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by: Wilfredo Turcotte


Wilfredo Turcotte
Texas A&M
GPA 3.61

T. Dewitt

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T. Dewitt
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This 113 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wilfredo Turcotte on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BESC 201 at Texas A&M University taught by T. Dewitt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/225911/besc-201-texas-a-m-university in Environmental Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
BESC 2011ntroduc on to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 17 5 Nov 2008 C apterZI Solid Toad and azard ous Waste According to EPA US produces 11 billion tons of solid waste annually V Mia 0 About halfis agricultural waste 1 r 77 x o More than onethird is mining related 0 Industrial Waste 400 million metric to s o HazardousToxic 60 million metric ons 0 Municipal Waste 200 million metric tons 0 23 ton per person annually Wasfe D spasa Mefhads Op en Dumping 0 Open unregulated dumps are still the predominant method including dumping in ocean Most developed countries 0 Mllll ns 01 mas z soak into the ground each year in the US i n in i in i Paper and Papemoam I Planks 0 Five times volume of Imus Rubheramlaaihe miles Exxon Valdez Metals IE 7 Sanitary Land lls o Refuse compacted and covered everyday with a layer of dirt 0 Dirt takes up as much as 20 of landfill space 0 Only since 1994 all operating landfills in the US have been required to control hazardous substances Historically landfills were convenient and ineXpensive But costs have increased 0 Price of land 0 Shipping fees 0 Demanding construction and maintenance requirements Suitable landfill sites are become scarce Increasingly communities are rejecting new landfills Old landfills are quickly reaching capacity and closing Exporting Waste 0 Although most industrialized nations have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to lessdeveloped countries the practice still continues 0 Garbage imperialism also operates within countries even the US 0 Indian reservations increasingly being approached to store wastes on reservations Case study The clandestine journey of the Khian Sea aka Fel39 39 ka Zacano Bahamas then Dominican Republic Honduras Panama Bermuda Guinea Bissau and the Netherlands Antilles Waste was called construction material and road fill and muddy waste and fertilizer Ship name and registry changed multiple times Dumped 4000 tons on a Haitian Beach and left before they were ordered to remove the waste Eventually a crew member testified that the remaining 10000 tons were dumped in the Indian Ocean Dogged by Greenpeace the EPA finally tested the fertilizer o the found 1800 pounds of arsenic 4300 pounds of cadmium and 435000 pounds of lead dioxin and other toxins Incineration and Resource Recovery Energy Recovery Heat derived from incinerated refuse is a useful resource Steam used for heating buildings or generating electricity Incineratoion Methods 0 RefuseDerived Fuel Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials ie a variable yet distinctly considered fuel 0 Higher energy content than raw trash 0 Mass Burn Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace o Creates air pollution problems 0 Residual ash usually contains toxic material 0 Reduces disposal volume by 8090 Initial construction costs of incinerators are usually between 100 and 300 million for a typical municipal facility Tipping fess are often much higher than tipping fees at landfills If you think its hard finding a location for a landfill Stack Cleaning system Combustion Electrostatic Bag chamber precipitatOr house Feeding hopper 39 I r Refuse 3K bunker 3 Ash storage area Decreasing fie Siream mu Recycling 3 reprocessing of m discarded materials E 50 into new useful so products 391 40 i 30 20 m D 2 K EE EE s 525 3 8 2 93 E E E Malcrial Currently about twothirds of all aluminum cans are recycled Half of all aluminum cans on grocery shelves will be made into another can within two months Why is Recycling not a larger industry Market prices uctuate wildly Contamination 0 Most of 24 billion plastic soft drink bottles sold annually in the US are PET which can be melted and remanufactured into many items 0 But a single PVC bottle can ruin an entire truckload of PET if melted together Benefits Example 0 Recycling 1 ton of aluminum saves 4 tons of bauxite 700 kg of coke and pitch and keeps 35 kg of aluminum uoride out of the air httpwwwworld 39 39 39 m J quot quot39 39 39 vhtml Producing aluminum from scrap instead of bauXite ore cuts energy use by 95 3 hours of television per can Yet still throw away more than a million tons of aluminum annually Composting 0 Biological degradation of organic material under aerobic conditions Demanufacturing o Disassembly and recycling of obsolete consumer products Reuse o Reusable glass container makes an average of 15 roundtrips between factory and customer before it has to be recycled When you see this don t think recycling Better to think reduce reuse recycle IN THAT ORDER REDUCE It s the consumption stupid 0 Too much emphasis on recycling 0 Excess packaging of food and consumer products is one of our greatest sources of unnecessary waste eg the eVil juice box Paper plastic glass and metal packaging material make up 50 of domestic trash by volume Increase use of photodegradable and biodegradable plastics Overlord of Overconsumptlon EPA estimates US industries generate 265 million metric tons of officially classified hazardous wastes annually Much of this housed near aquifers At least 40 million metric tons of toxic and hazardous wastes are released into the environment each year Remedies cont Review the box at the opening of the Chapter Recycling in waste stream typically 3050 Can be as high as 97 Gasi cation Biotic remediation note on biotic petroleum hydrogen Future of Waste stream Todays Sermon apologies in advance Consumerism is an environmental act It is also a human rights act For these reasons and more consumerism is also a distinctly moral act 5 things you can do Consciously be your consumption BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 18 7 Nov 2008 Chapfer 22 Urban2517 le amp Susfanabe 7765 Cities have been centers of education religion commerce politics and culture They have also been sources of pollution crowding disease and misery 4Wghmt et al 7 7 o Historically a vast majority of humanity has lived in rural areas where natural resourcebased occupations provided support 0 Since beginning of Industrial Revolution cites have grown rapidly in size and power Urbanization Increasing population in cites and transformation of land use and society to metropolitan patterns of organization Nearly half the world population now lives in urban areas What is a city US Census Bureau considers any incorporated community a city and any city with more than 2500 residents as urban In rural areas most residents depend on natural resources for their livelihood In urban areas most people are not directly dependent on natural resourcebased occupations A village is a collection of rural households linked by culture customs family ties and association with the land note that a village is a cultural entity whereas cities often have no defining individual character A city has a large enough resource base to allow residents to specialize in arts crafts services or professions other than resource based jobs In 1850 only 2 of world population lived in cities By 2000 47 of world population lived in urban areas Only Africa and South Asia remain predominantly rural It is expected that 90 of population growth over the next 25 years will occur in the cities of lessdeveloped countries 10 9 Urban developing 8 Urban developed E T Rural developing g Rural developed E 5 39 5 5 4 f a D 3 2 T A 0 I x 39 1950 1975 2000 2025 century ago London was the only city with more than 5 million people Now 19 countries have populations gt 5 million Here are some current amp projected population data Population mm nm In r rmsmnu mn l mu mu Imamquotmp Futurists predict 93 cities with a population of at least 5 million by 2025 75 of which will be in developing world Let us contrast how cities grow in lStamp 3rd worlds 0 In developed countries growth involves regulated development 0 In developing countries growth occurs without a housing code 0 In developing world megacities as r 39 I rquot much as half of urban population are transient workers or residents of shanty towns By some estimates MeXico City has a current population of 25 year Two main avenues of urban growth 1 Natural Increase Fueled by improved food supplies and medical care 2 Immigration Caused by push factors forcing people out of the country and pull factors drawing them into cities 0 The push crop failure redistricting racial or religious tensionsinjustice changes in agriculture modern v family traditional farming o The pull 39 excitement and vitality 39 jobs unskilled mainly but promise of professions 39 housing 39 entertainment 39 social mobility and power 39 specialization of professions Note the inherent oneway directionality easy for a farmer to move into the city and assume unskilled labor position impossible for urban person to move out into rural setting and create a viable farming life Government policies often favor urban over rural areas in push and pull factors 0 Developing countries often spend majority of budgets on improving urban areas 0 Major cities gain a monopoly on new jobs education and general opportunities Developing World 7 Uncontrollable growth 7 Traffic and congestion 7 Air pollution 7 Sewer systems and water pollution 7 65 of urban residents in developing world have unsatisfactory sanitation and unsafe drinking water 7 Millions live in slums ofcemral cities and in rhantytowm in the outskirts of cities Meanwhile in the Developed World 7 0 th of cities has slowed and changed in nature 7 Urban Sprawl In most American metropolitan areas the bulk of new housing is in large tract developments that leapfrog beyond city edges in search of inexpensive land What s wrong with urban sprawl o Suburbanites LOVeEAVs Many Americans live far from work and consider a private automobile essential drive to work alone in EAV Average US driver spends 443 hours per year behind a steering wheel Infrastructure of the Met In many metropolitan areas 13 of the land is devoted to automobile infrastructure Traffic congestion costs US 78 billion annually in wasted fuel and time note hybrid cars don t idle Reduced taX base for city and fewer civic leaders living or working in downtown areas the city is unable to maintain its infrastructure Racially economically exclusionary Low density development of suburbs is divisive because it provides no affordable housing and makes a viable public transit system impractical Making a housing development How do you make a sustainable community 0 Save the oodplain from development 0 Preserve urban trees Primary conservation Traditional suburban development typically divides land into a checkerboard layout of nearly identical 15 ha parcels with no designated open space clearcuts and levels the landscape for building Conservation Development Preserves at least half of a subdivision as natural areas farmland or other forms of open space 39 Tall oaks on s allknoll FUlUI F sweet o Localize functions e g make some energy or i E food in the community I 5 lie 0 Municipal facilities produce accessory products for community eg composted yard Cleanup activities E waste or sewage sludge recyling 0 Community car pools o Farmer s markets I quot arrw 39 Support local businesscommunity support KEOS local potter Messina Hoff etc 0 Local volunteerismcommunity building eg Earth Day cleanups Sustanable development in third world Many planners argue social justice and sustainable economic development are answers to urban problems Another important measure of progress may be institution of social welfare providing care to the sick and elderly Others argue the best hope for developing countries may be to delink from established international economic systems and develop self sustainability Punchlines A subtle chain of countless rings The next unto the farthest brings The eye reads omens where it goes And speaks all languages the rose And striving to be man the worm Mounts through all the spires of form 7 Emerson from Nature BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 08doc 29 Sep 2008 Finish Chap 8 Human Population US Theocracy and social justice p 153 9th Ed International Conference on Population and Development ICPD convened in 1994 to discuss women s rights and population US played leading role 179 countries supported the goal of universally available reproductive health services including family planning by 2015 Since 2000 US policy shifted to nonsupport of any family or population planning US under Bush administration has refused to support ICPD arguing it could be interpreted as promoting abortion despite clear language in the treaty that In no cae should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning Plan was to focus on family planning gender equality and combating STDs The US alone voted against the plan because the terms like reproductive health and rights and planning could be interpreted as advocation of abortion and condom use by adolescents Bush refused 34million approved by congress for UN Population Fund because it worked in China Argument was that the money would support forced abortions rumored to be part of China s one child policy In reality refusing to fund planning and knowledge campaigns results in rampant increase in abortions UN estimate was an expected 2M unwanted pregnancies 800K abortions 47K maternal deaths 60K maternal morbitidyt 77K child deaths Let s not even go into the impact on the fabric of society India case study in government based population control In India population control has been left to the states The two most successful states were Kerala and Andra Pradesh Kerala used a broad platform of social welfare They provide affordable accessible health care family planning and education achieving a 100 literacy rate Per capita income remained constant suggesting that wealth per se is not a necessary part of a successful formula for population stabilization Adra Pradesh imposed policy incentives much like in China The incentive was an 11 check to be sterilized and added access to better housing land wells and subsidized loans Iran case study in theocratic versus secular population