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by: Haylee Bode Sr.


Haylee Bode Sr.
Texas A&M
GPA 3.66


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee Bode Sr. on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MEPS 316 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/225892/meps-316-texas-a-m-university in Molecular Biosciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Worksheet for Examination I Fall 2008 MEPS 316 Be sure that you have read Chapters 1 of your text and review the quizzes Review Questions What is the difference between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell N Differentiate between the symplast and apoplast What forms the continuity of the symplast E State a function for each of the following rough ER smooth ER Golgi ribosomes mitochondrion chloroplast nucleus nucleolus vacuole peroxisome g39 J 39 39 39 39 microfilaments r 4 What is meant by the plant cytoskeleton What is it composed of V39 What 2 organelles are believed to have originated by endosymbiosis What is endosymbiosis 0 What is the significance or importance of the pores in the nuclear membrane gt1 Why is the nucleus referred to as the control center for the cell Terms to Understand processes and functions prokaryote VS eukaryote autotroph protoplastprotoplasm Golgi bodies apoplastsymplast integral VS peripheral proteins tonoplast cisternae polysome cristae VS matrix thylakoids VS stroma peroxisome glyoxysome spherosome microtubule tubulin microfilament actin chromatin nucleoplasm nucleolus Worksheet for Exam III MEPS 316 Attention You are responsible for the following chapter in Taiz amp Zeiger 43911 Edition chapter 11 pages 253288 printed notes handouts and quizzes o Localize the following at the cellular organellar and suborganellar level where appropriate 0 O O O O O O Rubisco in C4 plant iust cell type Evolution of C02 in photorespiration organelle Starch synthesis Glycolysis Respiratory electron transport system Oxidative phosphorylation PEP carboxylase in C4 plant cell type Sucrose synthesis Photophosphorylation TCA Cycle Fermentation ethanol and lactic acid production H accumulation in mitochondria Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway Glyoxylate pathway Gluconeogensis Anapleurotic reactions 0 De ne the following 0 O 0 Types of Phosphorylation Invertase NADH and FADHz Pyruvate Citric acid cycle TCA or Krebs Acetyl CoA fuel for TCA Anabolism and catabolism B oxidation and glyoxylate cycle How do electrons and protons cooperate to make ATP in mitochondria Give an example of an instance where a plant may carry out anaerobic respiration The oxidation of glucose and sucrose is important for energy production but the C ultimately also serves as a precursor for several other pathways Give 2 examples compounds where glucosesucrose can be used for structural purposes Who discovered 0 C3 pathway of photosynthesis C4 pathway TCA cycle Chemiosmotic theory explaining the mechanism of ATP synthesis 000 What is the major biochemical origin of the C02 in our atmosphere and where in the cell does it occur What is the biochemical role of Oz in respiration The equation for oxidative respiration is shown below What compound gets oxidized to what and which compound gets reduced to what C5H1206 602 6HZO gt 6COZ 12H20 36 ATP Unlike animals plants are not immediately killed by exposure to cyanide CN carbon monoxide CO or azide Why Compare substratelevel phosphorylation photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation Name the major forms in which reserves are stored in seed and the enzymes responsible for breaking these down to usable forms products Compare amylose and amylopectin What are the main products of cellular respiration What is the difference between oxidative and reductive pentose phosphate pathways What are the main functions of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway What is the initial substrate for glycolysis How many ATP are consumed to produce fructose bisphosphate from starch or sucrose Summarize the three steps of aerobic cellular respiration Describe where each of these steps occurs the main substrates used and final products formed in each one of the steps 0 From an energetic point of view ie net production of ATP which one of the three steps is most important Are these three steps dependent on each other Why How much net ATP is approximately produced during each one of the steps in aerobic respiration o What pathway do roots in ooded soils use to meet their energy demands 0 In comparison with aerobic respiration what are the ecological and physiological advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic fermentation 0 Provide an accurate conceptual description of what happens during the electron transport chain What are energy conservation sites 0 What is the cyanide resistant pathway Does it affect ATP production Provide an example when lowering the ATP production may be ecologically advantageous Review your quizzes for Chapter 11 Review from previous exams 0 Where major metabolic pathways occur 0 PSI and PSII 0 Terminal electron acceptors for photosynthesis and respiration 0 Respiratory inhibitors for cyanidesensitive and cyanideinsensitive respiration 0 Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids 0 Why photorespiration occurs and where it occurs 0 Categories of seed plants 0 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells 0 Characteristics of light spectrum 0 Terminal electron transport chains for photosynthesis and respiration 0 Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation Worksheet for Exam II MEPS 316 Attention You are responsible for the following chapters in Taiz amp Zeiger 43911 Edition chapter 7 pages 125158 chapter 8 pages 159195 handouts and quizzes Chapter 7 1 Draw a balanced biochemical reaction for the origin of Oz in our atmosphere 2 Where does