P1500 mua r x i T180F P2000 psia r Practice Ternary Diagrams Temperature Effect T100F Temperature Effect T150F b Temperat re Effect P2000p quot X P2000 p39 39 0 0 m T200F Temperature Effect T300F A Temperature Effect P2000 ps v P2000 py1aa Practice Ternary Diagrams Temperature Effect T350F Temperature Effect T400F I Temperature Effect P2000 pra P2000 psiav quot x 0 0 T450F Temperat re Effect P2000 ps3939 i 0 PressureTemperature Diagram for Multicomponent Systems 1Phase or Reservoir Pressure cgt Reservoir Temperature gt Changes During Production and Injection gt Pressure Temperature gt Homework DSee Syllabus please PETE 310 Fall 2003 Lectures 21 22 Black Oils Correlations JCPT paper 1 Why Needed Improved Correlations I In most correlations material balance connection between BO RS and reservoir densities was not honored I Experimentally observed curvature shape of RS 5 not reproduced I Bubblepoint pressure needed to be estimated from same correlations could not impose pb if this was experimentally known inconsistency Lecture based on JG Tpaper Correlanon ofEIacK on Pmpemes at Pressures M u a M Correlations Presented I Solution gasoiIratio Rs I Reservoir 0quot density below the bubble point I Bubblepoint pressure I Derived property 39om material balance p570 001357 XR D more about this later Correlations Presented RS I Solution GasoiIratio Rs given ll Bubblepoint pressure pb psig z39 Reservoirtemperature T E39F Ce Separator gas gravity y Stock tank oil API gravity yAp in paper I Define reduced variables Correlations Presented RS R5 a X pr 1 a1x pras a A0 gtlt ygs gtlt APIAZ X T X pbA a2 BO gtlt ygf gtlt APB2 X T33 X pf a3 co gtlt ygf gtlt APC2 X T03 X pbc Correlations Presented RS I Coefficients used in equation for Rsr A0 973Ev07 BO 00022339 C0 0725167 A1 1 672608 B1 C1 148548 A2 0 92987 B2 0 337711 C2 0164741 A3 0247235 B3 0132795 C3 009133 A4 1056052 B4 0302065 C4 0047094 RS Correlation Performance m mu m u n mu mm mm gm 9 m m mumm Correlations Presented p0R I Given I gravity of separator gas ygS a gravity of stock tank oil ySTO orAPI gravity Reservoir temperature I Reservoir pressure at or below bubble point pressure Solution gasoiIratio Correlations Presented p0R l Iterative stage wise procedure U 1 Guess pseudo oil density at standard conditions from a simple equation Eqa Cl 2 Use oil density from Eqa to evaluate apparent density of gas in solutionquot as if this was liquid standard conditions Eqb 3 Reevaluate oil density using Eqc compare with Eq a repeat steps 2 and 3 until convergence EXCEL example will illustrate this Correlations Presented p0R I Iterative stage wise procedure more steps 4 Converged oil density is at standard conditions adjust E for pressure Eqd quot 5 Second adjust for reservoir temperature using corrected oil density from step 4 Eq e 6 If pressure were above pb use oil compressibility to correct density from step 5 Equations used for p0R I Guess oi pseudo density 5287001R5b I Apparent gas density pa 7498930 850149 x ym 7 3 70373x ygs x 0047982x ygs x pm2 298914 x pm 70035689 x pm2 9 E b Correlations Presented p0R I Reevaluate oil pseudo density using recently evaluated apparent gas density 7 Rs xygs 4600gtltysm 7371R5gtlty95 ppo E a I Compare with previous density and iterate till onvergence usually 2 to 3 steps are enough 0 Recall ym 1415API1315 quot7 1 