controls After a fundamentalist revolution in 1979 religious clerics extolled that couples should have as many children as Allah would provide Mention of birth control or family planning other than to say you were trying to have as many children as possible was forbidden Iran s population rose from 34 to 63 million in just two decades War with Iraq spurred an additional nationalistic impetus to bear more young as a civic duty However as political spiritual and economic security started to be restored moderate politicians appeared and eventually Iran shifted to legislated family planning Iraneans eventually grew eager for planning and access to birth control IUD s pills vasectomy and tubal ligation 2 were made available for free The growth rate had fallen to 12 by 2005 upmg n a m Hemmwlml rumpmm m l39mnmmu wqmcd rm m1 14 o Population m billions 0 1950 1970 1990 Year 2010 2030 Constant High 2050 mer it g m gnu i Health 7 WHO state ofcomplete physical mental and social wellbeing Diseme 7 decrease in heath caused by genetic or environmental factors 0 nutritional genetic chemical pathogenic psychological causes 0 diseases cause morbitidy illness or mortality death Death rates do not tell everything about burden of disease 0 Economic and social consequences of diseases are dif cult to obtain 0 DisabilityAdjusted Life Year DALY combines premature deaths and loss of healthy life resulting from illness or disabili 0 WHO reports communicable diseases are responsible for nearly half of all 14 billion DALY s lost each year 0 About 90 of all DALY losses occur in developing world where onetenth of all health care dollars are s ent o Malnutrition and other environmental conditions exacerbate disease TABLE 8 Leading uses of Global Disease Burden Rank 1990 Rank 2020 l Pneumonia l Hean disease 2 Diarrhea 2 Depression 3 Perinaal conditions 3 Traffic accmems A Dames 4 SW9 For most of human history the 5 Heart disease 5 Chrome lung disease 6 m e 5 pneumma greatest health threats have 7 Tubercurosxs 7 Tuberculosis been pathogenic organisms and E Measles 8 ar 9 Tralhc accxdents 9 Diarrhea acoldents or Vlolence39 0 Blml defects 10 HIVAlDS ll Chronic lung dlsease ll Permatal conditions 12 Malaria l2 Violence 13 Falls 13 BMW defects 14 Iron anemia 14 Selrrmlhcled injuries 15 Malnmrmon 15 Respiratory cancer Soucc Wara Heazworgamzauon 2002 Infectious organisms Pathogens are still responsible for about 24 of all diseaserelated deaths 0 majority of these deaths in poorer countries with poor nutrition sanitation and vaccination programs 0 15 million die per annum due to vaccinepreventable diseases such as polio hepatitis B tetanus 0 AIDS now largest single cause of communicable death in the world I S caused by HIV 3 million deaths per year know this gure and AIDS data in book prevalent in Africa 0 virulence varies with human demography and culture 0 spread by heterosexual sex 0 55 of cases in females we know how to prevent spread of disease 0 cultural moral economic developmental barriers 0 drug companies reducing prices in Africa Case Study ofEbokI note that EDDa dlffers from Ebbole See Compa son Chan Ebbgl infectious Virus infectious enthusiasm for fungi destroys internal organs points incessantly at sketches of chemicals from Ebola region DRC from Indian A kills 90 of Victims feared by microbiology students The thing about Ebola that is so ustmting yet typical to many Viral diseases is that it can exist peacefully in their hosts for many years causing no more trouble than a common cold but then it erupw sporadically and unpredictany into terrible epidemics The answer lies in evolutionary biology Which has only recently entered immunological thought in a signi cant Way Case study of guinea Worm Horrible disease throughout human history until President Carter took up the challenge to help the third World Only the second disease incl small d pox to be Vanquishe They say extreme niche specialization is an evolutionary dead end iIt is When you mess With humans o maj or protozoan cause of diarrhea in North 0 occurs in contaminated drinking water 0 fiX is boiling C 661C ter Montezuma s Revenge Dehli Belly I major infectious bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide I affects 20 to 30 percent of military personnel deployed overseas I sanitation problem Onc ocerca vofvul39us River bum mess o nematode transmitted by black ies Simulium spp 0 fix is cheap effective 0 distribution is another story Problems constraining the path to erradicatz39on I Social cultural economic issues I Antibiotic and pesticide resistance E g Protozoan parasite that causes malaria is now resistant to most antibiotics while the mosquitoes that transmit it have developed resistance to many insecticides Resistance stems from I short life spans of pathogens I speeds up natural selection and evolution I human tendency to overuse or misuse pesticides and antibiotics 0 at least half of the 100 million antibiotic doses prescribed in the US every year are unnecessary or are the wrong drug many people do not finish fullcourse more than half of all antibiotics manufactured in the US are routinely fed to farm animals to stimulate weight gain OO Darwinian Medicine 39 Use of evolutionary principles to understand patterns of virulence especially those due to anthropogenic causes How could it have taken this long to establish this eld Requires the simultaneous deployment of medicine social sciences and evolutionary biology Solutions come not only from medical reform but cultural change Recommend Ewald over Williams So again we have a mosaic problem involving culture ecology evolution amp environment Add in economics and the politics of public health and you have another nice integrative topic And this has been a discussion only of pathogens so far Better Living through Chamistrg Dangerous chemicals are divided into two broad categories 39 Hazardous Dangerous ammable eXplosive irritant caustic I ToXic Poisonous can be harmful in dilute concentrations or over long periods 39 Allergens Substances that activate the immune system Neurotoxins Special class of metabolic poisons that attack nerve cells different types act in different ways heavy Metals kill nerve cells anesthetics and chlorinated hydrocarbons disrupt nerve cell membranes organophosphates and carbamates inhibit signal transmission between nerve cells 0 some chemicals mimic endocrine players Mutagens Agents that damage or alter genetic material e g radiation Teratogens Specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development e g FAS endocrine disruptors fit here too Carcinogens Substances that cause cancer eg cigarette smoke xylene Tobacco worlds leading agent causing preventable death by several mechanisms by 2020 o 11 billion smokers can t be wrong 0 take up collection to support tobacco 0 promote use of Kraft products etc BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 16 31 October 2008 C apter 20 S mtain115e Energy mm W Energy Use Ef ciencies o Most potential energy in fuel is lost as waste heat o In response to 1970 s oil prices average US automobile gas mileage increased from 13 mpg in 1975 to 288 mpg in 1988 0 Falling fuel prices in the 1980 s discouraged further on o Today s average new home uses half the fuel required in a house built in 1974 0 Reducing air in ltiation is usually the cheapest quickest and most effective way of saving household energy washing machines use 35 less water as of20t f7 Superef cient Swedish houses consume 90 less m contribute to insulation Power companies investing in megawatts of demand avoidance 0 Conservation costs on average 350kw 0 Nuclear Power Plant 3000 8000kw 0 Coal Power Plant 1000kw Cogeneration o Cogeneration Simultaneous production of both electricity and steam or hot water in the same plant 0 Increases net energy yield from 3035 to 8090 0 In 1900 half of electricity generated in US came from plants also providing industrial steam or district heating 0 By 1970 s cogeneration fell to less than 5 of power supply Solar Energy A Vast Resource 0 Average amount of solar energy arriving on top of the atmosphere is 1330 watts per square meter 0 Amount reaching the earth s surface is 10000 times more than all commercial energy used annually 0 Until recently this energy source has been too diffuse and low intensity to capitalize for electricity 0 Look on 2818 North of University Low tech solar 0 Passive Solar Heat Using absorptive structures with no moving parts to gather and hold heat greenhouses pools water tanks in Med 0 Active Solar Heat Generally pump heatabsorbing medium through a collector rather than passively collecting heat in a stationary object 0 Water heating consumes 15 of US domestic energy budget High tech solar o Parabolic mirrors curved re ective surfaces that focus light to a concentrated point 0 Two techniques 0 Long curved mirrors focused on a central tube containing a heatabsorbing uid 0 Small mirrors arranged in concentric rings around a tall central tower track the sun and focus light on a heat absorber on top of the tower where molten salt is heated to drive a steam turbine electric generator htt wwwcanren ccatech a lindeXas CaID5ampP ID282Parabolic dish s stems Photovoltaic cells capture solar energy and convert it directly to electrical current by separating electrons from parent atoms and accelerating them across a oneway electrostatic barrier Bell Laboratories 1954 o 1958 2000 watt 1970 100 watt 2001 5 watt 2020 projection of 1 but what if we legislated now How to make sustainable energy feasible Laissez fair Education campaign Carter s speech to nation Legislate it o Distributional research surcharges ie like the phone companies 0 Renewable Portfolio require utility companies to obtain a certain percent of their power from renewable sources 0 Green Pricing allows utility companies to profit from conservation programs and charge premium prices for renewable energy The sooner we start investing the sooner it will be cost effective to switch Fuef ceffs Fuel cells run on pure oxygen and hydrogen produce no waste products except drinkable water and radiant heat First US fuel cell vehicles in LA Process Pressurized hydrogen gas 2H enters the fuel cell on the anode side This gas is forced through the catalyst by the pressure When a H Cast llevelized m 1990 tentslkwnl 35 30 1980 Wind thermal Photovoltaic SUIHI Nuclear 1 390 Vt Ze l W20 Hyo t l l Iquot C Cl c 2 c Semipermeable e C electrolyte C medium C 2H c c 6 2H C c Catalyst c 3 Anode f c 2H 39 l l l Cathode molecules come in contact with platinum on the catalyst it splits into H ions and electrons e The electrons are conducted through the anode where they make their way through the external circuit doing useful work such as turning a motor and return to the cathode side of the fuel cell Meanwhile on the cathode side of the fuel cell oxygen gas 02 is forced through the catalyst where it forms two oxygen atoms Each of these atoms has a strong negative charge This negative charge attracts two H ions through the membrane where they combine with an oxygen atom and two of the electrons from the external circuit to form a water molecule H20 This reaction in a single fuel cell produces only about 07 volts To get this voltage up to a reasonable level many separate fuel cells must be combined to form a fuelcell stack Chemistry of a Fuel Cell Anode side Cathode side 2H2 gt 4H 4e39 02 4H 4e39 gt 2H20 Net reaction 2H2 02 gt 2H20 Biomass 0 Plants capture about 01 of all solar energy that reaches the earth s surface About half the energy used in metabolism Useful biomass production estimated at 15 20 times the amount currently obtained from all commercial energy sources Renewable energy resources account for 18 of total world energy use and biomass makes up threequarters of that supply Wood provides less than 1 of US energy but provides up to 95 in poorer countries note that historically US used to rely heavily on wood fuel quot i I I About4o of Anaerobic Fermentation l l 39 Sh dd 1 anon nng rg s Framer 935 39 grgg lg sriian firewood and charcoal as their primary energy source a E5 Of these three t quarters do not have an adequate supply Digester liquid drying bed Sludge recycle Pond ef uem to slurry make up Note also Land llspraduce up to 20 afatmasphen39c methaneithis gas can be captured 0r mitigated Tidal generators LUNAR energyil should copyright this phrase I I Law mu nmmm m Laugh1 l1 Penmmmlammlm i HA lncommg llde WynI mc39r Ltd zone enera or Hybrid vehicles Prius amp Civic hybrids My family is dual career so we need two cars but bo hybrids one of each type Captures waste energy into batteries eg braking nrg Stored electric energy assists gas motor Electric part adds additional hp on top ofgas engine so the cars are peppy 4500 tax break local perks such as use ofHOV lanes Karma points too BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 15 7 Monday 27 October 2008 C apter 19 Conventiona Enerw u w l The US energy pie N gifar 6 0 Fossil Fuels currently provide about 85 of all commercial energy in the world Biomass and other renewable sources make up 6 of commercial power 0 Nuclear power makes up 8 of commercial power a US energy consumption A brief history of energy domestic animals have been important since dawn of agriculture 10000 years ago world oil use peaked in 1979 oil prices rose tenfold in 1970 s early 1980 s saw increased interest in conservation and renewable energy oil glut in mid 1980 s quotquot caused prices to fall 10 per barrel US now imports over half annual oil supply and doesn t really care about energy conservation cost at the pumps does not re ect true costs of our oil average US citizen annual energy use n 0 mm I Qaar I Iceland Luxembourg US Per capita energy consumption kg oil equivalent I Japan Denmark 20000 Per capita GDP US gt300GJ 9 tons of oil vs 1 GJ in poor countries HOW ENERGY IS USED 0 Largest share of energy used in the US is consumed by industry 33 Residential and commercial buildings use 34 of primary energy consumed in US Transportation consumes about 27 of all energy used in the US Three trillion passenger miles and 600 billion ton miles of freight carried annually by motor vehicles in the US About half of all energy in primary fuels is lost during conversion to more useful forms While being shipped or during use 0 Nearly twothirds of energy in coal being burned to generate electricity is lost during thermal conversion in the power plant 0 Another 10 is lost during transmission and stepping down to household voltages COAL o Fossilized plant material preserved by burial and compacted by