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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wilfredo Turcotte on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BESC 204 at Texas A&M University taught by Brian Shaw in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/225910/besc-204-texas-a-m-university in Environmental Science at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Learning Objectives 224 4102011 64500 PM 1 Explain the ecological role of fungi N LA 4 U1 01 o The primary ecological role of fungi is as recyclersdegraders break down complex organic compounds into simple molecules minerals energy List the structural components of plants that fungi can degrade o cellulose o lignin o pectin o cutin Explain the concept of nutritional succession what does rselected and k selected mean o rselected species produce many offspring with low rate of reproductive success short rapid phase of growth o kselected species establish and grow slowly live for a long time and produce a few offspring with high chance of reproductive success Detail with examples spore dispersal mechanisms utilized by fungi 0 wind in exposed hyphae on or in fruit bodies buller s drop mushrooms powdery mildew o rainsplash shaggy mane digests itself spores drip off 0 odor stinkhorn truffles o taste pinepine gall rust spores in sugary matrix 0 selfpropelled Piobius phototrophism Explain the spore dispersal mechanism of Piobiussp o Piobiusgrow toward the light A mass of spores is at the head of the sporangium and are ejected when the inside heats up so much it explodes Explain the mechanism of spore discharge utilized by Basidiomycetes How does the term Buller s drop relate to this 0 Baidiospore discharge buller s drop a drop of water accumulates The water in the drop makes contact with water on the surface of the spore gravity shifts upward and the spore is thrown away Learning Objectives 31 1 4 U1 01 4102011 64500 PM What is a secondary metabolite 0 Secondary metabolites are products of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth development or reproduction of an organism o penicillin lavastatin mycotoxins Be familiar with the story of aflatoxin What fungi produce it How was it discovered Where in the body is toxic What food products are susceptible 0 produced by Aspergiis avus 0 First discovered in Turkeyx disease Turkeys had been eating peanut meal contaminated with Aspergiis avus o The primary site of infection is the liver Peanuts are particularly good substrate Be familiar with the story of fumonisins 0 produced by Fusariummoniforme 0 Causes hole in the head disease in horses and throat cancer in humans 0 Caused widespread esophageal cancer in Lin Xian China and in South Africa where people drink corn based beer Be familiar with the story of trichothecenes o T2 toxin produced by Fusariumtricintum on grain stored in damp conditions 0 Associated with Alimentary Toxic Aleukia bleeding in nose and throat subcutaneous hemorrhages etc o Outbreak in 1944 soviet union with millet grain Deoxynialenol DON produced by Fusariumgraminearumalso known as Vomitoxin Be able to discuss factors leading to a rise in mycotoxin related problems in the last 100 years a We now know what us causing them always there just never identified before b world trade introduces more of the world to new problems Be able to discuss the Yellow Rain incident described by Hudler a Villagers in Laos reported they were being attacked by a yellow rain that was killing everyone Americans believed it to be an attack of trichothecenes by the soviet union Soviets denied it US uses this as argument to build up bioweaponarsenal Scientists did not believe it was really trichothecenes found reports to be unreliable maybe just bee feces 7 Be familiar with Cavicepspurpurea and ergot of rye a Cavicepspurpurea is a fungi that causes ergot a fungal disease of grasses on rye Sclerotium are hard darkened and rounded mass of dormant hyphae 8 Know what alkaloids are produced by this fungus and what are their effects a Ergotamine vasoconstriction dry gangrene thought to induce gangrenous ergotism St Anthony s fire b Ergonovine spontaneous abortion in mammals Describe St Anthony s fire and some of the historic events it has been tied to a Outbreak of ergotism in 857 in Rhine Valley Called holy fore because of burning sensation in extremities Hospitals built to help victims 10 What is some of the evidence that the Salem Witch Trials are tied to poisoning with ergot a All afflicted had similar symptoms that all correlated with ergot poisoning b Trials coincided with weather period that would have produced large quantities of ergot on rye which was produced in the area 11 Are there any medical uses for ergot alkaloids a ergonovine is used in very low doses to induce labor b Ergate and Migril used to relieve migranes LO Learning Objectives Exam 2 33 4102011 64500 PM 1 Describe why the discovery of Penicillin started such a revolution o Before antibiotics a minor injury such as a shaving cut could result in death from infection and septicemia o In warfare soldiers died in greater numbers from infection from injury than those that died outright on the battlefield o made surgery more possible and