Correlations Presented p0R I 1St Pressure correction pupTsc pm 0167 16181 x 10quot1 7425XPW j 2 P 001 x 0 299 263 x 10 03905 73XPW W F 1 Pressure Correction in graphical PRppoTCRCApoPR1 form p01 so WIS71 NEW Will9 117151011107 A MUSI W01 1 39 1 Correlations Presented p0R I 2nd Temperature Correction p0pT p0pTsc7 00032 71505 x popTsc 571T 700W8 7 0 0216 7 00233 x 100 WW WIT 7 600 475 I Suggested exercise McCain s book amp paper have a sign discrepancy in this formula Find out which is correct and why F 1 Temperature Correction in graphical form 7pTR PRpTsc PRApTR7 lb per nu ll Density at ED F minus dznslly Dansuy a 50 and pressuru p u par cu n 1 Correlations Presented Bubblepoint pressure I Requires API ygs Rsb and T 5 354897 pb 109147R5b 8 65y90 WWW 70 740152 in With X 0013098 gtlt T039282372 82 X10 6API239176124 I Compare pb from this equation and those obtained from from Fig 111 1947 correlation 1 Derived property BC I Strictly using material balance constraints pSTO 001357gtltRsygs 90R B 0 I Same as Eq 115 from your text book Derive it Example in Excel file provided in our WEB site A PETE 310 w Lectures 12 13 A Properties of Dry Gases R pages 165187 A A Phase Diagram of a g Dry Gas Reservoir 21 DRY GAS RESERVOIRS GOR gt 100000 SCFSTB 7 No liquid produced at surface 3 Mostly methane H Standard Conditions A O Unify volumes to common grounds for sales and regulatory 53 purposes K T so F A P 1465 15025 State A dependent Then 553 vM RTscPsc A Reservoir Engineering A Properties of Dry Gases 5 OGas formation volume factor Bg l im A Reservoir Conditions A Standard Conditions Ax Gas Formation Volume A Factor res bescr or ft3SCF Volume of an arbitrary amount of gas at reservoir T amp P Volume of SAME amount at standard T amp P Gas Formation Volume Factor res bblSCF or ft3SCF ZnRT L Bg PSC Gas Formation Volume Factor Since in this book TSr S20 Rrpgc 1465 psia and for all practical purposes 2 2 1 then 2mm 721M B39 10520p 002839 p scf 39 6 2 Also 3 M bbl grosbe B 0028 p scf X5615 cu 3 000502 p WM 0 6 3 Gas Formation Volume Factor res bblSCF or ft3SCF Bg Pressure gt v seosilv new units may 5 3 mm 1 leserwolr Englneelill Provemes of my Gases an my may Viscosity ol Ethane Viscosity of Gases at tmosgheric rPrressyre v7 Viscosity of Gas Mixtures 16 2 pL yJiv1Jquot392 Mg gt 6 16 3 VVMllQ 2 See example 69 t Example EXAMPLE 6 9 Carulale the vixcosiry of the gay mixtm given below 03 a1200 F and a pressure of one atmosphere absolure Component Composition PM quot39I Methane 0850 3 Ethane 0090 Propane 0040 nButane 0020 o Read Molecular Weights table A1 page 492 o Read Viscosities figure 67 oApply formula 7 MgwaMJVZ p Hg 7 an 39T Example 6 16 VlSCOSIly at1alm 91 centlpmse Molecular weighl 333 Fig 58 szcosmes o naluval gases mm Can m 21 Trans AWE 201 a almusphenc pvessure Adapted 997 Viscosity Corrections a 3 A 23 2 T C02 7 no I 39 v 6 2 kg 9 to A 5 0010 3919 N5 0010 63 0010 iv r 2 9 g I 22 megs ooos 1 quot quot 19 A J 4 89 o o n l 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 5 10 1 A Mole as H23 Mole N2 Mole co2 Viscosity of Gases at High 5 7 Pressure I nratiopat 1 too 175 2 o 2 r Fig 6 9 Vlscosuy rauos for natural gases mm specmc gvavmes Horn 0 65 to D 9 t Viscosity of Gases at High lag Pressure make sure you check 1 the specific amp gravity amp range Pseudoreduud temperature 1 a A Fig 6 12 