geological forces into carbonrich fuel 0 Most laid down during Carboniferous period 286 million to 360 million years ago 0 World coal deposits are ten times greater than conventional oil and gas resources combined 0 Under current consumption this could last several thousand years Now the bad news Mining Between 1870 and 1950 more than 30000 coal miners died of accidents and injuries in Pennsylvania alone Several thousands have died of respiratory diseases 0 Black Lung Disease In ammation and fibrosis caused by accumulation of coal dust in the lungs or airways Air Pollution 0 Coal burning releases radioactivity and toxic metals into the atmosphere Coal combustion is responsible for 25 of all atmospheric mercury pollution in the US Coal contains up to 10 sulfur by weight Unless removed by washing or uegas scrubbing sulfur is released and oxidizes to sulfur dioxide or sulfate which causes among other things acid deposition Sooooo maybe not so much with the coal OIL Formed in a manner similar to coal crltw 1mM9wl ll HannaIs l39 Pz Iucn aura nrmommncrazaav Extracted by pumping from underground stores which can be under pressure at least when initially tapped Oils exists in interstices of sandstone etc and much of this can be uneconomical to extract Anatomy of an oil operation 0 Note that gases can be a hazard or resource opportunity Note that often secondary measures must be used to assist pumping World Stats y 0 Total amount of oil in the world 39quotm39lvmvquot WM M is estimated to be 4 trillion barrels half is thought to be ultimately recoverable In 1999 proven reserves were estimated at 1 trillion barrels As oil becomes depleted and prices rise it will likely become more economical to nd and bring other deposits to market N39 39 Looking at the Libya 29 global p1e 1mag1ne 2 0 you are POTUS Bush 7 how might this affect your 39 foreign policy Russia 7 57 60 home Venezuela Be fhe FOTUS 14 n AE 86 Kuwait 93 92 Natural Gas 0 World s third largest commercial fuel 0 23 of global energy consumption 0 Produces half as much C02 as equivalent amount of coal 0 Most rapidly growing energy source 0 Difficult to ship long distances and to store in large quantities Recall Energy disparity o On average each person in N America uses gt 300 GJy o In poorest countries each person generally consumes lt l GJy Personal note As I look around my office I notice the hum of my computer the grandeur of my 19 monitor the grumble of an unnecessary pickup driving by and the trickle of my aquarium filter I see my laser printer cell phone dual electronic phones and stereo system at the ready I note the uorescent lights pouring radiance into my office and now watch the SUVs move through the electronic traffic gates outside my window believe me I could go on but I have to change CDs and then finish this lecture So do you see a possible origin for the globally common view of Americans as consumption hogs Is it a matter of personality or something about being able to afford that kind of consumption Does wealth require consumption does consuption stem from wealth N uc ear President Dwight Eisenhower 1953 Atoms for Peace speech Nuclearpowered electrical generators would provide power too cheap to meter 77 Between 1970 and 1974 American utility companies ordered 140 new reactors for power plants After 1975 only 13 orders were placed for new 200 nuclear reactors and all of those were cancelled In all 100 of 140 reactors on order in 1975 were cancelled Electricity from nuclear power plants was about half the price of coal in 1970 but twice as much in 1990 Now wind water and solar energy depending on location are less expensive than nuclear Plants on order Number 0 nuclear power plants Plants in operation 0 1 964 74 84 94 Neutron How it works 0 Most commonly used fuel is U235 a Urani39m m naturally occurring radioactive isotope of uranium Frequency of occurrence is 07 of uranium but must be enriched to Uraniumzse about of 3 Stab39e o Formed in cylindrical pellets 15 Tgn131 cm long and stacked in hollow Released metal rods 4 m long quot9mmquot 0 About 100 rods and bundled together to make a fuel assembly a 0 Thousands of fuel assemblies Heat Heat bundled in reactor core Mo39ybdenumlf a 0 When struck by neutrons Eg gied radioactive uranium atoms undergo 2 nuclear fission releasing energy 39 Heat and more neutrons Triggers nuclear chain reaction 4 fission con 1rol moderator moderator ssion Livuni urn 235 Reaction rate is moderated in the core by a neutronabsorbing solution Moderator In addition control rods composed of neutronabsorbing material are inserted into spaces between fuel assemblies to control reaction rate Water or other coolant is circulated between the fuel rods to remove excess heat 70 of nuclear power plants are pressurized water reactors PWRs lelmnmmil o ater circulates imam Sieam through core to absorb heat from fuel rods ped to steam generator where it heats a secondary o o e El 0 l7 0 Steam from secondary loop drives highspeed turbine producing city electri Horwmm 0 Both reactor vessel and steam generator are housed in a special containment building 0 Under normal operating conditions a PWR releases very little radioactivity gy Until 1970 the US Britain France and Japan disposed of radioactive wast ocean Production of 1000 tons ofuranium fuel typically generates 0 100000 tons of tailings o 35 million liters ofliquid waste Now approximately 200 million tons of radioactive waste in piles around 39 ocessing plants in the US About 100000 tons oflowlevel waste clothing and about 15000 tons ofhighlevel spentfuel waste in the US 3 m 1 9 25 7 For past 20 years spent fuel assemblies have been stored in deep water filled pools at the power plants Designed to be temporary Many internal pools are now lled and a number of plants are storing nuclear waste in metal dry casks outside US Department of Energy announced plans in 1986 to build a high level waste repository near Yucca Mountain Nevada 0 signed by Bush Sr in 2002 after decades of debate and unsettling scientific findings 0 facility may cost between 10 and 35 billion and will not open until at least 2010 0 how long might you guess radioactive byproducts of fission remain dangerous PoliticalCultural Winds Public opinion has uctuated over the years 0 When Chernobyl eXploded in 1985 less than onethird of Americans favored nuclear power 0 Now half of all Americans support nuclearenergy Currently 103 nuclear reactors produce about 20 of all electricity consumed in the US With natural gas prices soaring and electrical shortages looming many sectors are once again promoting nuclear reactors Over the past 50 years the US government has provided 150 billion in nuclear subsidies but less than 5 billion to renewable energy research FUSION Nuclear Fusion Energy released when two smaller atomic nuclei fuse into one large nucleus ie as happens in the Sun Temperatures must be raised to 100000000 C and pressure must reach several billion atmospheres 0 Magnetic Confinement Inertial Confinement Despite 50 years and 25 billion fusion reactors have never produced more energy than they consume Consider again our consumption of energy So do you see a possible I origin for the globally I 55 Illnlmd Arab En llmmi m popular description of 3 e m h Americans as capitalist 77 i 350 I p1gs E 300 Canadad I nlJnMcd States i m Kuwaitquot Is it a matter of E 1 Norway g m muse Gmanyvmm persona 1ty or somet mg g 150 MW gm Dt gm39lrknc quot about being able to afford 39 39 5 in 100 meme r mm that kind of consum tion L Avgmllum U m firE5 r2 Flat21F ln If 7 gf Emmpm Or does wealth stem from I I I l I I I 50m mmn 15mm zoom 250m 3mm 33000 410000 and S0 require Grow ninmnm un um GNPJ 5 nor minim consumption An American Coed embellished Hot water long showers lighted mirrors electric razor hair dryercurling ironstraightener personaltrimmer TV in one roomradio in another computer runs for messaging AC cranked shampoo makeup and Coco Puffs manufacture packaging shipping etc Drive to school in EAV Environmental Assault Vehicle Opinion The most atonishingly excessive evil creation of humans after EAVs of course is the plugin air freshener Is anything more evil As I look around my office I notice the hum of my computer the grandeur of my 19 monitor the grumble of an unnecessary pickup driving by and the trickle of my aquarium filter I see my laser printer cell phone dual electronic phones and stereo system at the ready I note the uorescent lights pouring radiance into my office and watch the EAVs Environmental Assault Vehicles move through the electronic traffic gates outside my window believe me I could go on but I have to change CDs and then finish this lecture See why Americans are envied and despised at once Is it a matter of personality or something about being able to afford that kind of consumption Does wealth require consumption does consuption stem from wealth So what about energy altematives BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture lldoc Fall 2008 Exam 2 next Monday Oct 20 will cover chapters 61012 chapter 12 Land Forest and M56 woodlands 29 Other desert tundra rock marsh urban Est half remaining forest and pasture convertable to crop production Despite the gloomy zerosum apparition above we find t nature is somewhat resilient lt responds to remediation at least in part Vermont 35 forested in 1850 now 80 reforested NY 3gtlt the people as in 1850 yet 3gtlt the forested area at present a Return of many species eg large mobile mammals 7 moose bear I Many species hard to recover eg endemic plans and insecm Forst ecosgs cem services Shelter biodiversity Regulate climate Control water runoff Purify air and water Provide wood for fuel and building 0 Provide for recreational opportunities hiking camping hunting Forested area is 12 historic size and remaining forest is only 40 old growth trees live long enough to complete their natural lives As you might have come to eXpect developed countries consume a disproportionate amount of forest products ie they produce about half of world supply but consume 80 Fuelwoodis the main source of energy for a third of all humans Fuelwood accounts for 12 of global wood consumption In most developing countries there is a growing de cit of fuelwood Yet the amount of fuelwood consumed per person in less developed countries for subsistence cooking heating is about a cubic meter per yeariroughly the same as the pulpwood consumption as paper per person in developed countries A ton of paper requires 33 tons of water 102 pounds of sulfur 250 pounds of lime 290 pounds of clay 12 tons of coal 112 kilowatt hours of power 20 pounds of dye and other pigments and 108 pounds of starch Forest Ma wagemewt 25 of forests are managed for wood production Most countries replant far less than they harvest or convert to other uses Note that replant is less than sufficient to restore most of the ecosystem services offered by forests o Biodiversity not the same 0 Age structure after replant is homogeneous 0 Sets up conditions of maXimal competition and vulnerability eg monoculture makes vulnerable to pandemic disease eg monoculture means only single niches occupied Tropicm Forests Although they occupy less than 10 of earth s land surface tropical rainforests are thought to contain 0 More than 23 of all higher plant biomass a At least half of all plant animal and microbial species in the world Tropical forest are shrinking rapidly Estimated 08 of remaining forest is cleared annually Estimates are very rough because countries have economic and political reasons to hide extent of loss a Real losses may range 520 million ha annually Brazil has largest rainforesm and highest rate of deforestation E Land area Foms area mllllnn nz o hange million ha c l Swidden agriculture Replaces the common term slash and burn Can be practiced sustainably if not extensively Fastgrowing mixed perennial polyculture Cropped intensively for 12 years then rested 1015 years Use of a single hectare prevents erosion and runoff problems quad wews Many developing countries recognizing need for preservation economic incentives of sustainability recreation and tourism actions ofNGOs n m I a Furmalled Font Blur Orange Furmalled Font new Funtmlnr Orange 7 W hmkn Andrian 111 India Furmalled Font Blur Oran Debtfornature swaps 0 Banks governments and lending institutions hold nearly 1 trillion in loans to developing countries 0 Conservation organizations buy debt on the secondary market at a discount then offer to cancel the debt if the debtor country agrees to protect or restore an area of biological importance Also World Bank support of development projects Case stung qugo s ha aka a rd Temperate second only to tropical rainforests in terrestrial biodiversity 0 Less than 10 remains virgin o 80 scheduled to be cut soon Forest products industry employs about 150000 people in Paci c NW Adds nearly 7 billion annually to the economy 1989 environmentalists sued USFS over plans to clearcut remaining old grovvth forests arguing spotted owls were endangered and must be protected How to harvest a forest Clearcutting 7 every tree is cut regardless of size 0 Fast and efficient but wastes small trees increases erosion and eliminates wildlife habitat Selects for earlysuccessional species Coppicing 7 encourages stumpsprouts Seedtree 7 leave a few mature trees Shelterwood 7 remove fraction of mature trees in series of cuts Strip cutting 7 harvesting all trees in a narrow corridor Selective cutting 7 small percent of mature trees taken in 1020yr rotation Can retain many characteristics of mature oldgrowth forests Hidden costs USFS has historically regarded its primary job as providing a steady supply of cheap logs to the nation s timber industry Often timber prices are insuf cient to repay management cost Hidden subsidies to timber industry corporate welfare eg USFS builds roads in for timber companies to extract trees Fire ma wagermew For more than 70 years re ghting has been a high priority for forest managers at a cost now of about 1 billion per annum Recent studies show re plays an important role in forested ecosystems Eliminating re has allowed alternative species and community types to replace normal climaX communities For 30 years the NPS has followed a policy of allowing some natural res to burn and even setting some prescribed res But after 70 years of re suppression fuel has now built up to a point where res can easily escape control The dilemma is how to remove excess fuel while protecting property human life and forest ecosystems Crown resiresult of poor re management Latwt Ma wagemewt RawgeLa