survivable o One of the most important biological discoveries in history 2 List the three key scientists and their contributions involved in the discovery of this drug o Fleming initially discovered penicillin s ability to inhibit staphylococcus o Chain fir establishing purification parameters o Florey for supervising clinical trials that led to its use in humans 3 Describe the mode of action of penicillin o It prevents the crosslinking of small peptide chains in peptidoglycan the main wall polymer of bacteria All newly produced cells grow abnormally unable to maintain their wall rigidity and they are susceptible to osmotic lysis 4 List three other beneficial secondary metabolites produced by fungi Describe the mode of action of each o CyclosporinAis produced by Cylindrocarponucidum and used as an immunomodulator that depresses the immune system for organ transplants o Lovastatinis produced by Penicilium Hypomyces Trichoderma and Peurotos species o Compactin is produced by Aspergilustereus 5 What are the two most common medicinal mushrooms in traditional east Asian medicines o Lentinulaedodes commonly called shiitake o Ganodermalucidum commonly called Reishi Learning Objectives 381 1 1 Iquot 9quot 45 9quot 0391 00l LO 4102011 64500 PM Describe the Fermentation reaction what is the substrate What are the products How much energy is harvested o Ethanol fermentation is the biological process in which sugars such as glucose fructose and sucrose are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide o This is an anaerobic process Explain why you cannot produce a beverage from fermentation alone that is more than around 18 alcohol o The alcohol must be distilled to get alcohol concentrations above 1800 Know the four ingredients found in true beer o water hops yeast and malted barley Explain the difference between an Ale and a Lager o Ale from Britain room temperature top fermented o Lager from the Czech republic and Germany Less the 10 degrees C bottom fermented more recent Describe how wine making differs from beer making Describe the effect of prohibition had on the US brewing industry a greatly reduced the number of breweries Explain Pasteur s role in the science of zymurgy Who won the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1907 Explain his contribution to science a Dr Edward Buchner showed that fermentation could proceed in a cell free system using extracts from yeast What are noble rot ice wine and sake o noble rot dessert wine concentrated sugars in grapes from grapes that are infected with Botrytis cinerea o ice wine grapes are harvested and pressed while frozen solid so water can be dricen out as shards of ice leaving a higher cincentration of sugars and after fermentation higher concentration of alcohol o sake rice Aspergilusoryzae turns starch to sugar Sugar yeast makes the brew Fungi and their Role in Manufacturing Food ProductS4102011 61 1 Name the food products derived from fungi or that utilize fungi that we discussed in class a bread vegemite moldy cheeses camembert blue cheese quorn miso tempeh soy sauce 2 Describe how camembert and blue cheese are made Be specific about the fingus involved How are they different o made from Peniciliumcamemberti and P roqueforti o P roqueforti is added to the cheese made from sheep s milk o In camembert the mycelium growth iccurs only on the surfaceof the cheese and does not make it inside the veins like Roquefort 3 Discuss Quorn and its nutritional value c mycoprotein derived from Fusariumvenetum o much less fat and calories than beef or chicken and only slightly less protein 4 Describe how soy sauce is prepared o Soybeans are cooked than mixed with wheat flour pressed into cakes then inoculated with Aspergilusorayzae o Mixture is incubated for 3 days then mixed with water inoculated with bacteria and fermented 6 months o Aged liquid is pressed out into soy sauce 5 Describe how TempehOncom is prepared Wild Edible Mushrooms and Cultivated MushroomS4102011 645 1 Describe common sense measures you can take to avoid being poisoned by a mushroom that you pick a get a good field guide b dig rather than pick make spore print keep specimens separate don t eat wild mushrooms raw learn Latin names 2 Draw and label a typical mushroom Pileus T an Annulus veil Stipe veil Volva Inne universal 3 Define each structure labeled in the drawing a b C Pileus cap of the mushroom Stipe Stalk of the mushroom Annulus The ring found on the stipe of certain species a memnant of the inner veil Volva A cup at the base of the stipe on certain species a remnant of the universal veil 4 Describe the function of the casing layer in commercial mushroom production a Casing causes the mushroom to think it has used up all the nutrients available which triggers fruiting 5 Give the scientific and common names of each a 000quot The pink button meadow mushroomAgaricuscampestris white button mushroom morel Morchela chanterelle Cantharelus LOTht39D giant puffball Calvatiagigantea commonbolete Boetus edulis shiita ke Lentinuaedodes h huitlacoche Ustiagomaydis 6 Explain why dogs or pigs are used to hunt wild truffles a they can smell the truffles in the ground Poisonous Mushrooms 4102011 64500 PM 1 Give the scientific name for