szcoslly rams ior natura gases wwth speclfic gravmes from 1 5 to 1 7 Accuracy for Viscosity Correlations oAt low Pprand low gravities 1 2 oAgreement is less accurate as a specific gravity increases fig 612 has about 20 accuracy EX 3 Ex 0 Definition 4 laV CgPA9TA V6PTA Isothermal Compressibility i A Derivative is evaluated at constant T 1 TA and specified pressure P PA Isothermal Gas Compressibility u Isothermal Compressibility 5 69 a natural gas Deermine he coefrcrem of Lmthermal comprexsibility for his gas a 50 F and 1000 psia t Pressure Molar volume psia T I 1 EXAMPLE 674 Thefallowing table gives volumetric dam at I50 Ff0r I 39 cu ftIb mole III 700 85 800 74 900 65 7 1000 57 1100 50 39 1200 46 57 1300 42 3 S l I 39 Isothermal Compressibility 0 Using ideal gas equation v The bimplcsl cquauon of state i max 11 Ideal gases A pV nR39I39 0 v ET 3714 vc uh m ellmlnale the arm Nam m Fqllanon 374 m wc denve hm lcrm lmm Equanon 3714 a f 5 5 675 ap v p Combining Equation 4 with Equalivn 674 gives e Isothermal Compressibility 1 0 Using real gas equation x mi 3730 p Av Thus 677 3 cl mm waxH V J I 1 l a 7 03 3 6 p z 3131 Pseudcreduced pressure pp Fig 6 4 Pseudoveduced compressxbmtves ol natural PETE 310 Lecture 20 Properties of Black Oils Correlations pages 299 317 Liquid Density oCalculated using ideal solution principles ie additive volumes amp masses Evaluation Methods OComposition of saturated liquid known iterative procedure OComposition of saturated liquid known correlations OSelutian Gas Oil Gas Composition and Stock Tank oil gravity known OSelution Gas Oil Gas Specific Gravity and Stock Tank oil gravity known noun UJJOJM SSa39 Problems 061 amp 62 are not liquids at atmospheric conditions 0A liquid mixture at reservoir conditions will partially vaporize at standard condition Solution Create a fictitious pseudo density for C and C and for the liquid Pseudodensities of 61 amp CZ CZ 39 61 Mixture Density stc Apparent liquid densities of 61 and 2 Pay 30 figm 112 pm 03120450pp0 7 pm 15303167pp0 toovfrom Appendix a starting Pressure Correction 39 pT5gtPRV 9T5P5APPR quot0 474 45 24 Temperature Correction 9TTP5 pnPR4pTR From previous plot 474 45 24 434 474 4 Now follow examples in Excel files provided in our WEB site http pumpchk tamu edubarmfet Correction using W1 W2 W2 mm 3mun quotWWW fur Correction for H25 3 1 421 434 13 i m H77 Dms v i lusln sms mr mama Eu m cnmam m Asnmw i am Apparent Liquid Densities of Flg Hrs Away iqspddcnsiivascrnmuvaigax m mu m m 552 Behavrwm u Wu Hyu39ucarbrquot Syxlams 2 Dzliag 95 Convvignl mm spamm mrol Properties of Oilfield Waters Lectures 30 31 PETE 310 31quot Topics I Brine composition and density I Water brine compressibility I Formation volume factor and Pb I Viscosity I Mutual solubilities gas in water water in gas 31quot Water Production Issues I Oil and gas wells produce more waterthan oil 7 bbl1 bbl oil in Texas I Composition of coproduced water determines need for antiscaling additives I Regulations limit disposal and beneficial use options I Environmental impact it Oilfield Water Issues I Expensive Oilfield Water Management I Diversity of Oilfield Waters amount compositions I Corrosion Scale Control and Plugging I Microbiological Problems I Water Quality forWaterflooding Steam Injection or Surface Disposa I Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells ElHJ 44 Dissolved Solids in Brines I Cations I Anions uNa DCI39 uK usoA EiLit uco uca DCOSH39 uMg Nac39 DNOS39 Ema SAL5 DBr39 ElFe EII39 DSr ElHJ Total Dissolved Solids TDS Measures of Solids Concentration TABLE 16 1 Summary of nomencialure and units fol conceniratlon 0 dissolved solids In lorma on waters adapted I rom monograph SorIn Spa 9 38 Term Symbol Deilnl cn mole solid lam Cm 1000 9 pure water pw is 9 mole 50 brine density Mo39arlty CM 1000 quot1 brme which depends upo l39 Norrnalny 0N Tam 5 sollds In solutlon meq solid MulliequwA Cm 4 4amp9 CW 1000 X C C an wt amms per W 1000 ml bnne liter g sol W ht C C C X 10 peer gent w 100 g trlne W 99 solids g Solij F39 n c f CWquot 0W x 10quot c m jnpa 9939quot 10 g brlna WW sold Mlmgrams 3WI 73 cm wxcpgmpwgtlt cwx 1m per liter nga m cum 171 xom 171 X wxcm Grains Der gallon where p is in gcc at al bri1e standard ccndilio ns Milliequivalents per liter 1000 0 1000 Na l l I cu Ca L 4 HCO3 100 100 100 100 Fe L 4 39 co3 100 100 l l 4ll Ion concentration ton concentration Cation ppm Anion ppm Sodium 23806 Chioride 4 1 31 2 Calcium 1 906 Bicarbonate 515 Magnesium 35 Suttaie 283 iron 29 Carbonate O Barium 0 TDS 68030 ppm 9 6870 9 get pw 9 convert to mgl Ion concentration Ion concentration Cation mgr Anion rng Sodium 24939 Chloride 43278 Calcium 1 997 Bicarbonate 54 Magnesium 393 Sulfate 296 iron 31 1 Carbonate 0 Barium 0 Panama Tame m ounvevsmns mgpavhtev9 muneuwaxems we may See examp es m text ounvevsmns mgpavhtev9 muneuwaxems we may m M hequviems pmmmmm n W Bubble Point Pressure of Oilfield Water I Pb is the same as the Pb ofthe coexisting oil due to thermodynamic equilibrium it Formation Volume Factor BW I Depends upon pressure 3 Offsetting I Depends upon temperature I Depends upon gas in solution negligible effect W Formation Volume Factor of Water BW BW 1 AVWPgtlt 1 AVWT Temperature Correction 006 005 ti Pressure Correction 1000 mi Q 0001 l Mk I i o 004 3900 W 2 L J w Effect of TDS on Brine Density 76 3 74 a a g 70 E U a a 63 N E 66 U 4 E C 3 C s 62 a O 5 i0 15 20 25 30 You dissoivod Iolids l iw Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Water W Solubility of Methane in Water 9 Effect of Salinity on solubility of gas in water p Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility CW ju Viscosity of Water versus Pressure Vllcollly ol oll nld wltin uquot ED At a fixed T nannow lavluau pol ELF Water Brine Viscosity versus TDS CHM Viscosity of Water at Reservoir Pressure CHM Solubility of Water in Natural Gas low pressure Lb of water MMSCF Soluhlmy oi mm In nllurll gal lblMMm it Solubility of Water in Gas high P Lb of water MMSCF To evaluate dehydration requirements equipment chemicals ln natural gas processing Snlublllly 01 mm in nalwal gal illMuss Prunuli pu Resistivity of Oilfield Water I Use in logging tools I Formation evaluation I Resistivity is inversely proportional to conductivity RW rAL ohmmeters 5 Calculate Resistivitv or TDS GasWater lFT Garvats lmutulll IInslon dynulcm PrInurI pli PETE 310 Lecture 14 Wet Gas Specific Gravity amp Zfactor Chapter 7 pages 195205 Learning Objectives El Calculate the s ec39 39c gravit of a wet gas mixture given producing G R at separators and stock tank and I compositions liquid and gas from stock tank and se arat r as I or separator compositions gas amp liquid I or properties