was Rangeland vulnerable to loss 1 Grasslands and open woodlands are attractive for human occupation thus are frequently converted to humandominated landscapes 2 Rangeland is intensively used as pasture and open range 0 Pasture and open range occupy about 26 of world land 0 Over 3 billion domestic livestock producing meat and milk Overgrazing and other means to deserti cation Deserts have been called the footprints of civilization 0 Grazing changes the land by removing some plant species tender grasses at the eXpense of others brush scrub Removal of groundcover by cloven feet produces dry compacted soil not suitable to germination or growth This process is self feeding because as there is less plant material there ceases to be the soil conditioning properties such as I 3 a l chaal nn Rusx u hulll rmhnn 39 2 leh I 39 v31 l gum 39Immg nesgrllw u W is an an my up at gr 4399 2390 0 2 an 60 E39 rtul krug vso mn some ILS WorLol stats to oomLaale Worldwide 85 of ruminant forage comes from native rangelands and pasture In US only 15 of livestock feed comes from native grasslands 90 of our total grain crop is used for livestock feed Several wildlife conservation groups regard cattle grazing as the most ubiquitous form of ecosystem degradation in the southwestern US Fees charged for grazing on public lands are far below market value and represent an enormous hidden subsidy to western ranchers eg 1999 minimum charge was 135 per cow per month comparable private land fees were 1110 per cow per month Estimates are administrative costs alone are 321 per animal unit LHVWl owyiership aria LWWl reform In many countries inequitable landownership is a legacy of colonial estate systems eg South Africa Zimbabwe Political economic cultural and ecological side effects result from inequitable land distributioniselffeeding wealth disparity Throughout history many attempts at land reform have been undertaken eg redistribution of land ownership Taiwan 33 of farm families owned the land they worked in 1949 now it s 60 go home Examirie the contents of goar trash can Be the trash Thin about this each time 50a olisoarol a piece o saper BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 07doc September 26 2008 0 our on i Emu meg 31V to WWW Whamhgmiom Ermine NeoMalthusians We are approaching or have already surpassed the earth s carrying capacity 0 We should make overpopulation issues our rst priority NeoMarxisls Believe eliminating oppression and poverty through social justice is the only solution to the population problem 0 Wealth and resource distribution must be addressed 0 Marx pop growth is a symptom rather than cause of poverty Technological optimists argue Malthus was wrong because his predictions failed to account for scientific progress 0 Current burst of growth due to scientific and industrial revolutions 0 Green revolution XExglo ation 39 m inquot mammal raw ullnn mailman Menm om N M 5m am g m 7 WW um mum A a aann mm 30mm him mount an m mun mm why my humans in yam5 o Vast reduction in extrinsic factors disease food limits due to human ingenuity and intelligence Intrinsic factors lifehistory traits have not changed much Hu ral institutions have played a major role Initial expansion produced a critical mass More people means larger markets more workers and increased ef ciency due to mass production and opportunity to specialize H Greater I 4 r 39 overcome problems bemngha Encompasses vital statistics about people such as births deaths distribution and population size In mid1999 estimates of global human population reached 6 billion Developing countriex poor and mostly growing 0 P r st countries of Africa Asia Latin America 0 Contain 80 of world popu ation and will account for 90 of projected growth 0 Six countries India China Pakistan Nigeria Bangladesh and Indonesia account for over half the projected growth in next 50 yrs Developed countries wealthy and mostly shrinking North America Western Europe Japan Australia 1 Moredeveloped regions 9 G B World total E1 7 O u 6 239 Less developed m 5 regions E g 4 E 3 2 g f E E P 1 r O 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2051 2100 Year Average age is about 40 avg in Nigeria amp Uganda is 15 Many 61 of 190 countries actually have negative growth rates Russia Case study in stark demographic reversal Russia is declining by a million per year BR decreased DR increased due to economic crash and demoralization due to in ation crime corruption Two abortions per live birth 13 births per female among the lowest in the world Four of five Russian men are drunk when they die After being 4th in world Russia is projected to have a smaller population than Vietnam or DRC by 2050 Amazing Demograpiy Crude Birth Rate Gross number of births in a year per thousand Not Crude Death Rate Number of deaths per thousand in a given year adjusted for population characteristics 0 some rapidly growing countries have very low crude death rates compared to slower growing countries due to a higher proportion of young people in the population Natural Increase 7 Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Total Fertility Rate Number of children born to an average woman in a population during her life Migration immigration those coming in emmz39gratz39on those going out 0 Immigration is a controversial issue guest workers often perform dangerous or disagreeable work while being paid low wages with few rights Locals complain immigrants take away jobs and overload social services Total Growth Rate 7 includes immigration and emigration Zero Population Growth Occurs when births plus immigration in a population just equal deaths plus emigration A population growing rapidly due to natural increase has more young people than a stationary population see graph below Rama glam Age Slow growth Year at blnh Both MonyaJ Uniled Slates Male Female Hf Below 19 5 and S10le 3 30414 19154920 growlng 0 13 79 19211925 J 70 14 1925 1123 countries can 5551 1931 1935 l 60 64 1930 1910 have a J 5559 1941 1915 problem Wlth j 50 54 19461950 j 45 49 1951 1955 dependency 1 10 14 195571950 39 l 35 311 195149135 ratlo the x 30 34 1955 1910 number of 257211 191171915 20724 19711719510 nonworklng 1549 19814985 compared to 10 14 19351 19511 1 59 1991 19215 worklng I 1 0 4 1995 3000 151112108642024bammdw 151111113155120245310121415 IHdIVIduals Percent ul populatlnn Percent at population Factors that increase the desire for children 0 Source of pleasure pride comfort Source of support for elderly parents Current source of family income Social status Replace members in society as they die Boys frequently valued more than girls Factors that reduce birth rates 0 Higher education and personal freedom for women often result in decisions to limit childbearing 0 When women have more opportunities to earn a salary they are less likely to have children 0 Education and socioeconomic status are usually inversely related to fertility in wealthier countries China case study in legislated population control In post 1970 s China strong disincentives succeeded in limiting population growth But at what cost Variable enforcement runs from small fines e g in many moderatesized cities to brutal enforcement practices forced sterilization or abortion The onechild policy is still strictly enforced in the nation39s largest cities like Shanghai and Beijing where penalties for having a second child remain onerous like loss of a job and a fine equivalent to three years39 salary for each parent In developing countries higher income often means families can afford more children thus fertility often increases In lessdeveloped countries adding another child to a family usually does not cost much while in developed countries raising an additional child can carry significant costs Damogr phia transition and related topics Model of falling death rates and birth rates due to improved living conditions accompanying economic development PreModem Society Poor conditions keep death rates high thus birth rates are correspondingly high Economic Development brings better conditions and standard of living thus death rates fall Birth rates stay constant or even rise Eventually birth rates begin to fall Populations grow rapidly when birth and death curves cross Developed Countries Transition is complete and both death and birth rates are low and population is in equilibrium Birth rate Death rate 30 Total population l l I I l l l l l Birth rate or death rate per 1000 population l High birth rates Stable death ifal ling death I rates tailing I D Prodevelopmont I rates birth rates Developed Time End in sight Some demographers believe the Demographic Transition is already taking place in developing countries and world population should stabilize in the next century Others argue that poorer countries get trapped in the middle phase of transition and that their populations are growing so rapidly that human demands exceed sustainable resource yields It may be that in order for the Demographic Transition model to work resources must be distributed more equitably ie the world has enough natural resources but inequitable social and economic systems cause maldistribution Social Justice Education rights for women federally supported family planning and incentives allow couples to determine the number and spacing of their children Birth Control Any method used to reduce births Traditional Methods 0 Long breastfeeding taboos against intercourse while breast feeding celibacy folk medicines abortion infanticide Current Methods 0 Avoidance of seX during fertile periods Mechanical barriers preventing contact between sperm and egg Surgical prevention of sperm or egg release Chemical prevention of sperm or egg maturation release or implantation Physical barriers to implantation 0 Abortion Where will it end Most demographers believe the world population will stabilize sometime during the next century What would neoMalthusians expect Projections of maXimum population size 0 Low 8 billion 0 Medium 93 billion 0 High 13 billion Estimate of ideal population size 0 Pimental 2 billion BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 12 Wednesday 15 Oct 2008 Ciapter 15 ir Weatlier Climate Weather and climate are primary determinants of biomes and ecosystem distribution Weather A description of physical conditions of the atmosphere Climate A description of the longterm weather pattern in a particular area Geochemists have demonstrated the likelihood that Earth s earliest atmosphere was made up of mainly hydrogen and helium o Volcanic emissions added carbon nitrogen oxygen sulfur 0 Virtually all oxygen was produced by photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 9 C6H1206 602 T roposphere Ranges in depth from 125 km over the equator to 80 km over the poles All weather occurs here 0 Composition is relatively uniform Air temperature drops rapidly with increasing altitude Tropopause boundary that limits mixing between troposphere and upper zones Stratosphere o Extends from troposphere to about 45 km Air temperature is stable or increases with altitude Fraction of water vapor is 1000x less and ozone is 1000x more than in the troposphere Relatively calm 1 10 t Mesosphere 7 mo The r h 0 Middle Layer quotW m 0 Minimum temperature is about 9quot 0 Mesopause 80 C an Thermosphere m o Extends to about 1600 km E m Memphere B j H o Ionized gases and high temperatures 2 5 Strampause o Ionosphere Lower Thermosphere 9 E 7 3395 0 Aurora borealis 30 gl smaspm Of 20 3 Menopause 7 Trupogphere 0 I I I I I I I I I YI I 4 0 80 750 40 20 D 20 40 Tcmperalurn C Sotm Radiattom The great weather ewg me o Incoming solar energy at the top of the atmosphere averages about 1330 Wm3 About half is re ected or absorbed by atmosphere Amount reaching earth s surface is at least 10000 times greater than all installed electric capacity in the world Spectrum of radiation 0 Visible light passes through atmosphere undiminished o Ultraviolet light is absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere 0 Infrared radiation is absorbed by carbon dioxide and water in the troposphere Albedo Re ectivity 0 Fresh clean snow 90 0 Dark soil 3 0 Net average of earth 30 The big picture Onluoluq lelId nnrgy an Ru uc lvd by dnu Hammad mun damn d H 9quot mmospncu and anemiaquot i3 l in L12 m w Abomde by 2 mm Gnuudlon m un amm l l J cummis quot39 45 i f Imam m f ii v mum Energy reemitted by the earth is mainly infrared radiation heat energy Longer wavelengths are absorbed in the lower atmosphere trapping heat close to the earth s surface Greenhouse E ect Certain gases absorb more heat from solar radiation C02 CH4 Increasing atmospheric C02 due to use of fossile fuels is causing global warming Heat is trapped by cloud layer Why are desert nights colddays warm Convection Currents and Latent Heat Lighter air rises creating an area of low pressure under the column of rising air and this area is refilled by cooler heavier air resulting in vertical convection currents Transport energy and redistribute heat amp water Much solar energy absorbed by the Earth is used in evaporation Energy stored in water vapor as latent heat If condensation nuclei are present or if temperatures are low enough condensation will lead to precipitation Convection cont Rising hot air will creates an area of relatively high pressure at the top of the convection column Air flows out of highpressure zone towards areas of lowpressure Where cool dry air is subsiding Also the risen air Will be shedding its energy radiating heat to space and will then itself cool Subsiding air is compressed as it approaches the earth s surface Where it piles up and creates an area of high pressure at the surface Air flows out of this region back towards low pressure closing the cycle Lamnl he a 42554 l Him adlams m 5 are Low ptessue Ilowsluwam Y lnwpmssum v Com dry air I quot i 6 a39 h I all n Surnames compresses i I Hot we an 3 Walru dry art Flows Inward law prnssurn Law V Ik Plck jgm l tur jtl hEEIII pressure Mlt1ltL5ur1rILU watmurj by 5 Energy Balance 0 Solar energy is unevenly distributed Sun strikes the equator directly all year Earth s aXis is tilted Energy imbalance is smoothed out by movement of air and water vapor in the atmosphere and by liquid water in rivers and ocean currents Convection Cells and Prevailing Winds As air warms at the equator rises and moves northward it sinks and rises in several intermediate bands forming circulation cells Surface ows do not move straight North and South but are de ected due to Coriolis Effect 0 Major zones of subsidence occur at about 30 north and south latitude 0 Where dry subsiding air