these poisonous fungi and their edible look alike Death cap false Morel Inky cap Boletes Also know Cortinariusand Psiocybe Death cap Edible Amanita virosa Poisonous amanita phaloidesToxins phallotoxins and Amatoxins False morel Edible Morchelaescuenta Poisonous GyromitraampHevea Toxins Gyromitrin c Inky caps Edible Coprinuscomatusshaggy mane Poisonous Coprinusatramentarius Toxins Coprine similar to Antabuse d Boletes Edible Poisonous Boleteseduis 2 Name the toxic compounds produced by the fungi above including antabuse amatoxins coprine phalllotoxins psilocybin and describe the symptoms of each poisoning a see above Describe why you think most poisonous fungi are look a likes to edible fungi a convergent evolution i poisonous look like edible vice versa o Chance when looking for morels people find and collect those that look like morels discover poisonous Draw and label with 5 labels a typical Amanita mushroom scales pilus m Pquot LA 4 gills annulus 5 Describe the physical characters commonly used to identify Amanita mushrooms a volva 6 Describe common symptoms that might lead you to suspect an individual was experiencing mushroom poisoning a violent vomiting diarrhea abdominal pain lasting for 24 hours b remission of symptioms and illusion that it is over c 35 days later liver and kidney damage organs fail patient dies Biofuels 329 1 N LA 4 U1 01 l 00 9 4102011 64500 PM Define peak oil explain arguments for and against this hypothesis a Define first generation biofuels a refers to biofuels made from sugar starch vegetable oil or animal fats using conventional technology Explain the role of fungi in first generation biofuels a Define second generation biofuels a refer to biofuels made from nonfood source cellulosic feedstocks Explain the role of fungi in second generation biofuels a conversion of cellulosic feedstocks to simple sugars usually using enzymes produced by fungi b once converted to simple sugars yeast then ferments the sugars to ethanol c microbes in guts of termites or in guts of coes or fungi many plant pathogens Define third generation biofuels a refer to biofuels generated from oleagenic organisms b strategy is to let the organism fungi algae and bacteria produce the oil Explain the role of fungi in third generation biofuels a Oleagenic organisms accumulate oil as a storage site for resources these singlecelled organisms are efficient at storing lipids anywhere from 2070 of its biomass Discuss the environmental and social impacts of biofuel use a reduce greenhouse emissions b reduce use of fossil fuels c increased rural development and third world d sustainable fuel supply e competition for human food sources f competition for animal food supply 9 carbon emission may not be reduced h in fact energy balance may be negative Name the fungus in the mycodiesel paper and understand its application a Giocadiumrodeum Learning Objectives 331 4102011 64500 PM 1 Define symbiosis mutualism parasitism a symbiosis is a close association between two different types of organisms in a community b mutualismis a relationship in which members of two different species benefit and neither suffers c commensalism is a relationship in which one party gains some benefit whilst the other suffers no serious disadvantage parasitism is a relationship in which one member if the association benefits while the other is harmed 2 Compare and contrast ectomycorrhizae and VAM endomycorrhizae characteristic structures for each host range in each what fungi are involved in each a ectomycorrhizae are characterized by forming an external sheath of mycelium around the root tips and hyphal cells They do not penetrate the cell walls although they may go between cells in the cortex 39 thousands of different species of the fungi hosts are always trees examples of species include Theopgoraamariana Pinusponserosa Lacccariaaccata Pinusconaorta Lactariussangui uus Pseudotsugamenziesii b endomycorrhizae characterized by the lack of an external sheath around root tip and the penetration of cortical cells intracellular by the fungus mycelium i don t alter morphology of root and do not produce fruiting body c VAM VescicularArbuscularMycorrhizae fungi involved 3 What is the benefit to the plant and to the fungus for having this relationship a increased surface area for better uptake of water and nutrients 39 greater soil volume explored greater surface area iii increased root longevity iv organic acid excretion v extracellular enzyme production siderophore production b selective acquisition of some elements 0 S 4 U1 01 n increased tolerance of poor soil conditions protection from soil borne pathogens protection from plant pathogens 39 better host nutrition ii mechanical barrier of ectomycorrizal mantle iii increased plant defense metabolites iv enhanced competition for nutrients v alteredrhizosphere community DD Define hartignet mantle arbuscule vesicle a Describe lichens What are the three broad morphologic types of lichens What role do they play in the environment a A lichen is an assicuation of a fungus and an algae in which the organisms are intertwined to form one thallus foliose leaflike crustose crustlike fruticose shrublike are commonly used as indicators of pollutants