of the separator gas and stock vent gas El De ne the twophase zfacto uses of this in El Ex reservoir engineen plain the shape of a typical twophase zfactor Isotherm r and understand the ng El Calculate values of two hase zfactor using Rayes etal correlation PE paper Separators Ye and 60R scf 3TB ym and GOR sci8TB lb 7 mole 9 gas 7 we rueamt V Ibr molegas Ibr molem ST Key Points ElWhat matters is the molar ratio of gas to oil so let s assume one barrel of oil produced El Methods to evaluate oil density will be discussed in Chapter 11 here it will be provided ElTo convert AP to oil density OAPI M71315 Yo Key Points El The expression means has the units ofquot For xample e lb p H ft3 El You are responsible for reading the material that cannot be covered in this lecture El Rework ALL the example problems in the book El Procedure 1 explained in detail here is simpler and takes less time to solve than the method explained in the oo Recombination procedure when separator gas yisp and tock tank compositions xiSTo yiST are known Procedure 1 Procedure 1 El Calculate molecular weight of stock tank liqu39d NC MW ZXJWW 17 EICalculate lbmoles of separator gas produced per barrel of STD from separa o GORSP scfSTB Ib I sro vm39d scfIbmole m0 89 Wuquot 380 7scfIb mole ideal gas molar volume Procedure 1 EICalculate lbmoles of stock gas vented per STO MIb mole 5 TO Wu scflb mole 9 EICalculate moles of oil in 1 barrel of stock tank need to use molar density pW H Ib 3 Hlbmolew MWU lblb mole 3 lb mole 3 TWx5615mb moIeWsro Procedure 1 lb molew 0 be Eem be moleW Sp lb mol JET TO VSY Ibr Inolem rl molem 57 TO Procedure 1 El Determine reservoir gas composition from fundamental mole balance Zi ZyisF lsp ism 113p XI39Sszl39Si lST GNU 137 Zi Ms vsp yisrfv37 XisT1fvSTK1f Vsr El Once reservoir com position is known determine 2 factor and specific gravity Example for Procedure 1 EXAMPLE 771 A we ga produces hmugh a epammr a 300 pm and 73 F 10 a stack tank at 75 F The separator produces 69551 3c STE and the stock tank was 366 5 TB 172 chHank liquid gravity is 55 9MP Composition an given 210w Calculaie the compo ition afrhe uxervaiy gas iSEP iSTO X ISTO component Composition siiiun comp sillon separator gas stocktank gas stucktank liquid mole fraction maia fraction mule traction Ci 0 8372 03 06 I 0018 Cg 0 0960 01949 0 0063 C 0 02532 0 0235 I C4 0 0080 00548 0 0177 WC 0 0037 00909 O 0403 i C5 0 DUE 00362 0 7 n C 0022 00303 G 0435 5 00014 000191 0 0999 07 00002 0001 D7193 10000 1 0000 Luooo Properties oi hepmnes pins oi the stock iank liquid speci c gmiiy 0794 Moiecuiar weight 113 lidlb mote Recombination procedure when separator gas yisp and liquid compositions xiSP are known Procedure 2 Example for Procedure 2 Component Currposition Comp csillan separator gas separator liquid mule iractian mole mum C o 3372 008 2 0 0956 00559 n 0455 00595 1 C 00050 00276 n 0 00057 005 i Cs Q0028 0 0002 0 0022 QOAUU c 0 cm 4 00722 C77 o 0002 o 5257 1 once woo F39mperues oi hepianes piua oi separator liquid Specific gravity 0724 Molecular weight 113 mm mole Procedure 2 Zr yrspfv XISP1 f El Additional information given is the separatorstock tank volum 39 bbl SP oil at T P of separator bbl STB at standard conditions El Use this to convert from scfSTO scfST El Proceed as in procedure 1 El Rework example 72 in textbook Recombination