falls on continents it creates broad subtropical desert regions 0 Winds directly under regions of subsiding air are often light and variable 0 Doldrums and horse lattitudes Air over layers shown above are also in uenced to move Jet Streams Largescale upper air ows Generally follow meandering paths from west to east 612 km above surface Wind speeds are often 200 km hr Number ow speed location and size all vary on a daily basis Usually 2 main jet streams over NA Subtropical 300 north Northern Circumpolar vorteX During winter the Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the sun and the atmosphere cools pushing cold polar air farther south Frontal Weather Cold Front Boundary formed when cool air displaces warm air Cold air is dense thus hugs ground and pushes under warm air Warm air cooled adiabatically Warm From Boundary formed when warm air displaces cooler air Warm air is less dense and slides over cool air creating a long wedgeshaped band of clouds Alloslmtus Cmnulonimbus A Cumulus Cold air Cyclonic Storms When rising air is laden with water vapor latent energy released by condensation intensifies convection currents and draws up more warm air and water vapor Intensification sets up a self feeding synergistic cycle Storm cell will eXist as long as temperature differential exists 0 Hurricanes Atlantic 0 Typhoons Western Pacific 0 Cyclones Indian Ocean Tornadoes Swirling funnel o Rotation not generated by Coriolis forces 0 Generated by supercell frontal systems where strong dry cold fronts collide with warm humid air 0 Greater air temperature differences in Spring thus more tornadoes Monsoon Seasonal reversal of wind patterns caused by differential heating and cooling rates of oceans and continents esp in tropics Milankovitch Cycles Driving Forces and Patterns Periodic weather cycles detected 0 Solar magnetic cycles Milankovilch Cycles Periodic shifts in earth s orbit and tilt Change distribution and intensity of sunlight reaching 3 the earth Ice cores show drastic changes 1 may have occurred over short 39 periods of time decades Variation 3139 mm Axial wobble El Ni o La Ni a H Higwmm gt 0 Large pool of warm T wind Warm dr subside ncr surface water in Pacific Ocean moves back and forth between Indonesia and South America Most years the pool is held in western Pacific by steady equatorial trade winds Every 35 years the Indonesian low collapses La Nina El Nun and the mass of warm surface water surges back east 0 During an El Nino year the northern jet stream pulls moist air from the Pacific over the US Intense storms and heavy rains During intervening La Nina years hot dry weather is often present Pacific Decadal Oscillation Very large pool of warm water moving back and forth across the North Pacific every 30 years Anthropogenic global climate change IPCC estimates average global temperature will increase over the next century by 14 58 C 25 lO4 F Difference between current temperature and the last ice age is Agriculture only 5 C 13 Every year of the 1990 s was among the 15 hottest of the past Deforestation 14 millennium see fig 1713 Bumfi nglfossil Night temperatures generally Aggy increased more than daytime Precipitation rates also increased Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels Methane o Ruminants Coalmines o Absorbs more infrared than C02 Chloro uorocarbons CFC s 0 Highly persistent refrigerants o Declined in recent years 0 Destroy ozone Nitrous OXide 0 From burning organic material Sulfur hexa uoride 0 Electrical insulation C02 0 Atmospheric levels increasing steadily see Figure 0 Analysis of air in polar ice cores revealed 30 lower C02 values during glacial periods than m CU Concentration in Hawaii during interglacial periods 3 o A Neftel H Oeschger T 5350 Staffelbach B Stauffer E350 1988 gm 0 C02 record in the Byrd ice g core 50000 5000 years bp 333 0320 0 Nature 331 609 611 1988 doi101038331609a0 mg m wguvnwlm 1919 m Effects of global warming 0 Melting of polar ice caps Onethird of population living in areas likely ooded by rising seas Changes in regional climatic patterns eg more desert for Africa Biomes will migrate pace will favor some species and kill others Maybes More evaporation means more intense storms More heat means greater production by phytoplankton of DMS More clouds could produce elevated albedo Etc think of some on your own Approximate Ghanue In Pradpllallnn 209 We 2Dquot DULY UNI INHDKINI Range Sugar Mapiei J r Curran Range g Potenth Range a International Climate Compacts Kyoto Protocol 1997 o 160 nations agreed to roll back carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide emissions to about 5 below 1990 levels by 20 1 2 o KP sets different limits by country depending on prior output 0 Developing countries exempt o Refusal of Bush Sr adm to sign on supposedly because of prior point bulleted above this one But the following is why India 002 Emissions should be exempt Unlted Statea anad C Russian Federation armany United Kin dam span Poland Rap Ukraine How might the graph above Korea Rep part1c1pate in or otherw1se 50m 3935 France re ect more general reasons Maxims why Americans are 03923 1 1D 15 20 25 Metric towns at carbon d ioxidelyrfperson 5 simultaneously envied and despised throughout the world go home read the otng American WaLolew consider wow Life BESC 2011nuuduaiun m Biumvimnmenm Science Lecture 097 1 3 Oct 2008 Chapter 8 Environmental Health and Toxicology Movement distribution and fate of toxins Solubility 7 One of most important characiensucs in deieimining the m Vaneni ofatoxin Ware xaluble r wata soluble Comp ounds move mpidiy through the env ironmmt and have ready ess to most human cells Far xaluble 7 fat soluble compounds move through tropth chains and bioaccumulate and bioma ni a Bioaccum a n 7 selective absorption and storage by on indiv ml organism Dilute ioxms in the environment can build to dangaous levels inside cells and tissues 0 Biamagmftcarian r toxic burden of many organisms at a low is highertraphic levels Another reasonto eat low on the food chain eh7 Persistence me chemical compounds are very unstable and degrade rapidly thus their concentrations decline quickly a er release I Stability can cause problems as toxic effects may be stored for long period of time and spread to unintended victims I DDT PCB residence hal ife in humans of7 years How do We purge ourselves I Liver I Lungs I Kidneys I Liposuction facetious How do We purge the environment 0 reduction 0 removal 0 remediation remedying repairing restoring How do We know What s toxic at What concentration I Survey data I Animal testing I A commonly used and Widely accepted toxicity test exposes laboratory animals to measured doses of speci c oxins alternatives include in vim researchwith tissue culture Sensitivity differences make de ning toxicity dif cult Dose Response Curves Very insensitive LDSO 7 Dose at which 50 of a population is sensitive 10 20 3o 40 Acute effectiirnrnediate Dose hypothetlcal nuns result from single exposure 0 Chronic effect Longlasting typically from repeated smaller doses but can sometimes result from single dose Chap 9 Food and Agriculture Undernourishment 7 insuf cient calories 0 196060 in developing countires7now even a er doubling these pops are only 15 undernourishe Ovemufrifion 7 suf cient nutrition but too many calories Am 39cans Malnourithent7insuf cient nutrition caloric intake may be suf cient FAO estimate7half the World suffers from vitamin mineral or protein de ciency Kwaxhiorkor7 diet loW in certain amino acids 0 b oated stomach omnge tinged hair Marmmux 7 diet low in both protein and calories 0 thin ed appearance Anemia 7 diet lacks iron 0 most common dietary de ciency in world 0 leads to lower hemoglobin7 increase risk of m hemorrhage in childbirth malaise and hinders normal development Iodine de ciencies goiter vitamin C scurvy United States Russia Jmled Kingdam ost common Germany diet problem in Wealthy b Cquot W m countries 1s Brazil El overnm tion 4o Overweighl adults lpercenlage 0 In NA and Europe average daily intake is 3500 calories 0 SubSaharan Africa ifood production lagged behind pop growth 0 Economic and cultural collapse of Soviet Union led to signi cant collapse in food production there npyngm u m McGIaqulll ompamex Inc m mlumn rammed or reprodnrunn 0 mm Don t get me V J Mulhplewtamlns Started 39 quotDr musl FEEAule Red mead While H68 asla 0 him f ll fesm a u Sf l is v i a Qisgijnl l quot W 9 9 What abject a me garbage is th1s Davy m calcmm supplements gt2 semngsp gure and those like it Only the 4 11 and 5th tier are essential Fish pouury 39 eggs 02 servings Nuts and legum 7 1 3 sewings Will discuss Vagalablas 1m abundance 239 23 senlugs Plan mls am cum cams soy sun ower al most meals Whore grams a most masls umln um um aenml World hunger W hat causes hunger Hunger typically NOT caused by lack of foodi it s the poverty stupid 0 2001 7 60 billion people world food supply can provide more than 2500 caloriesperson 0 Food production and need may be spatially and temporally disjunct 0 Thus world hunger is NOT merely a matter of food SUPPLYiit s about where the food is and who controls it and the security people feel about it Cultural political and economic factors can exacerbate environmental problems 0 Fragile economies and marginal development is vulnerable to catastrophe Think globally act locally growth of foods locally is best solution o Even modern methods of food production are not the solution and can even create famines 0 Dependence on industrialized farming techniques is great in situations where it works ie where it can be sustained with wealth and resource inputs 0 Rich farmers will not sell food to poor locals Mexican tomatoes Famine characterized by largescale food shortages massive starvation social disruption and economic chaos Mass migrations often occur because productive capacity has been sacri ced Environmental conditions are immediate trigger but politics and economics are often underlying problems Arbitrary political boundaries block historic access to refuge areas Food camps have serious drawbacks 0 Stress and crowding 0 Lack of sanitation 0 Close contact to epidemic diseases Developed country aid packages often misguided 0 Provision of surplus commodities not relevant to problem 0 Provision of inappropriate types of aid milk 0 Aid to wrong place guns for Saudis Case study The 1974 famine in Bangladeh mm gt quot39 H K I INDIA INDIA INauyanganK I I J 1mm I Iquot I I1 Mongla For ClIItlagong l 1 y tch lna Port er mgr I 09 le Emquot ZEIIRMA WI 1 1 W m I m mum m h 51 II 52mm mm 0 Excess ooding in June July August interfered with rice planting o Resuted in many farmers losingjobs o The expectation of shortfalls led to panic buying hoarding by speculators and obviously high prices 0 The poor could not afford to buy the food had to abandon farms and rural infrastructure There was no shortfall thatyear Indeed it was a record crop by the end ofthe year Sadly though the fear had promulgated famine 0 US contributed to the famine with a boycott of aid to Bangladesh because they sold jute to Cuba Contrast iMaharashtra suffered a drought in 19723 with realized yield losses of about 50 but the Indian government provided public worksjobs which prevented panic and averted what could easily have been a major famine Case Famine in Ethiopia and Sudanin the 1980s to I Main problem was armed con icts and political unrest leading to inequitable distribution of available food I Contrast izimbabwe and Cape Verde lost 40 of harvest but experienced no famine and social welfare programs reduced mortality during this time I Food supplies dropped by 10 less than surrounding regions due drought Go home Examine your life and priveled ges study think understand from where your priveledges come an realize how uncommon they are for most people a and for most who ever lived Another Contrast Famine in East Africa in the 1980s 0 Ethiopia 0 Food supplies dropped by 10 less than surrounding regions due to drought 0 Main problem was armed con icts and political unrest leading to inequitable distribution of available food 0 Zimbabwe and Cape Verde 0 Lost 40 of harvest but eXperienced no famine 0 Social welfare programs reduced mortality during this time What the world grows Consult Table 91 Three crops deliver majority of world s nutrients Wheat rice corn 0 Potatoes barley oats and rye are staples in cool moist climates 0 Cassava sweet potatoes and other roots and tubers are staples in warm wet climates Meat amp Dairy Meat and dairy distribution highly inequitable 0 Developed countries make up 20 of world population but consume 80 of meat and milk production 60 of production occurs in lesser developed countries 0 90 of grain grown in NA is used to feed livestock 16 kg of grain and soybean fed to cattle produces 1 kg of edible beef If we ate the grain directly we would obtain 21 X more calories and 8 X more protein than we get from eating the beef world protein source Since 1989 13 of 17 major sheries have declined or become commercially inviable Between 1970 1990 number and average vessel size of world shing eet doubled Now have twice the capacity needed to extract total annual sustainable harvest Catching 70 billion cost 124 billion 14 animals considered bycatch local eg 80 ofjuvenile red snapper killed as bycatch in shrimp trawls Cod by Mark Kurlansky 7 should go to top of your reading list Aq u a c u tu re 0 Fastest growing segment of world agriculture 0 Environmental problems are starting to manifest at large scale 0 Polyculture and low trophic species are not common in developed countries 0 Mercury mercury mercury BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 13 Monday 20 Oct 2008 Ciapter 1 6 Air G oll39ution Firstly how much is there Approximately 14 million metric tons of air pollution are released annually into the atmosphere in the US by human activities Worldwide emissions total around 2 billion metric tons Developed countries have been improving air quality while air quality in developing world is getting worse Natural Sources of Air Pollution 0 Natural Fires Smoke 0 Volcanoes Ash and Acid components 0 Sea Spray Sulfur o Vegetation Volatile organic compounds 0 Bacterial Metabolism Methane 0 Dust o Pollen O Viruses and Bacteria Stop to think about the economic costs of these Anthropogenic Air Pollution Primary Pollutants Released directly from the source Secondary Pollutants Modified to a hazardous form after entering the air and mixing with other environmental components Fugitive Emissions Do not go through smokestack Dust from humanactivities US Clean Air Act