pioneers in rocky substrates 0039 Describe how lichens reproduce a isidia column like structures that contain both the phycobiont and mycobiont that flake off the thallus and can be dispersed to a new substrate heavy probably not long distance dispersal mechanism sorefia are microscopic powdery flakes containing both partners that are analogous to spores D39 What benefit does the algae get from the mycombiont Could you describe this as a parasitic relationship a What is an endophytic fungus What are some advantages for each partner for maintaining the relationship a An endophyteis a bacterium or fungus that lives within a plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent disease b host advantages 39 drought tolerance insect herbivore resistance iii mammalian herbivore resistance iv pathogen resistance v improved competitiveness c fungus advantages i constant source of nutrition Learning Objectives 45 1 N LA 45 Pquot Fquot l 4102011 64500 PM Describe the flower mimic phenotype perpetrated by Puccinamonica a Puccinamonica grow on leaves to make the leaves appear to be the petals of flowers so insects will come and spread its spermatia Where might you find fungi in the group Laboulbeniomycetes Are they mutualists with their host Can you spell the name of this group a on the bodies of insects b they are mild parasites c Labbies Describe the complex three part symbiosis that Septobasidiumsp participate in a mycelium of fungus encases scale insect to plant fungusinsect plant relationship The insect is feeding off the plant the fungus is feeding off of the insect but is also protecting the insect from predators Only the plant is slightly parasitized Where might you find the chytridNeochalimastix What is it doing there a They live in the rumen of herbivores and they degrade the cellulose ingested by the animal What are leaf cutter ants What role do fungi play in their lives Describe the three part symbiosis here a The leaf cutter ants cultivate a fungus feed it maintain it and protect it and then use it as a food source Where might you find the fungiin the genus Termitomyces a in termite mounds Compare and contrast the fungalinsect symbioses found in the leaf cutter ants and the termite gardening ants a in termites the colony starts with a winged male and female while the ant colony already has already been impregnated starts the colony termites mounds are much larger and above ground while ant colonies mostly underground c the fungus that grows on the termite mounds also produces mushrooms while the ant fungus does not 039 Biocontrol 47 1 4 U1 4102011 64500 PM Detail the Gypsy Moth story Where did the fungus come from How did it persist a The gypsy moth was introduced to the United States and began destroying trees The insect pathogen Entomophagamaimaiga causes disease in gypsy moths It was introduced to try to control the gypsy moth in the US The introduction was believed to be a failure 80 years later they found that the fungus was killing massive amounts of gypsy moths Name the species of entomopathogenic fungi discussed in class a Beauveriabassiana pine moth b Metarhiziumanisopiae spittlebug in Brazil c Hirsutelathompsonii citrus rust mite in Florida d Entomophagamaimaiga gypsy moth e Cordyceps caterpillar fungus What three mechanisms of biocontrol does Trichoderma use a competition b mycoparasitism c antibosis What is Cordyceps a A parasite of caterpillars Used in China for medicinal purposes Detail two modes of namatode trapping exhibited by fungi a Predatory species Have an active trapping mechanism Most seem able to live in soil as Saprotrophs and supplement their diets with nematodes b Endoparasiticspecies no active mechanism for trapping spore germination is triggered by presence of nematode most seem to require nematode for growth What advantages does biocontrol have over chemical control What disadvantages can you name Learning Objectives 412 1 Pquot Fquot l 4102011 64500 PM List 4 examples of a black mold you might find growing in your home a Cladosporium b Penicilium c Alternaria d Aspergilus Name and describe the species of Black mold that is the greatest concern to homeowners insurance companies and lawyers a Stachybotryschartarum b ellipsoidal conidia darkbrown to black Know the two toxins known to be produced by this mold that were discussed in class a tricithecene b Stachylysin Compare and contrast evidence supporting and detracting from a role for this fungus in sick building syndrometoxic mold cases a supporting babies who does were all living in water damaged homes b detracting many others were living in similar conditions but did not get sick i siblings who lived in same home did not get sick Who is Melinda Ballard Describe her role in this topic a Her home in Dripping Springs was severely contaminated with toxic mold she won court case that it was not remediated adequately winning about 4 million dollars Summarize the events in Cleveland with the IPH babies a a bunch of babies got sick in Cleveland all from same neighborhood all living in water damaged homes thought to be from toxic mold Give your opinion on the contribution of toxic molds to Sick Building Syndrome
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