procedure when only separator gas and stock vent gas properties are known Procedure 3 Procedure 3 El For twostage separators R PYgSP R TYgsr RSP R37 R RSP Rsr El For threestage separators derive expressions Procedure 3 DMoles in one stock tank barrel scf lb oil R 3501 STE 3307 scf M lb oil 39 39 u make gas 1b mole oi nR 00026311 35132me 7 6 Procedure 3 DMass of one stock tank barrel ib gas 29quot u mole gas mR 3807 s 5237 lb nil cf 1b mole gas C 0 cu n uil539615 s rB mR 00762 35027 775 Procedure 3 ElAnd the gas gravity at reservoir conditions is Ryg 4600yo VgR R 133300yo Mo IAn approximation for Mo when not given is 5954 4243ym 0 AP 7 88 710084 Procedure 3 El For twostage separators RSPVgSP RSTVgST g RSP R37 R RSP Rsr EIFor threestage separators derive expressions Once Gas Specific Gravity is Known El Evaluate Tpc and Ppc previous paper using K and J and including corrections for impurities N2 C02 H25 Ellf dewpoint pressure is not known I Use drygas zfactorwhen C7 lt 4 I Or when wellstream gravity lt 0911 El If pd is known I if reservoir p is lower than p evaluate 2 using equation fromdSPE 20055 paper I If reservoir p is greaterthan pd evaluate 2 as for a dry gas singlephase Correlation of Specific Gravities for a wet gas 39 2 1 1 Pr 22pAaA1P Az 7 As17r214 145 3 r r r e for 075p200 and 39IJS Trill whercAo224353 41 w00375281 A2355539 A30000379231 A I53423 and 1450131937 r s READ SPE 20055 Ranges of Compositions TABLE 1 HANGE 0F D ATA AT newvom39r commons stiabis Mean Minimum Maximum HES 099 00 2315 no 254 000 5352 MZ 134 u 01 1274 a 73255 19 37 9420 c 758 1 95 mes G9 394 052 1227 is 055 Me 253 uc us 025 502 we 061 mg 152 m6 063 005 409 c 055 mm 204 0 54u 035 1259 Molecuial weight of 6 1540 1050 2530 smach 91339in of 0 39 0794 0735 1850 7elre 1 1013 0 1557 2 1046 0704 1715 p psra 52400 19501 113440 1 quotF 2290 940 3250 Single vs Twophase zfactor pz thzse vs 1 thzse 12 oz gas tune phase c z zen s 0 1 110 I a a e o 5 a o o 3 320 0 s so 3 09 53 nn 3 an o o n6 n 1nnn znnn annn annn snnn Pressure tpsiz Estimates of the Gas in Place G a When pz o gt 3 G PETE 323 LL1Gp z z G From single phase 1 G 644640 MMSCF From twophase 1 G 679522 MMSCF 513328 difference El Exerc e verify these calculations using information from next sllde Estimates of Reserves P7 lplmsei n 159752Euax almanan 9379569Em Gas In Place Fredlcnon px pxthase psla mumquot n4 5111E m 5111591an n 1mm n1 n 1mm mm mm unnnn snnnnn mm mm mm c MvscF PETE 310 Lectures 1819 Chapter 10 Properties of Black Oils Reservoir Fluid Studies Report Properties from Reservoir Fluid Study Learning Goals 0 Understand the contents of a Reservoir Fluid Study 0 Samples of complete PVT reports can be obtained through GeoMark Research Inc 0 Demo user can access up to 7 PVT reports from the Gulf of Mexico 0 These are available for downloading from website Excel file with data Report Instructions BEEease gumquot gt GeoMark and Baker Atlas smmmm vemure agreement Housvom yexaseSeMemeey 25 mm Baker Allas Instructions For the Customer that pays RFthsEWume 9 W m H 7 quotWW ucam a Speci c u Emup uhepuns m a m S DN WM39 eavch 2 ha m Ummnlu A su a He p ka anhetup u he uv 2 M o W WW Secunlv D nuah ev The tame 5 pupmaied Wim m55 0 W anv cumbmauun u weu ucauun and mm Pmpemes Each numenca pavemelev mav be 5 m BMW A restricted set for us But complete all Gauchnmlstr