designated seven major pollutants for which maximum ambient air levels are mandated Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Particulates Hydrocarbons Nitrogen Oxides Photochemical Oxidants Lead Resulted in scrubbers catalytic converters unleaded gas etc Sulfur Compounds 0 Natural sources of sulfur in the atmosphere include evaporation from sea spray volcanic fumes and organic compounds 0 Predominant form of anthropogenic sulfur is sulfurdioxide from fossilfuel combustion 0 Annual Emissions 114 million metric tons 50x Emissions 39 Volcanoes Fossil fuels El Anthropogenic 1 Natural Land use Nitrogen Compounds 0 Nitrogen oxides are reactive gases formed When nitrogen is heated above 650 C in the presence of oxygen or When nitrogen compounds are oxidize 0 Annual Emissions 230 million metric tons Emissions r l I Fussquot fuels 39 Sail processes ngmnmg zmmhmpugcmc 1 Natural Carbon Oxides Predominant form of carbon in the air is carbon dioxide Increasing levels due to human activities Annual Emissions 810 billion metric tons recall your personal stats Carbon monoxide is a colorless odorless toxic gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion 0 Annual Emissions 1 billion metric tons EPA found indoor concentrations of toxic air pollutantx are often higher than outdoor 0 People generally spend more time indoors 0 Smoking is the most important air pollutant in the US 400000 die annually from a disease related to smoking I Associated costs are estimated at 100 billion annually Outside US 0 Less Developed Countries also suffer from indoor air pollution 0 Organic fuels make up majority ofhousehold energy O en burned in smoky poorly ventilated heating and cooking res Consider planetary breathing March 7 2005 BESC 201 500 Dr Thomas DeWitt OPED Essayithis was awesome 100 at out The writing is clear at least beyond the rst couple paragraphs and the overalls structure of the essay is good logical ow topic paragraphs sentences and transitions etc You went international connected economics culture environment ecology and allowed your opinions to be exposed The comments below are not intended as criticisms but are there for you to glean a few suggestions in case you want to learn how to increase the impact of your writing The rst paragraph was dreadful but the rest was great Nice job Oil Production Providing Feast or Famine I like your tree iendly margins Oil production has long been a driving force in the A and quot39 39 of many countries W throughout the worldJ a d since it is a natural resource some would say this is the logical feasible method of tabilizin the structure of a needy country reread and ask yourself can your sentence be understood by a reader naive to your agenda Anyone can realize that oil production is an economical force by visually pinpointing all the oilproducing countries on the globe and researching the monetary rewards that have come to those who established and marketed the product But in reality are the which countries really the ones reaping the bene ts or are they the ones having to pay the pricem It appears to be the latter of the two and what an expense they have to pay for utilizing what nature has given them You should consider working on making your sentences shorter as you iteiexpress one idea per sentence in the minimum of 39 39 b words I am having a dif cult time following your line of thinking and I am not particulaer durnb Make it easy on your reader The production of oil is often the cause of con ict between countries states individuals and of course oil production companies However the devastation and destruction of the physical and biological environment and the cultures found within are o en not considered b whom as a critical component Oil production hit its all time peak in the early 1970 s Vallette Jim and the key contributor to the production of oil throughout the world has been the World Bankwowithat makes sense but I didn t really know that From 1977 to April 1981 the World Bank made 27 loans for oil and gas projects totaling 12 billion dollars US Treasury July 28 1991 p31 Many oil production projects are approved each year however one in particular catches the eye On June 6 2000 the World Bank approved a project known as the Chad Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project This project is a lOOOkilometer oil pipeline which will connect the Doba oil elds of southern Chad to the Atlantic coast of Cameroon Grimes Kathleen The nancial contributors of this project say that it will bring wealth to the poor nations of Africa On the contrary there are many environmental cultural social and economical problems associated with this projectYes I thought this was where you were going Good topic The creation ofthis project came about by the combination ofideas between three major companies Exxon Mobile Elf Aquitaine and Royal Dutch Shell These major companies said they would not have gone forth with the project due to risks unless the World Bank contributed and approved the project Grimes Kathleen The World Bank and its contributor s claim that this project will help decrease poverty by promoting economic growth of Cameroon and Chadiyeah right 39 In addition it emphasized it would provide jobs and help to increase the standard of living in two of Africa s poorest countries This sounds too good to be true but the fact is that these major companies while supposedly bringing in money to these countries will be making millionsthemselves These two countries Chad and Cameroon are two of the poorest regions in Africa and are also very corrupt A project of this magnitude thrown into such corrupt regions is only asking for chaos in the long run The government leaders of these regions have no real knowledge of managing projects of this magnitudetraining and preparing for it was virtually nonexistent and the risks involved were not taken into consideration They are focused on themselves and not on the betterment of the people of the area and their environment Along with the corrupt governments are the huge companies associated with this project that are making millions resulting in the rich becoming richer The capability of earning these millions in their mind far outweighs the problems and risks associated with the project The project could hold great risks for the environment throughout these two regions in Africa The governments of Chad and Cameroon seem to hold little concern for the protection of their environments The quotConventions of Establishment are national laws dealing with the project which were passed by both the Chadian and Cameroonian parliaments however many members of the parliament say they never even heard of such laws and are unaware of with what they might be 39ated 4 quot not end entenr e with Horta Korinna One member of parliament Yorongtar Ngerleji was thrown in jail because he voiced criticism of the project Horta Korinna This is a prime example of why businesses involved with projects of this magnitude should not be done with corrupted I agree from a moral point of view but from the business point of view this is exacth a good rea on to do business with nrmnt Vposition will be ef ciently thwarted leaving the gates open to wanton pro teering In the eyes of the highranking government of cials as long as they make money all else is secondary An eyecatching fact is that the environmental assessment studies fail to include a response plan relating to oil spills thus meaning the project cannot be properly assessedia sad statement on the World Bank as well as the lack of suitable international accords on such matters Horta Korinna This is a terrifying fact because in Cameroon the pipeline will cross seventeen major rivers and it also runs right beside the Sanaga which is one of Africa s most important river systems Horta Korina An oil spill would result in devastating loss of marine life as well as pollute the water supply for many areas with toxic chemicalsThese regions are also riddled with regional warlordism and associated terrorism Another colossal concern for this area relates to the coastal region of Kribi This is the where the pipeline enters the sea and this area is extremely biologically diverse To further compound the situation people of the region resort to shing to provide them with protein to survive in such a poor region A recent study by the University of Warwick U K calculated that the value of the renewable resources of the sector of the coast directly affected by the pipeline would be nearly 15 billion US dollars per year or about 104 per capita year compared with the bene ts of the pipeline estimated at 4 per capita per year over its thirtyyear operation Price et al 1999 In economical terms a catastrophic spill in these areas could result in a huge monetary loss for the region of Cameroon But the businesses and gov t kickback takers get their pro ts without pa ng the moneta losses you mention Sad indeed In addition further destruction relates to the signi cant amount of farming land lost in Chad due to the development of the project The compensation given to the people who lost their land and trees was well below that of the market value One man from a local village was quoted We are poorer than we were before The little bit of money we were given serves what purpose Now we do not have room to plant and do not even have ve francs le This is inexcusable Mme Amboua Koum Therese chief of Saballi village near Lolodorf as quoted in the journal Bubinga June 1999 People from these regions say that it was hard to nd information on the project even the consultations held by the World Bank seemed to provide no information only propaganda Along with the loss of farmland the land devoted to forestry was a notable area affected by the pipeline In particular is the Atlantic Littoral Forest which is the most biodiverse area associated with the pipeline construction A startling fact in conjunction with this is that Cameroon received an estimated 10 million a year for biodiversity conservation but despite the money the destruction of the country39s land continues Sunderland et a1 1997 Cameroon has one of the world s highest deforestation rates in the world but it continues to grow as a result of the construction As a result of the land demographic changes many native animals of the region are disappearing due to poachinginteresting threadinice nd These animals such as elephants chimpanzees and gorillas are being targeted due to easier access to their habitats via newly constructed roads from the project It is likely that with the continuation of the forest depletion and more roads being constructed the poaching and hunting will escalate and may even result in the commercial selling of these animals Horta Korinna It is also important to take into consideration the loss of all the smaller animals due to the removal of trees and the clearing of the forests It is likely that many of these animals are native only to this area and the clearing of the land is driving their extinction Also the building of the pipeline into the Kribi Coast is detrimental to the marine life associated with that coastal region Perhaps one of the most compelling losses due to the building of the pipeline lies in the cultural devastation to the indigenous people of Africamost excellent Africa is a nation that consists of many native tribes and cultures that have lived there for many years and this holds true for both Cameroon and Chad Despite having what is called the quotInadequacy ofthe Indigenous People Plan also called the IPP in Cameroon Horta Korinna a set of rules pertaining to the cooperation and compensation for the indigenous people the government as well as the World Bank have no idea who is responsible for the affected indigenous people of this area and neither group will step up and take responsibility This lack of responsibility by either party is sheer negligence and lack of human compassion for the people who have lived on this land for centuries In turn many of these cultures such as the Bakola are being forced from their native land and cultural practices due to the where is the coming from I it connected to the oil industrv Min that area Despite some recognition by the IPP of the Bakola people s dependence on forest products nothing has been done to stop the destruction of their land Horta Korinna The Bakola are an ancient culture that are o en criticized and hurt due to their cultural practices Forcing them to move somewhere else could result in threat to their life and loss of their traditional cultural practices The Cameroon law provides almost no security to the indigenous people when it comes to land disputes and as a result many of these indigenous people suffer The US Department of State in 1999 said that there were credible reports ofdifferent ethnic groups being forced out of their homes by logging companies and security forces Horta Korinna Maybe the saddest fact about the horrible treatment of these indigenous people is that they are rarely compensated for their land and therefore have no money to start over The life they had spent sacri cing to have barely enough to sustain daily living is gone with nothing to show for it It seems almost criminal that people can perceive a project such as the Chad Cameroon Oil and Formatted Underline Pipeline Project as being bene cial to a poor nation when the facts point to the devastation and ruin of the nation and a contributory impact to the wealthy becoming wealthierimost of the riches go outside Africa The environmental cultural social and economical problems associated with this project far outweighed the bene cial aspects It is easy to mistakenly perceive that the poor nations are recipients of the wealth and bene ts due to lack of knowledge about what is really happening but when the nations39 governments are 39 1 39 and elfi h the only ones bene ting in the end is thge peoplewho hold the power in their l Formatted 39 hands The governments of these nations as well as the World Bank and the three major companies af liated with the pipeline project are indifferent to the risks associated with the environment and its people of these areas as long as they get what they want out of the project which is money and power In order to overcome the injustices that are occurring changes must be instituted Changes should be inclusive of the following but not limited toe mandated training for everyone involved in this type of project and the creation of stringent laws pertaining to the environment across the board before the instigation of such projects