this reaction take place in the plant cell 3 What is meant by the following statement Sunlight is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms on earth How is the energy in light converted to useable energy by the plant 4 The light reactions are a series of oxidationreduction reactions What is meant by this What is the original source of electrons What is the nal acceptor of electrons in the light reactions and what product is produced 5 What is the purpose of the thylakoid membranes 6 Differentiate between accessory pigments and reaction center pigment What are they What do they do Where do you find them 7 What effect would a high level of uorescence have on PS activity 8 How do electrons e and protons H cooperate to make ATP in the chloroplast 9 Draw a simple ZScheme energetically correct beginning with 2H20 and ending up with NADPH production Include in your scheme the following PSI Fd PQ PC NADP 2H20 oxidation cyt b6f PSH NADPH protons and electrons 10 On your ZScheme illustrate where atrazine and paraquat kill plants 11 Why is the ATP synthase also called a coupling factor 12 What is the ultimate objective of the light reactions 13 How do carotenoids serve as photoprotectors 14 Compare cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation emphasizing energy sources produced and role of each process electron ow Distinguish between paraquat and diuron use as herbicide as to where they block Review the mechanism for ATP synthesis the chemiosmotic mechanism This is brie y addressed in notes for Chapter 7 and in more detail for Chapter 11 How is excess light dissipated to avoid damage to membrane of the chloroplast When damage does occur explain the mechanism for repair What is the difference between F39 39 quenching oxidationreduction NADPNADPH reducing power ATP pigments chlorophylls carotenoids light reactions chloroplast structure double membrane grana thylakoids stroma lamellae stroma chlorophyll porphyrin ring phytol tail Mg carotenoids carotenes amp xanthophylls PSI PSH 7 and their complementary roles uorescence photochemistry electromagnetic spectrum visible light PAR photosynthetic active radiation photon quantum EhV wavelength A electron ground vs excited state absorption spectrum action spectrum quantum efficiency and yield characteristics of light Planck s Law lumen reaction centers Chl a antennae complexes accessory pigments Emerson enhancement effect quot and 1 1 Chapter 8 l N E 4 V39 0 gt1 9 gt0 Red drop effect PSII amp PSI P680 amp P700 plastocyanin PC ferredoxin Fd Peter Mitchell chemiosmotic theory cyclic amp noncyclic photophosphorylation ADP Pi gt ATP ATP synthase coupling factor What is the ultimate objective of the light reactions Why can t the dark reactions C3 pathway truly go on in the dark What reaction does Rubisco catalyze Where do you nd Rubisco in the C3 plant What does the acronym Rubisco stand for In the C3 cycle what is the acceptor molecule of C02 What is the product of carboxylation How many NADPH and ATP are required to reduce 1 C02 to trioseP in a C3 plant In a C4 plant In a CAM plant Why does only 1 of the 6 trioseP produced for the carboxylation of 3RuBP s go directly into carbohydrate production Draw the first reaction of the photorespiratory pathway What enzyme catalyzed this reaction Where does it take place in the cell Be able to explain where and how photorespiration occurs In what organelle is C02 evolved during photorespiration NH3 Why is photorespiration energetically wasteful to the plant How does it serve a useful purpose Why do high light and high temperature increase photorespiration What is meant by Rubisco has a dual function What effect would you predict the changing atmosphere will have on rates of PS in C3 plants in the next century Why Although plants can be separated according to their photosynthetic pathway into C3 C4 and CAM plants all plants carry out the C3 pathway of PS Explain this De nitions N N N N L N 4 N O N l N 4 How does leaf anatomy differ in C4 C3 and CAM plants Draw the primary carboxylation reaction for the C4 cycle What is the acceptor molecule for C02 What is the product What enzyme catalyzes this reaction In what cell type does it take place Is Rubisco present in C4 plants If so where and what does it do Why don t C4 plants exhibit photorespiration Why do you find C4 plants in hotter drier climates than C3 plants Why are plasmodesmata important to C4 plants How do carotenoids serve as photoprotectors Be able to explain lightdependent enzyme regulation of the Calvin Cycle the role of the ferredoxinthioredoxin system Explain how C02 concentrating mechanisms work a Specifically focus on the C4 carbon cycle b Photorespiration phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvatephosphate dikinase What physiological and ecological significances does Crassulacean Acid Metabolism CAM serve How does CAM and basic C4 pathway of C02 fixation differ Where are starch and sucrose synthesized What is the function of the Pitriose phosphate translocator What determines whether starch or sucrose will be synthesized Compare the relative response of C3 and C4 plants to temperature water availability and light intensity Explain the difference in response to these parameters Peter Mitchell chemiosmotic theory cyclic amp noncyclic photophosphorylation ATP synthase coupling factor C3 cycle Calvin Cycle reductive pentose phosphate cycle 3 Phases of Calvin Cycle carboxylationreductionregeneration RuBP ribulose l5bisphosphate 5carbon compound 3PGA 3phosphoglycerate 3carbon compound Gald3P glyceraldehyde3P 3carbon compound Rubisco ribulose15bisphosphate carboxylaseoxygenase peroxisome mitochondria chloroplast atmosphere 21 02 0037 C02 78 N2 C02 is increasing increase temperature and OzCOz ratio increases mesophyll vs bundle sheath cells Kranz anatomy COzPump


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