Gas Gaochemlsk Field Name EllucktCnunty Well Nu Depth n Secutity AGP LA SZU301 Garden Banks 205 1 7072 Open AMHLA9812U1 Eleldpate Garden Banks A l 15705 Open 250 AMHLAQQUSU Y Baldpete Garden Banks AS 15933 Open 260 CHTLASSEZU I WES Delta 27A ASD 934 Open CHTvLAQSDZD1 W551 Cameron 2 1 Open CHT LAQ7DEID1 Gemini Mississippi 1 1 1455 Open Canyon 2931 CHT LA7971DD1 Open Gulf of Mexico Database Excel le 8 PVT report 0 Excel file is labeled CHTLA970901xls Download from discussion bulletin board 0 PVT report is CHTLA970901pdf Download from discussion bulletin board oWe will discuss in class Data Available 2 Flnw Assurance 7 ell 4m Fin Assuvance gt1 3 my PVT Repun SumHarv w 5mm pm M in LGenchemlS y Compus mnal mums Gmmm W is l momma M V cl Enhanced OII Namely n PVT Ye s D MN gt Enn anl EOR TEE 3 SWEHMTEJ M Raw Chiammagyams 9 quot Tim 3 vtswsw mu m cmmmm Langaz ms Campus r l Olmald Walal s 2dr arouse am We pm m n m Additional Self Study 0 Make sure ynll read amp understand the excel file pmvided too 0 Select another oil from the data base and analyze the data obtained in term of 7 Trends in Bo 7 Trends in Its a Separatort st 7 Cornpressibility Evaluation 7 Adjustments for Reservoir Engineering Computations see SPEpiesshoitmaihounpdf Com positional Tests mp er edudeplchemreny intenhrEnvimnCHROMOnhmmintm html PETE 310 Lecture 4 Aromatics amp non hydrocarbon compounds Aromatic Compounds DBenzene building block examples EINomenclature ch CK HT lc ltH DProperties HC C 16H CH CH EIImportance meg www Ethan barkeley eduChanResuuntesVibmuuns NonHydrocarbon Elements and Compounds El Most common COZN2H25 El They lower the heating value of oil Btulbm El Nitrogen Oxygen and Sulfur form part of heavy molecules present in the oil asphaltenes amp resins El Sulfur compounds poison catalysts used in refinery operations Sulfur Compounds DOils may have up to 10 of S on a weight basis CIVery sour ois may be denser than water EIst removal done with efhanolamines The process is known as 39gas sweetening39 Sulfur Compounds EIMercap ranes stink EIGeneral formula RSH thiol name the following compounds HS CSH7 quotchopped onions HS C4H skunk secrefion El Alkyl Sulfides RSR El Disulfides R S S R Oxygen Compounds EITypical Groups CH 0 r w HO HO CH H HaC C R C carboxyl mumquot r Azidi cm unds am a w 0 used m mm a 7mm DLUbaxyh zawmmd rent m r4qu 7 my Mm Maw mm mm a 7mm Organometallic Compounds CIVery small amounts but heavily regulated by the EPA DHeavy metals of concern Ni Va Pb Cd Classification of Crude Oils DChemical DPNA and combinations Paraffinic Naphthenic Aromatics El Resin and asphalthene content EIPlIysical Specific gravity DPour and cloud points DGasoline and kerosene content El 5 and asphalt content Why do we care about the properties of individual components of oil and gas Why do we care Uses of Crude Oil Properties of Interest 39rudr Oil Re ning Bunk Ih hlr iIui Alli rl lln Pnlx l3939 E 11er a LI hmnmtA lelImI II n I LuauI iuel ml In lllll 114 1 uslnwllnll l m 439 41 Inn51 nun urmur mnalf uur all Beyond Disfillafion ther Processes Wm 1 h J j n39 a ui Ucuugt1 353m Nm nu unmumquot A more Technical diagram EchHwn wzcnmmm schnN gtlt mssz auWuMs End of Chapfer One Your Du l39ies EIHomework Due Wednesday EINex r Class we will start Chapter 2 DRead pages 46 61


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