The truth ofthe matter is when a project like this takes root in the middle ofa poor decrepit region almost everything that happens will radically impact the environmental and cultural welfare of that region It is virtually impossible to know all the disturbing impacts that a project of this caliber magnitude wreaks on a region but one undeniable point that cannet bedisputed redundant is that there has to be other ways for a country to be successful and further sustain progress that will not obliterate many of its most valuable creations Works Cited lvanovich David OK for African Oil Pipeline Expected But it s Impact on Two lmpoverished Nations Debated Houston Chronicle 5 June 2000 lthttpwwwseenorgchadcamprshtmgt ChadCameroon Development Project Esso 30 Nov 2000 lthttpwwwessochadcomgt Vallette Jim and Kretzmann Steve The Energy Tug of War April 2004 lthttpwwwseenorgchadcamprshtmgt Moritsugu Ken African Oil Project s Effect Questioned The World Bank Sees it Aiding the People of Chad Activists See it Aiding Only the Wealthy Philadelphia lnguirer 7 June 2000 lthttpwwwseenorgchadcamprshtmgt Grimes Kathleen Environmental Justice Case Study The ChadCameroon Oil and Pipeline Project lt httpwwwumicheduNsnre492Jonespipe htmgt US Department of State 1999a Cameroon Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998 Washington D C US Government Publishing Of ce February 26 Horta Korinna The Chad Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project Putting People and The Environment at Risk lt wwwenvironmentaldefenseorg gt September 01 1999 Price ARG R Klaus and CRC Sheppard 1999 Cameroon Coastal Conservation and Management Plan Desktopstudy Report 2 Enviromental Assessment of the ChadCameroon Pipeline Project Study Funded by World Wide Fund for Nature University of Warwick MarchApril Bubinga Environmental Journal 1999 Yaound June and August Sunderland TCH B Jaff N Ndam and J Jato 1997 Conservation Through Utilization A Case Study Capacity Building and the Institutional Context for Biodiversity Conservation in Cameroon Paper Presented to the UK Tropical Forest Forum Workshop Limbe Botanic Garden Cameroon January An Examination of the World Bank Energy Lending Program Office of International Energy Policy US Treasury July 28 1991 p31 BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 10 6 Oct 2008 Ciap 9 Toocfancf g cufture g cuture Wiat tie w0rcgr0ws Consult Table 91 Three crops deliver majority of world s nutrients Wheat rice corn 0 Potatoes barley oats and rye are staples in cool moist climates o Cassava sweet potatoes and other roots and tubers are staples in warm wet climates Meat 62 airy 0 Meat and dairy distribution highly inequitable o Developed countries make up 20 of world population but consume 80 of meat and milk production 60 of production occurs in lesser developed countries 90 of grain grown in NA is used to feed livestock 16 kg of grain and soybean fed to cattle produces 1 kg of edible beef If we ate the grain directly we would obtain 21 X more calories and 8 X more protein than we get from eating the beef Seqfoocf 0 An important world protein source 0 Since 1989 13 of 17 major fisheries have declined or become commercially inviable 0 Between 1970 1990 number and average vessel size of world fishing eet doubled 0 Now have twice the capacity needed to extract total annual sustainable harvest 0 Catching 70 billion cost 124 billion 0 14 animals considered bycatch local eg 80 of juvenile red snapper killed as bycatch in shrimp trawls o Cod by Mark Kurlansky should go to top of your reading list htt wwwamazoncom exec obidos ASIN 0140275010 00272495797448010 quacufture o Fastest growing segment of world agriculture 0 Environmental problems are starting to manifest at large scale 0 Polyculture and low trophic species are not common in developed countries 0 Mercury mercury mercury Landd39egrediztwn and soil Iius6amf1y Most of the worlds arable land has been degraded to some extent Causes vary 0 Erosion by water in Ethiopia 0 Erosion by wind in Somalia 0 Toxic chemicals in Uzbekistan Azerbaijan 0 Salinization in many other parts of world Estimated 3 million ha of cropland eroded 4 million ha transformed into deserts and 8 million ha converted to nonagricultural uses Are deserts deserts because plants can t grow there or are they deserts because plants don t grow there how does one make a desert where there was not one before Tamlikan amp Gobi to unite target Beijing How does one stem the tide Chinese plan every citizen ll60yo must plant 35 trees per year diaman mod39em nim a ze fum ng Low diversity 7 most ofworld food comes from 16 widely gron crops Farming in industrialized countries is highly energyintensive 0 Between 19201980 energy use rose directly with mechanization of agriculture and indirectly with spraying of chemicals 0 Food is great right Justplant a seed and the ener ofthe sun is harvested to yield a net energy ga39n from agriculture Awesome But at is not how it really works 0 Altogether US food system consumes 16 of total energy use 0 Most foods require more energy to produce process and transport than weyield from them Green revolution 0 Crop breeding and tech advances produced high yielding varieties 0 Norman Borlaug Nobel Laureate curently on Texas AampM facu ty heroic gure but consider OpEd views 0 Often high yield a matter ofbreeding for high responders 0 High responders require heavy inputs of pesticides fertilizers energy water 0 Works great when it works for the wealthy o Eg com yield jumped from 25 bushels per acre to 130 per acre in last century 0 Crop breeders very clever 7 maximize yield in varied ways eg dwarfs o Increases disparityipoor or small farms driven out ofmarket due to increased land values and falling crop prices The One Straw REvolu orl by Masanobu Fukuoka GMOS from Green to Gene revolution and the Frankenfood 70 of all processed foods in NA contain transgenic products Contain DNA borrowed from unrelated species 0 Bt crops 0 Viral vaccines in potato and banana golden rice 0 Roundup ready Opposition 0 fear traits could spread to wild varieties 0 fear itself unknown consequences of eating perverted foods 0 increased eXpense hurts smaller farms Amiicienca mayhem Now fun for the whole family Farm policy US 143 billion farm support 72 goes to top 10 to a few select crops corn rice soybean wheat cotton milk to 22 of 435 congressional districts Largely political payoffs and corporate welfare For 1 US gov to farmers to conserve soil pays 7 to support commodities that promote soil loss and chemical runoff Sustainawe gnbu ure Some rice fields in Asia have been farmed for 1000 years Some sustainable practices Windbreaks regions between plots with tall windbreaking species Cover crops crops grown to prevent soil from laying bare Soil conditioning crops improve soil between cropping timothy alfalfa Mulching prevents water loss and adds organic matter to soil Polyculture keeps soil conditions diverse reduces pathogens Contour plowing Plowing across slope to slow flow of water Strip farming Planting different crops in alternating strips T erracing Shaping land to create level shelves of earth fyrquot A 39 Perennial species coffee olives grapes hops Manure compost slowrelease fertilizersoil ammendment Spend some time thinking about what is wrong with the antithesis of the above practices Case studies p 206 C IOQ est Control39 Pests Organisms that reduce availability quality or value of resources 0 about 100 species of organisms cause 90 of crop damage 0 insects are most frequent pests Pesticide Chemical that kills or repels pests insecticide fungicide etc Modern era of pest control began in 1934 with DDT 0 Cheap stable soluble in oil and easily spread over a large area 0 Highly toxic to insects but relatively nontoxic to mammals 0 Paul Mueller received Nobel prize in 1948 for the discovery 0 Pesticide use was almost nothing in 1950 9 33 billion in 1999 Cliemical39tgpes questicid skim this material Inorganic Broadspectrum generally highly toxic and essentially indestructible Generally neurotoxins Eg copperbased chemicals Natural Organic Pesticides botanicals Generally plant extracts nicotene phenols Fumigants Small molecules that gasify easily and penetrate materials rapidly carbon tetrachloride ethylene dibromide Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Fast acting and highly toxic to sensitive organisms Eg DDT mothballs o Inhibit nerve membrane ion transport and block nerve signals 0 Persistent and tend to biomagnify Organophosphates Extremely toxic to mammals birds fish Eg malathion o Outgrowth of nervegas research 0 Inhibit neurotransmitter enzyme Carbamates Similar to organophosphates Extremely toxic to bees e g Sevin Biological Controls 0 Microbial agents 0 Bacteria o Parasitic Wasps Utility questia39des Disease Control 0 Insects often serve as disease vectors e g malaria yellow fever Crop Protection 0 Using pesticides preharvest losses to diseases and pests are at 30 with postharvest losses at an additional 2030 0 In general farmers save an average of 35 for every 1 spent on pesticides Pestiakfe caveat Loss of nontarget species Up to 90 of pesticides never reach intended target Evolution of pesticide resistance Resistant members of a population survive pesticide treatment and produce resistant offspring Pest resurgence estiakfe resistance UN reports at least 500 insect pest species and 250 weeds and plant pathogens have developed chemical resistance 0 FaI IIleI S must 1000 r WNW HmmmwWWW m continually 2 5 change dosages 800 Weeds or chemicals to 700 fight resistant pests Increasingly pests are being found to be resistant to chemicals to which they have 19 not been exposed o Geneticallyengineered crops likely to exacerbate the problem 600 500 400 Number of species 300 0 Year Other problems Broadcast spraying of pesticides likely to kill bene cial predators Under normal conditions many herbivorous pests are controlled by natural predators With advent of chemical pest controls farmers have tended to abandon traditional methods of pestpathogen control e g mixed crops and rotation regimes Tate amf transport of pesticides Eg chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT are so persistent they tend to show up far from the point of dispersal o Stored in fat bodies and thus tend to bioaccumulate 0 High levels detected in upper levels of food chain 0 DDT banned from US for over twenty years but high levels still detected in some areas Many persistent organic pollutants were banned globally in 2001 0 Use was banned or restricted in developing countries for years but between 1994 and 1996 the US shipped more than 100000 tons of DDT and POP s annually 0 Many returned to US in agricultural products and migrating wildlife WHO estimates between 35 and 50 million people suffer acute pesticide poisoning and 20000 die each year 0 At least twothirds resulting from occupational hazards in developing countries Longterm health effects difficult to conclusively document PCB s have been linked to learning deficiencies in children Intake during mother s pregnancy are most serious ftematives to pestic fes Behavioral Changes Crop Rotation Mechanical Cultivation Flooding Fields Habitat Diversification Growing in PestFree Zones Adjusting Planting Times Plant Mixed Polycultures Biological Controls uw uu Emmi quotms 0 Predatory Herbivorous Insects o Genetics and Bioengineering o Hormones 0 Sex Attractants Inlegraledpesl management exible ecologicallybased strategy that uses a combination of techniques applied at specific times aimed at speci c pests o Tries to minimize use of chemical controls and avoids broad spectrum controls 0 Employs economic thresholds to determine the point at which potential economic damage justi es pest control expenditures BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 4 8 September 2008 finis Chapter 3 Matter Energy Life Organisms enact a larg e part of our planetary physiology Lovelock o Organisms of a given species group to form populations 0 Species interact with eachother in communities 0 The system of interactions between members of biological communities and the physical environment is the ecosystem Energy and material transfers occur in a food webschains Simple view Organisms can also be Phototrophs Chemotrophs l Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Scavengers Detritivores Decomposers Tropnic levels 4 Tertiary consumers usually a top carnivore Secondary consumers carnivores Consumers that feed at all levels I Parasnos 2 Primary consumers scavenge herbivores Decomposers Producers photosynthetic plants algae bacteria identi ed by the type of food they consume light algae chemicals sulphur bacteria plants deer meat wolf plantsmeat bear carcasses crow debris ant all bacteria Due to Second Law of Thermodynamics food chains often form an inverted pyramid Ray Lindeman 1942 revolutionized the field of ecology by taking an energy and resource ow perspective to document energy and biomass declines at sequentially higher trophic levels in lakes He found each trophic 1 mp carnivore TC level represented only 90000 primary carnivores C about 10 the biomass of that just before For y I 4 rquot 1 200000 herbivores H example zooplankton J eat phytoplankton in 23 ggggf tm quot I Iquot H aquatic systems and Grassland in summer their mass is about 110 that of phytoplankton Metabolism Predator efficiency lt 100 10 Rule Energy Biomass o 100 kg clover o 10 kg rabbits 1 kg foxes So the 2nd law of thermodynamics has strong ecological effects What cultural consequences might these effects have N travels through the environment as follows Ng quot atmosphere x Nilrogen oxides mm lmnsponannn and induauy y Ammo acid UIIIIC um Ucdlh laces uymhezrs quot Enuoptwl tian and sedimmuallun Decay r hanmun Nllmgen nxing bact 39rls lwso A w Nlirale 39 39 In ltration of urges groundwater z N29 NH3 9 N02quot 9 N0339 9 N2 N xing nitrite nitrate a enitri ing bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria Now anthropogenic sources account for the bulk of ammonia and nitrate entry into this cycle surpassing all other biotic and abiotic mechanisms combined This is creating serious global and localized problems such as massive toxic algal blooms and localized eutrophication overenrichment of natural water systems Nitrogen is often the primary limiting nutrient in terrestrial systems Phosphorus Phosphorus is special Runoff and leaching Plant and Phosphate lt Decomposers animal Wastes in soil Weathering 1 7 Plant and 39 39 a mal wastes Minin phosphate fertilizers and detergents Shallow ocean sediments Geologic uplift ocean sediments Note the lack of an atmospheric component this is a mineral and ionic cycle Phosphates PO439 created by disolution of minerals and from decay of organics Phosphates taken up by producers and travel through food chain until organisms die Phosphate is often a limiting nutrient especially in aquatic systems Anthropogenic phosphates cause serious aquatic eulrophicalion problems Eutrophication nutrification of aquatic systems including all the concommitant ecological effects arising from nutrification Sulfur Sulfur is special Important component of organic compounds such as proteins and nucleic acids Also important in planetary physiology Most sulfur tied up in underground rocks and minerals Inorganic sulfur released into air by weathering and volcanic eruptions Cycle is complicated by large number of oxidation states the element can assume Human activities release VAST amounts of sulfur primarily by burning fossil fuels Important determinant in rainfall acidity Eg 02 804quot 9 2st04 Biogenic DMS produced in warm ocean by phytoplankton DMS serve as cloud condensation nuclei Increased cloudiness forms a re ective planket for the planet Re ection of solar radiation decreases planetary warming Potential example of a cybernetic aspect of planetary physiology BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 3 3 Sep 2008 C apter 3 Matter Energy Li z A subtle chain of countless rings The next unto the farthest brings The eye reads omens Where it goes And speaks all languages the rose And striving to be man the worm Mounts through all the spires of form Matter A secular biocenlrz39c Great Chain ofBeing RW Emerson Nature Biosphere Communities Populations Organisms Organs Tissues 0 protons Cells J neutrons electrons Ultrastructure Compounds Atoms elements molecules Atomic particles 11 p e Subatomic particles quarks gluons etc Some basic chemical concepts Atomic number atomic mass isotope ions Chemical bonds covalent ionic hydrogen Water is special high speci c heat thermal inertia expands when crystalized high heat of vaporization yet it is uid enough on a planetary level to transport elements throughout the biosphere like our bloodstream does in our bodies universal solvent Ions acids bases I dissociation of compounds in aqueous solution 7 breakdown into their charged components ions NaCl nice solid compound when dissolved becomes NaJr amp Cl Some compounds when dissolved give off H Some give OH or other molecules Which scavenge H Compounds that increase H are acids those that decrease H are qr bases ia 7 Lye I pH an inverse logarithmic measure l2 Ammonia of the amount of hydrogen pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than pH 4 D quot5quot g Carbon is special Humanmd a gamma I four sharable electrons very D SWE Wmquot 7 New exible and stable building block 5 Nurmalram 5 I unique relationships With H amp 0 1mm We I organic compounds l WW I carbohydrate protein lipids nucleic Vigm39m acids 1 T Banery acid I DNA RNA are special l n Expanding from small to large abiotically atoms compounds masses water rock gases continents and other conglomerate bodies planets solar system s galaxies universe Every universal truth which we express in words implies or supposes every other truth Omne verum vero consonat It is like a great circle on a sphere comprising all possible circles which however may be drawn and comprise it in like manner Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side But it has innumerable sides RW Emerson Nature End spheres ofmatter proceed with spheres of energy and life Energy Lamely energy is defined as the ability to do work Better energy is mass in motion or latent potential to place mass in motion Consider examples Kinetic potential chemical forms of energy Measured in joules J energy expended to accelerate 1kg by lms 1 in a vacuum 4Jcalorie note that dietary calories are actually energetic kcal Matter and energy under extreme conditions are interconvertible Emcz Both matter and energy are cyclicly reincarnated neither created or destroyed but changing forms readily Who among you has molecules in their body from plankton that lived millenia ago Or from dinosaurs Thermodynamics lSt law energy is conserved It changes forms but does not change in quantity total J remains the same even as energy is changing forms 2nd law energy conversion is inefficient Eg cannot use battery A with 100 J to run a motor that charges battery B to lOOJ Battery B will be charged only to about 80J because 20J is lost as heat Lost energy during conversions results in entropy The 2nd law has profound implications for life discussed below We Drivers of disequilibrium James Lovelock to find life in the universe look for disequilibrium Erwin Schrodinger Thus the device by which an organism maintains itself stationary at a fairly high level of orderliness fairly low level of entropy really consists of continually sucking orderliness from its environment Plants of course have their most power supply of negative entropy the sunlight LL74 After self replication photosynthesis was the next greatest innovation of life Y ou can quote me on that photosynthesis solar energy photosynthesis 6COZ 6H20 9 C6H1206 602 carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen C6H1206 602 9 6COZ 6H20 respirationmetabolism caloric energy This is the great circle of life countless circles on spheres in spires The carbon cycle Plxrlmyrlmasls Enquum mun Lllma k Bummg a meal lumen uni uijrmu m m Organisms enact a large part of our planetary physiology Lovelock o Organisms of a given species group to form populations 0 Species interact with eachother in communities 0 The system of interactions between members of biological communities and the physical environment is the ecosystem Energy and material transfers occur in a food webschains 439 Simple View 3 2i Trophic levels Tertiary consumers usually a quotlopquot carnivorel Secondary consumers carnivores Primary consumers herbivores Producers lpholosynlhelic planls algae bacteria A Consumers that fed at all levels Parasites Scavengers Decomposers Organisms can also be identified by the type of food they consume Phototrophs light algae Chemotrophs chemicals sulphur bacteria Herbivores plants deer Camivores meat wolf Omnivores plantsmeat bear Scavengers carcasses crow Detritivores debris ant Decomposers all bacteria Due to Second Law of Thermodynamics food chains often form an inverted pyramid minim amalgam Grassland in summer BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 6 1719 September 2008 C apter 5 61091553 Biamesimajor community types on the planet determined by climatic conditions mainly temperature and rainfall Soil type elevation and other factors can also enter nrrtsm ql systems Be able to cite prevailing conditions and plant types in these biomes Think about Why each habitat is as it isieg difference between tundra and desert um mums smmpma mum us 1m YummyMe Inmates w mmmmammsmnmms YempalaImnlhrlomslu mm a mm mm m Vanna Yumpnmm mummy 1 mm m m a Tamnnmu wmlams am snvannas Loam View Ecoregions of Texas Fir2y Woods Oak Woods 2 Prairies Blackland Prairie Gulf Coast Prairies t Marshes CoastalSand Plain South I exas Brush Country Edwards Plateau Rolling Plains Plains Trans Pecos Llano Uplift Note focus on the larger scale habitat definitions major biomes ie from book rather than this localized ecoregion stuff Aquatic systems Defined by 0 nutrients suspended matter depth temperature salinity ow rate nature of sediment architecture relative to Wind Vertical structure 0 Vertical strati cation is an important aspect of many aquatic ecosystems o Organisms tend to form distinctive vertical subcommunities Benthos Bottom subcommunitylow oxygen level Thermocline Distinctive temperature transition zone that separates warm upper layer and deeper cold layer Open water 3 n a Epilimnion E s m temp Hypolimnion sleAaI ueBAxo pue m EstaZ vies Estuaries Bays or semienclosed bodies of brackish saltfresh mix water that form where rivers enter the ocean Heavy nutrients deep rich sediments Universal nursery grounds for marine life Fanshaped sediment deposit delta formed on shallow continental shelves Anoxia is common in some areas dead zone of MississippiGulf nexus WetLDI vwls Wetland 7 Land is saturated or covered with water at least part of the year Swamps 7 Wetlands with trees Marshes 7 Wetlands without trees Bogs and Fens 7 Sphagnum baby Waterlogged soils that tend to accumulate Water usually shallow full sunlight penetration Wetlands trap and lter water store runoff and harbor much biodiversity Here is why wetlands are important 0 Particularly high biodiversity and nursery to other habitats Serve as lters nutrient sediment pollutant Buffer between aquatic and terrestrial habitats reduce erosion Regulation of river ow water storage ood reduction Groundwater recharge amp discharge Aesthetics Wetlands are wonderful places to learn and eXperience life 0 Commercial source of product food ber incl hunting ecotourism Human imp ots on wetlands opvnghl c 1800 Percent 01 Total State Acreage in Wetlands Unders 350143 31510343 350rmole Coastal structural GLemCIbts Barrier Islands Low narrow sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline eg Galveston S Padre Isles 0 Protect inland shores from surf o Prized for human development 0 Loss of vegetation triggers erosion Emanmry emu Dunes and ma lx Hank IIII IJ Coral Reefs Accumulated calcareous skeletons of colonial organisms coral Depth limited by light penetration so reefs ank continents on shelf Among the most diverse yet endangered communities Restoration Ecology Seeks to repair or reconstruct damaged ecosystems But how does one maintain a biome A thoComlesycc ms Must understand the system to develop remedies Remedies must be economically feasible and culturally acceptable testZons to ponder Under what conditions canshould we walk away and let nature heal itself What role should community authenticity play in restoration To which historic state should an area be restored eg postoak Ecosystem Management Attempts to integrate ecological economic and social goals in a unified systems approach 0 Most resource agencies fed amp state are attempting to identify endangered landscapes and implement ecosystem management as their guiding policy 0 Turning away from commodity production and commercial recreational resource use as top priority Potential problems 0 We do not understand ecosystems in the detail necessary to manage them as single entities o In developing countries immediate needs of the poor will hamper enforcement of environmental protection o Preservation Management Chapter 6 Population Dynamics qeometr wexpowewttat vs Artth matte growth Arithmetic n39 n a growth Gem ric I1 40 i ll39leea5e r Geometric n39 nr or ner growth 35 4 Geometric growth makes a J 30 3 Arithmetic curve 3 439 increase 392 25 ii 20 390 70 rule To get the doubling time a for geometric growth divide 70 5 by the APR 10 5 391 O T r I I I I I l 2 4 5 6 Time Be able to demonstrate simple population growth trajectories Eg 1 Suppose an initial population of 12 parthenogenic citrus mites invades Oahu Unchecked by native predators and facing bountiful food supplies their population grows by 14 each generation How many generations before the population exceeds 1000 Hint after 1 generation we get 12X 114 How long does it take the initial population to double Answer 7014 5 Population size Malthusian vs Logistic Growth Biolz39c potential Maximum reproductive rate of an organism Reality is the environment typically does not allow biotic potential to be realized Bimic palen al Environmental Carrying resrstance napaaty Population Time Result of restrained growth is an S curve ie logistic growth Overshool Carrying capac ly or the environment Carrying capacity can be approached gradually as above or can serially overshoot and die back in cyclic e g Fig 67 or damped oscillations left Severity of dieback generally related to extent of overshoot 0 Time and vice versa Factors that limit pops o Intrinsic factors 7 Operate within or between individual organisms in the same species eg lifehistory traits7see g 66 o Extrinsic factors 7 Imposed from outside the organism e g fire predators anvil 1 r 1 39 1 r 1 r r I 39 I 39 0 Resource competition is a densitydependent regulator DD can be positive or negative and tend to push the system closer to steady state 0 Fire is a densityindependent regulator Such factors can create a catostrophic system where the steadystate is perhaps never reached due to periodic or aperiodic setbacks M althusian Growth 7 Jcurve followed by population crashes Malthus concluded human populations tend to grow until they exhaust their resources and then crash Key to surviving crashes is quick recovery Reproduttwe Strategies Adapted Species IFAdapted Speries Organisms With Malthusian 1 Short llfe 1 Long llle growth patterns tend to 2 Flapld growth 2 Slower growm occupy 10W traphic levels or 3 Early maturity 3 Lale malurlly 4 Many small O sprlng 4 Few large Uffsprlrrg Often are ploneerlng SpeCIeS 5 Llllle parental care and 5 High parental care or in succession Weedy prolscllon prolecrlon 6 Investment m 5 ngh lnveslmenlln Spemes Lmle lndlvldual otfsprlng lndlvldual orrspnng Adapted lo unstable envlronmem 1 Adapted to stable envlronmem A closer look at factors 8 Pioneers colomzers 8 Lalerslages olsuccessron in uencing rate of 9 Nlche generallsls 9 NlClle specrallsls 10 Prey l0 Predators populatlon Change n Regulated malnly by 11 Regulaled malnly by lrllrlrrslc factors exlrlnslc factors S 12 Low trophic level ngh lrophir level Island Biogeography o Populations in nature are typically structured as metapopulatz ons 0 Some of the subpopulations serve as sources of new migrants and others serve mainly as sinks see g 614 0 Species biodiversity is largely determined by size of habitat patch and distance from source populations Good luck with this 1 Larger islands get more immigrants larger capture of migration vectors from mainland Larger islands can hold larger numbers so reduced extinction rates 39 Ergo equilibrium biodiversity rests on balance of extinction and colonization 0 Increasing distance from a source population will decrease colonization rate on an island or habitat patch 0 Small islands support a smaller number of organisms and so the population is much more vulnerable to loss The problems of small population sizes 1 Extinction risk draw two pop dynamic trajectories 2 Genetic drift see g 612 If time permits lets debate deer hunting


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